World color

Caroline & Karn's Timeline

  • Lenin

    Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov) the Bolsheviks main leader who was exiled and upon arranged return helped bring down the provisional government. He formed Russia’s New Economic Policy (NEP) and organized Russia into several self-governing republics under the central government.
  • Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

    Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
    From a well off Creole family. He played a leading role in Mexico’s fight for independence from Spain and fought against Spain as European powers tried to regain control of Mexico. Became president 4 (11) times. He gave up presidency to retain Mexican territory of Texas (During the Texas Revolt).
  • Stephen Austin

    Stephen Austin
    Encouraged anglos to revolt against Mexicans, in Texas, after Mexican government refused to grant them self-government.
  • The Texas Revolt

    The Texas Revolt
    American citizens were encouraged by Mexicans to move to Texas to populate the Mexico. The Anglos agreed and for inexpensive land pledged to follow Mexican laws. Tensions developed between the Mexicans and Texas colonists over several issues. The Texas colonists wanted a greater self government but Mexico refused. Stephen Austin encourages revolt against Mexico. Santa Anna lost battle at San Jacinto and was forced to sign a treaty in return for his release.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    This treaty gave America the northern third of Mexico and also, including California. Not only that, it put Santa Anna into Exile, which was significant to the Mexicans.
  • La Reforma

    La Reforma
    A liberal reform movement led by Benito Juarez . The goals of this movement were to redistribute land, separate church and state, and increase education opportunities for the poor. The movement bought Santa Anna’s government down.
  • Benito Juarez

    Benito Juarez
    A liberal reformer who was a poor Zapotec Indian, rose to power through leadership qualities. Worked as a lawyer for the poor. Was elected city legislature and served as state governed of Oaxaca (1847). Began La Reforma, which led to his exile.
  • Napolean III

    Napolean III
    Declared war on Mexico and defeated by General Ignacio Zaragoza.
  • Nationalism

    Deep devotion to one’s nation which can serve as a unifying force within a country but also caused intense competition among nations seeking to overpower as one another. By 20th century a fierce rivalry developed among Europe Great Powers.
  • Triple Entente

    Triple Entente
    The military alliance system between Britain, France and Russia formed after the British became alarmed of Germany’s shipbuilding program, and Germany’s ending their treaty with Russia. Were the enemies of the Triple Alliance.
  • “Pancho” Villa

    “Pancho” Villa
    Rose to power in the west and spurred the Mexican Revolution. He became popular for his Robin Hood Policy which involved stealing from the rich and giving to the poor.
  • Porforio Diaz

    Porforio Diaz
    Oaxacan Indian that became a noted general during the civil war and led a fight against the French. He didn’t control the economy in a balanced way so the rich stayed rich and poor farmers/workers became poorer. However railroads expanded, banks were built, currency was stabilized and foreign investment grew.
  • Schlieffen Plan

    Schlieffen Plan
    The plan called for attacking/defeating France in the west, then rushing to the east to fight Russia. They carried out the plan because Russia lagged behind the rest of Europe in its railroad systems and therefore would take longer to supply its front lines. It helped Germany defeat Russia and got Russia to pull out of the war
  • Georges Clemenceau

    Georges Clemenceau
    French prime minister who had a compact physique and a combative style that earned him the nickname “tiger”. He was determined to punish Germany and rarely agreed with Wilson and his quest for world peace. Ultimately he wrote up most of the Treaty of Versialles.
  • Woodrow Wilson

    Woodrow Wilson
    President of the USA after WWI. He drew up a series of peace proposals known as the “Fourteen Points” and supported self determination. Was on the big four present at Paris Peace Conference and creator of the League of Nations
  • Emiliano Zapata

    Emiliano Zapata
    Poor popular revolutionary leader rose during Mexican revolution, rose strong revolutionary army. He was known for his battle cry "Tierra y Libertad" (land and liberty).
  • Militarism

    Policy of glorifying the military power and keeping the army prepared for war. The European nations believed that to be truly great they had to have a powerful military. This policy made citizens feel patriotic but also very frightened.
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II

    Kaiser Wilhelm II
    Was eager to show the world how mighty Germany had become. Made Bismarck resign and ended treaty with Russia.He began a naval shipbuilding program. His actions would cause Russia to fight a two front war and form the Triple Entente.
  • Francisco Madero

    Francisco Madero
    Born into a rich family, educated in US and France. Believed in democracy. After announcing his presidency was arrested by Diaz. From exile in US, Madero called for an armed revolution against Diaz.
  • New Weapons of War

    New Weapons of War
    Long-range guns, poison gasesand tanks were made and this cause a lot more people to die due to weapons.
  • Frozen Front

    Frozen Front
    Soldiers on the Eastern front faced severe winters, millions of troops were left to freeze to death. It worsened battle on the Eastern Front to a much worse extend than that of what had been expected of Britain and Russia.
  • Allies

    Enemies of the Central Powers included primarily the countries Great Britain, France, Russia and within weeks joined by Japan and Italy.
  • The “Powder Keg” of Europe

    The “Powder Keg” of Europe
    An allegory referring to the situation in the Balkan Peninsula due to its long history of urban uprising/ethnic clashes. Bosnia wanted independence from Serbia and issues between them could all of Europe into war. The “spark” that blew up Europe’s keg was Ferdinand’s assassination.
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    Heir of Austrian Archduke who was assassinated during the visit at the Capital of Bosnia by Gaurilo Princip who was a member of the Black Hand This event led to the beginning of the Great War (WWI).
  • Trench Warfare

    Trench Warfare
    Opposing armies on Western Front had dug parallel trenches to protect themselves from enemy fire. Soldiers fought each other from trenches and armies traded huge losses in human lives for pitifully small land gains. Life from the trenches was dangerous and unhygienic. Space from opposing trenches was called “no mans land” because any man who dared cross it would die.
  • Propaganda

    One-sided information used by the governments designed to persuade, keep up morale and support for war. Used a lot during the allies and central powers in WWI.
  • Western Front

    Western Front
    Germany’s enemies surrounded her on both sides. A deadlocked region in northern France was called the Western Front. It is significant because most of the battle occurred there and allowed Germans to create the Schlieffen Plan. Main fighting occurs there.
  • Eastern Front

    Eastern Front
    Is a stretch battlefield along the Russian/German border. The eastern portion of the schleiffen plan, 2,000,000 Russians were killed and it ended in the treaty of Brest-Litovsk. It is significant because main fighting occurs there between Russians/germans
  • Central Powers

    Central Powers
    First began with Germany and Austria-Hungary, later joined by Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire. They were referred to as the Central Powers due to their location in the heart of Europe.
  • Lusitania

    British passenger sunk by a German submarine carrying 128 U.S passengers. One of the first few pushes the USA needed to eventually join the war.
  • Rasputin

    He controlled Nicholas’ government after he left and after convincing czarina alexzandra that he had powers that could heal her son. He threatened the reform movement and position of political leaders of the Russian government (therefore murdered).
  • The new Mexican Constitution

     The new Mexican Constitution
    This New constitution promoted education, land reform, and worker’s rights. Education to the public was also discussed in the constitution, which was a great contribution to Mexico.
  • Arthur Zimmermann

    Arthur Zimmermann
    Was Germany’s foreign secretary who sent a telegram to Mexico asking them to invade the USA. His telegram was intercepted by the USA and i6 was the final push the Americans needed to join the war.
  • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

    Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
    The German Policy of 1917 that led to intensified German Submarine warfare that had raged in the Atlantic Ocean since shortly after the war began. The Germans announced that their ships would sink any ships in the waters around Britain.
  • Bolsheviks

    The more radical group of Russian Marxists who supported a small number of committed revolutionaries wiling to sacrifice everything for change. Their major leader was Vladimir Ilyich (Lenin). They bought down the Provisional government.
  • Provisional Government

    Provisional Government
    A temporary government set up by Russia’s first parliament following The March Revolution headed by Alexander Kerensky. Lost support after continuing to fight in WWI lost his government and The Soviets began gaining support than the government. Lenin and his Bolshevik Red Guards took over government offices and arrested leaders of the government and the Bolsheviks took over.
  • Proletariat

    The belief of Marxist revolutionaries that the industrial class of workers would overthrow the czar and then form a dictatorship of proletariat which meant the workers would rule the country.
  • Influenza epidemic

    Influenza epidemic
    Th deasies killed more than 1/5 of the population and harmed many solidiers and citizens.
  • Communism in Russia

     Communism in Russia
    From Karl Marx’s writings that described the classless society that would exist once the worker’s seized control of the nation. It was supposed to be what the communist party and the USSR had been based on.
  • Self-determination

    The guiding idea behind Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” which meant allowing people to decide for themselves under what government they wished to live.
  • Rationing

    Under this system people could only buy small items of those items also needed for the war effort. Eventually rationing covered a wide range of goods, from leather to bread.
  • Total War

    Total War
    Countries devoted all their resources to the war effort. The entire force of government was dedicated to winning the war. Governments told factories what to produce/how much. Numerous facilities were converted to munitions factories. Every able-bodied civilian was put to work, unemployment in Europe. Many goods were in short supply and the government eventually had to turn to rationing.
  • Soviet

    Were local councils consisting of workers, peasants and soldiers. In many cities they had a much stronger influence that that of the Provisional Government.
  • Communist Party

    Communist Party
    The Bolsheviks renamed themselves as this. The Communists created a constitution based on socialist/democratic principles. In reality however, Lenin had established a Dictatorship of the Communist Party and not the “Dictatorship of the Proletariat” as Marx had promoted.
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    The treaty signed between Germany and the Bolshevik government of Russia to cease fire during the end of WWI. Russia surrendered a lot of territory to Germany and then dropped out of the war. The treaty left Russian extremely angered.
  • War-guilt Clause

    War-guilt Clause
    Article 231 in The Treaty of Versailles that angered the Germans the most. They forced to take entire responsibility for starting the war and forced to pay huge fin. Left millions of Germans feeling bitter and wanting revenge.
  • Fourteen Points

    Fourteen Points
    President Woodrow drawn up plan series of peace proposals. It outlined a plan for achieving a just and lasting peace. The guiding idea behind these points was self-determination and the last point called for the creation of the League of Nations.
  • Armistice

    An agreement to stop fighting or “cease fire”. Was signed by Kaiser Wilhelm II and allies in to end WWI.
  • League of Nations

    League of Nations
    Wilson’s fourteenth point from his “Fourteen Points,” put to use by The Treaty of Versailles, The league’s job was to be an international association whose goal would be to keep peace among nations. Would have been a great idea but was weakened by the fact that the US eventually did not join.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    The peace terms still had to be decided which took place at the Paris Peace Conference in the Palace of Versailles. The big four Woodrow Wilson (USA), Georges Clemenceau (France), David Lloyd George (Britain) and Vittorio Orlando (Italy) reached an agreement amongst each other on how to punish Germany. It adopted Wilson’s League of Nations and punished Germany harshly.
  • Joseph Stalin

    Joseph Stalin
    One of the two notable men suitable for heading the communist party after Lenin suffered a stroke. As general secretary he worked to move his supporters to powerful positions.. After Lenin died, he became in total command of the communist party and exiled Trotsky. Then stood poised to wield absolute power as a Russian dictator.
  • Triple Alliance

    Triple Alliance
    The military alliance system that was designed to keep peace in Europe but instead pushed to continent to war. Bismarck signed a treaty to form this military alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy to isolate France.