Baroque Era 1600-1730s/50s

  • Period: 1550 to

    Emilio de'Cavalieri

    Roman nobleman; one of the founders of the opera; the first to publish a figured bass; also an organist, singing teacher, dancer, choreographer.
  • Period: 1551 to

    Giulio Caccini

    One of the founders of opera; gave a description of the new singing style in his book of "songs" of 1602; Italian composer, singer, teacher, and instrumentalist.
  • Period: 1557 to

    Giovanni Gabrieli

    Italian composer and organist; noted for his use of instruments in his sacred music.
  • Period: 1561 to

    Jacopo Peri

    One of the founders of opera; claimed to be the first in 1597; significant contribution to monody and the recitative style.
  • Period: 1563 to

    John Dowland

    English, possibly Irish; lutenist and the leading composer of lute music; Catholic; served in the court of Denmark.
  • Period: 1564 to

    William Shakespeare

    English playwright and poet; he has been an important force in the field of music from his day to ours.
  • Period: 1567 to

    Claudio Monteverdi

    The most important composer of the early baroque; one of the inventors of the new seconda practica.
  • Period: 1570 to

    Florentine Camerata

    Beginning in the 1570s, a group of intellectuals that met to discuss the arts - members included Caccini, Peri, Girolamo Mei, Vincenzo Galilei
  • Period: to

    Orlando Gibbons

    English; composer of Anglican Church anthems; keyboardist; a leading composer in 17th-century England.
  • Period: to

    Girolamo Frescobaldi

    First modern keyboard virtuoso and composer; he was the most influential keyboard composer of the early Baroque; he was the first European composer to focus on instrumental music.
  • Period: to

    Heinrich Schutz

    Most important German composer of the Middle Baroque; studied in Venice; reportedly composer the first German opera.
  • Period: to

    Early Baroque

    Genres: opera, ballet, masses, magnificants, vespers, motets, madrigals, cantatas, oratorios,
    Stylistic traits: homophony/polyphony, free rhythm, poetic form, binary form, contrast, markings used now
    Inventions: opera, the oboe
    The end of the Ming Dynasty (1644)
  • Period: to

    Giacomo Carissimi

    A leading composer of Roman cantatas and oratorios.
  • Period: to

    Barbara Strozzi

    Virtuoso singer and most prolific composer of cantatas in the 17th century
  • Period: to

    Giovanni Legrenzi

    Italian composer and organist; influential in the middle Baroque.
  • Period: to

    Jean-Baptiste Lully

    Establisher of French opera and ballet; dancer and violinist; Italian by birth, but claimed by France.
  • Period: to

    Dieterich Buxtehude

    German organist and composer; most important organ composer before J.S. Bach.
  • Period: to

    Marc-Antoine Charpentier

    Composer of French opera; pupil of Carissimi.
  • Period: to

    John Blow

    English composer of odes; organist.
  • Period: to

    Middle Baroque

    Genres: cantatas, opera, concerto, sonata, trio, ballets
    Stylistic traits: recitative melodies, tonal system, ritornellos, strings dominated
    Inventions: candy cane, pocket watch
    Salem Witch Trials (1692)
  • Period: to

    Arcangelo Corelli

    Most important Italian composer of sonatas and concertos; also the most influential violinist of the Baroque.
  • Period: to

    Johann Pachelbel

    German composer and organist; a leading composer of his time.
  • Period: to

    Giuseppe Torelli

    Contributed the most to the development of the concert around 1700; wrote for trumpet and strings; virtuoso violinist.
  • Period: to

    Henry Purcell

    Most important English composer in the 17th century.
  • Period: to

    Alessandro Scarlatti

    Important Italian composer; teacher in Naples; his death ends the Baroque opera.
  • Period: to

    Francois Couperin

    French composer, keyboardist; one of the most important French composers.
  • Period: to

    Antonio Vivaldi

    Italian composer, he laid the foundations for late Baroque instrumental music.
  • Period: to

    Gerog Philipp Telemann

    The most prolific German composer of his day.
  • Period: to

    Jean-Philippe Rameau

    French composer and theorist.
  • Period: to

    Johann Sebastian Bach

    Considered the Baroque master; wrote no operas; master of counterpoint; he became an icon for future generations and is still one of the most revered composers today.
  • Period: to

    Gerog Friedrich Handel

    German musician; lived in England, inventor of the English oratorio.
  • Period: to

    Domenico Scarlatti

    Son of Alessandro; keyboard composer and virtuoso.
  • Period: to

    Johann Joachim Quantz

    German composer; flutist and flute teacher for Fredrick the Great in Berlin.
  • Period: to

    Giovanni Battista Pergolesi

    Galant Neapolitan composer; he died young and his achievements were romanticized after his death.
  • Period: to

    Late Baroque

    Genres: opera, cantata, oratorio, concerto, sonata
    Stylistic traits: fortspinning, basso continuo, steady tempos, 16th notes, polyphony/homophony, binary form
    Inventions: Piano, tuning fork
    United Kingdom formed in 1707