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Australia in World War 1

  • Andrew Fisher's Famous Speech

    Andrew Fisher's Famous Speech
    When Britain declared war on Germany, Australia became automatically involved. Both the Liberal and Labour parties were in full support of helping Britain, and Australia happily became involved. He stated that "Australia will stand behind the mother country to help and defend her to the last man and our last shilling.”
    This encouraged more young men of Australia to enlist and defend Britain. It also contributed to Andrew Fisher winning the election and leading Australia into battle.
  • (2) Andrew Fisher's Famous Speech

    (2) Andrew Fisher's Famous Speech
    The picture is of Prime Minister Andrew Fisher and is a Primary Source.
  • Period: to

    Duration of World War 1

    (Picture used as heading, Australian Army Badge, Primary Source)
  • Voluntary Recruitment for the AIF

    Voluntary Recruitment for the AIF
    Before the First World War, boys aged 12 to 16 would receive at least 1 hours training at school. There were many military groups, including the Royal Military Collage, which was established in 1910. So, young Australians were very keen on the war. When the First World War started, Major C. Brudenell White requested that 12,000 Australian men join the AIF (Australian Imperial Forces), Prime Minister Cook approved but offered 20,000 men instead. The young men of Australia happily recruited.
  • (2) Voluntary Recruitment for the AIF

    (2) Voluntary Recruitment for the AIF
    Many posters were put up to advertise recruitment with unique slogans, like ‘Who's son are you? Enlist today, and ‘Are you a man?’
    By sending 20,000 men to support Britain, Australia proved its worth to the 'mother country.' Even though, compared to other countries, Australia's numbers were low but they fought good battles for Britain and helped them greatly. (Picture of recruitment poster, Primary Source)
  • (2) Australian Red Cross was established

    (2) Australian Red Cross was established
    The Australian Red Cross helped Australian soldiers greatly. They did many things to help provide support and comfort to the Australian soldiers overseas. They were a valuable contribution to the Australian war effort. (Picture of Australian Red Cross Society volunteers, Primary Source)
  • Australian Red Cross was established

    Australian Red Cross was established
    The Australian Red Cross Society was established just after World War 1 started. It was originally a branch off from the 'British Red Cross Society. The first president of this organisation was Lady Helen Munro Furguson, the governor general's wife. The Australian Red Cross Society did many things to help the soldiers, like sending 'comfort' parcels overseas. Overall they sent 36,339 clothing parcels and 395,695 food parcels. Thousands of women lead and became members of this organisation.
  • ANMEF seized German radio stations in the pacific

    ANMEF seized German radio stations in the pacific
    Germany had many powerful radio stations in the Pacific (Samoa, Nauru, New Guinea, the Carolines, Apia, Rabaul, Kiaochao), these gave them direct contact with Berlin and therefore was a major problem. When the war started Australia was asked to take action in either destroying or capturing these radio stations.
    The Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (ANMEF), was sent out to these countries and eventually the Germans surrendered to the Australians.
  • (2) ANMEF seized German radio stations in the pacific

    (2) ANMEF seized German radio stations in the pacific
    This act was Australia's first. It weakened German's communications with Berlin and gained an advantage for the Allies over the Central Powers. (Picture of Germans surrendering to Australian troops, Primary Source)
  • (2) First devision of AIF sailed for Egypt

    (2) First devision of AIF sailed for Egypt
    So, to entertain themselves, the soldiers would cause all sorts of havoc. Hiring donkeys from the natives and riding through streets and hotels, gambling, fighting and stealing.
    Training was long and hard, at one point 800 men were in hospital due to overwork. Also during the tough time in Egypt, ANZAC was formed. The New Zealand Army Corps and Australian Imperial Force trained together; together they were called Australian and New Zealand Army Corps.
  • First division of the AIF sailed for Egypt

    First division of the AIF sailed for Egypt
    The men in the AIF didn’t expect to land in Egypt, they were expecting to arrive in Britain. But the facilities in Britain weren’t ready for them. They trained in Egypt, but during their spare time were bored to death. They camped near the pyramids, but the only thing they could do was visit attractions. The only beer that was available to them was apparently ‘poisonous.’ They had to deal with the heat, sand, dust and flies.
  • (3) First division of the AIF sailed to Egypt

    (3) First division of the AIF sailed to Egypt
    In Egypt New Zealand and Australia joined to become ANZAC and by staying in Egypt, the soldiers coped through the harsh conditions. This readied them for the harsh battle grounds. The training in Egypt helped prepare the men for the war also. Without the harsh training and preparation, Australia and New Zealand would have been useless in the war. (Picture of Australian troops in front of the pyramid, Primary Source)
  • Battle of Gallipoli, (landing)

    Battle of Gallipoli, (landing)
    The Battle of Gallipoli commenced from 25th of April to 18th of December 1915. It is one of the most famous and recognised battles for the Anzacs. William Churchill believed that if the Allies achieved attacking turkey, they would shorten the war. The Anzacs were to reach the shores of Gallipoli and travel up steep cliffs to take over Turkish land.
  • (2) Battle of Gallipoli, (landing)

    (2) Battle of Gallipoli, (landing)
    When the Anzacs landed and crawled up the cliffs, the Turkish started shooting down at them. 2300 men died on the first day and the Anzacs were ordered to make trenches in the small bit of land they had gained on the beach. For a whole week the fighting hardly ceased. Half about half of the men were killed or wounded. On the night of the 18th of May, the Turkish made a surprise attack. 10,000 Turks died.
  • (3) The Battle of Gallipoli, (landing)

    (3) The Battle of Gallipoli, (landing)
    By midday both sides made a truce to collect their dead from No Man’s Land before the fight resumed. The landing of Gallipoli failed and thousands of men died on both sides. This was one of the bloodiest battles, but the Anzac line held and the soldiers battled with courage. Many of the men evacuated had wanted to return back to the front. This battle showed Australia's strength in battle. (Picture, artist's representation of the struggle at the Gallipoli landing, Secondary Source)
  • Battle of Lone Pine, Gallipoli

    Battle of Lone Pine, Gallipoli
    The Battle of Lone Pine was Britain’s attempt to take the high ground of the shores of Gallipoli. The Australian troops were to divert the Turkish while other soldiers attacked them (See the battle of Sair Bair). Australians took over the main Turkish trench in twenty minutes. In the end, 2,300 Australian men were killed or wounded while the Turkish lost about 6,000 men.
  • (2) Battle of Lone Pine

    (2) Battle of Lone Pine
    Through this battle, the Australians won over some of the Turkish trenches, bring them a step closer to victory, but this victory didn’t last long. (Picture, artist's interpretation of the BAttle of Lone Pine, Secondary Source)
  • Battle of Sari Bair

    Battle of Sari Bair
    Gallipoli was in a stalemate. The British tried to break the stalemate by seizing the Sair Bair Range. They split into two columns, left and right, the New Zealanders failed to take their side. The Australians got lost met fierce resistance. They came back with only a third of the men that left. This battle was the last attempt to seize the high ground at Gallipoli. It was a bloody battle and many men died. It caused the Australians to later evacuate.
  • (2) Battle of Sari Bari

    (2) Battle of Sari Bari
    (Picture of the British attack map, Seconday Source (Made afterwards))
  • Australian Red Cross Missing and Wounded Enquiry was established

    Australian Red Cross Missing and Wounded Enquiry was established
    The Australian Red Cross Missing and Wounded Enquiry was established to help investigate and search for Missing men and to document Wounds and deaths during the war. The organisation helped families of Australia find out about their loved ones. The documents would include any information, eye witnesses and circumstances of death of wound. They informed families of the happenings of their loved ones. Recorded numbers of deaths and wounded men for historical records.
  • (2) Australian Red Cross Missing and Wounded Enquiry was established

    (2) Australian Red Cross Missing and Wounded Enquiry was established
    (Picture of Australian Red Cross Volunteers moving dead bodies, Primary Source)
  • Australians Evacuate from Gallipoli

    Australians Evacuate from Gallipoli
    Australians gradually evacuated Gallipoli at night. Everyone tried to make sure it looked like everything was happening like normal. Cricket games were played on the beach and a clever contraption was made to fire guns automatically. On the 20th of December the Turkish charged down from the hills to find that they had disappeared. (Picture of the last boat on the Gallipoli shore about to evacuate Australians, Primary Source)
  • Battle of Verdon

    Battle of Verdon
    The battle of Verdun was the longest battle in World War One. It lasted for nine months, thousands and thousands of men died. The Anzacs were summoned to help the British and French, since they were struggling. The Anzacs took part in the Battle of Fromelles and the Battle of the Somme, these battles were targeted at softening the German attacks on Verdun.
  • (2) Battle of Verdon

    (2) Battle of Verdon
    The Germans lead a major attack on Verdun, France. They believed that if they could take over Verdun (which was valuable to the French), they could turn the war around and ‘bleed France white.’ This Battle was one of the major components of World War One. This battle was the cause of the battle of Fromelles and the battle of the Somme which Australians play a large role in. (Picture, artist's interpretation of the Battle of Verdun. Made just after the battle, Secondary Source)
  • First Anzac Day

    First Anzac Day
    The first Anzac Day was held on the first anniversary of the Gallipoli Landing. The Australians wanted to have a day to remember those lost in the war, and this day seemed suitable. Some state governments organised events for the day. The Commonwealth didn’t take part, acting Prime Minister, Senator George Pearce thought there would be a better day to celebrate the event, he thought Gallipoli was a failure.
  • (2) First Anzac Day

    (2) First Anzac Day
    Anzac Day helped the citizens of Australia show their appreciation towards the soldiers fighting in the First World War and made sure that their sacrifice would always be remembered. (Picture of the First Anzac Day Parade in Sydney, Primary Source)
  • Battle of Fromelles, France

    Battle of Fromelles, France
    The Battle of Fromelles is sometimes thought of as the worst day in Australian military history. 5,000 Australians were killed, wounded or taken prisoner. 2,000 died and 470 captured. 140 men died before the battle started due to artillery fire. There were less than 1,000 German casualties.
    The Battle of Fromelles was to try and stop the German reinforcements getting to the Battle of the Somme. This battle achieved nothing.
  • (2) Battle of Fromelles, France

    (2) Battle of Fromelles, France
    The Australians were required to run across 80 to 400 metres of land under full view of the Germans. As soon as they went over the trenches at 6pm they were under heavy gunfire. Sergeant “Jimmy” Downing of the 57th Battalion recalled: “Hundreds were mown down in the flicker of an eyelid, like great rows of teeth knocked from a comb … men were cut in two by streams of bullets … It was all over in five minutes.”
    Many more men were lost afterwards in attempt to retrieve the dead.
  • (3) Battle of Fromelles, France

    (3) Battle of Fromelles, France
    Many more men were lost afterwards in attempt to retrieve the dead.
    The Battle of Fromelles was a tactical disaster, many men died for nothing. It was one of the worst battles in World War One, and to Australia. (Picture of Australian troops waiting to scale trenches, (Only three of these men survived), Primary Source)
  • Battle of the Somme

    Battle of the Somme
    The Battle of the Somme was one of Britain’s attempts to divert the Germans from the battle of Verdun. After the battle, ‘Somme’ has become a synonymous for ‘Slaughter.’ The Battle of Somme was a series of battles fought along the Somme valley, France. During this battle the Allies only advanced 12 kilometres and suffered 60,000 casualties. The Germans suffered 500,000 casualties; they never fully recovered their losses after the Battle of the Somme.
  • (2) Battle of the Somme

    (2) Battle of the Somme
    The Germans destroyed the Allies volunteer army; they had to rely on conscription for reinforcements. Australians fought mainly around Pozieres and Mouquet Farm between 23rd of July and 3rd September. We sent the most soldiers to the Somme with 331,000 volunteers (Out of a population of 4,875,000. We suffered great losses, 64.8 precent casualties and 16,000 men dead.
  • (3) Battle of the Somme

    (3) Battle of the Somme
    The Allies and Central Powers both suffered great losses through this battle, losses that would affect their numbers and strategy throughout the rest of the war. (Picture of troops going over trenches in the Battle of the Somme, Primary Source)
  • 1st Battle of Bullecourt

    1st Battle of Bullecourt
    Both Battles of Bullecourt’s were aimed at assisting the Battle of Arras. Bullecourt is a village in northern France.
    The 1st Battle of Bullecourt was hastily assembled, it was due to be on the 12th, but the twelve tanks that were organised to help the Australians were soon burning wrecks. The battle was postponed 24 hours.
    On the 11th the tanks either broke down or were quickly destroyed. Only one tank made it to enemy lines. Despite this, Australians managed to break into the German defences.
  • (2) 1st Battle of Bullecourrt

    (2) 1st Battle of Bullecourrt
    But, due to uncertainty of how far they had advanced, supporting artillery fire was withheld. Australians were force to turn back.
    Australians suffered 3,300 casualties and 1,170 men were taken prisoner. This was the largest number of people taken prisoner in one battle.
    This battle was another failure. It encouraged the 2nd battle of Bullecourt to be better planned and prepared. (Picture of Australian Soldiers in the First Battle of Bullecourt, Primary Source)
  • 2nd Battle of Bullecourt

    2nd Battle of Bullecourt
    Between the 3-15th of May 1917, the British tried to attack Bullecourt again. The Australians took the German front line and forced the Germans to move past their starting line.
    On the 15th of May, the Australians defeated Germany’s last attempt to take back the village. The Germans withdrew after this. Although the attack was a success, it cost Australia over 7,000 casualties. One historian has said the attacking of Bullecourt was tactically useless.
  • (2) 2nd Battle of Bullecourt

    (2) 2nd Battle of Bullecourt
    After the Battles of Bullecourt, Australians had lost trust in the British command and a year later, demanded that they withdraw from the British Army and become the Australian Corps instead. The Australians were then lead by General John Monash.
    The Second Battle of Bullecourt helped Australia gain independence with their actions by becoming the Australian Corps. They also achieved taking over Bullecourt. (Picture of the Hindenburg Line, Primary Source)
  • Battle of Messines, Belgium

    Battle of Messines, Belgium
    The Battle of Messines was successful British attacks that lead to 10,000 German casualties. It was well planned and prepared for by the British.
    For two years, Australian, New Zealand and British miners dug 19 deep mines under the German trenches. They carefully attacked from behind after the explosions and took their objectives in the next few hours. German resistance held, but their counter attack failed.
  • (2) Battle of Messines, Belgium

    (2) Battle of Messines, Belgium
    This battle has been a model battle for planning and preparation throughout the rest of the war and to this day. (Picture, artist's interpretation of the Battle of Messines, Shows Australian standing over German soldiers, Secondary Source)
  • Third Battle of Ypres

    Third Battle of Ypres
    All five of Australia’s divisions fought in this battle. They fought at Menin Road, Polygon Wood, Broodseinde, Poelcapelle and the First Battle of Passchendaele. During the battle the weather was awful, rain poured down on them and the trenches were constantly water logged. The Allies were not able to break through the German defences, except at Passchendaele Village. After the eight weeks, Australians had suffered 38,000 casualties. The Allies altogether suffered about 310,000 casualties.
  • (2) Third Battle of Ypres

    (2) Third Battle of Ypres
    It is estimated that the Germans suffered just under this amount. The 3rd Battle of Ypres was a long, hard battle that didn’t achieve much. Overall though it aimed towards Britain’s winning of the war by stopping the Germans. (Picture, artist's interpretation of the Australians in the Third Battle of Ypres (Polygon Wood), Secondary Source.
  • Battle of Hamel

    Battle of Hamel
    This battle was the first under command an Australian, General John Monash. He was determined to show Australia’s success in battle. If the Allies lost battle, Germany would have continued fighting into 1919. This was also Australia’s first time fighting with the US troops. They won Hamel after two hours.
  • (2) Battle of Hamel

    (2) Battle of Hamel
    Australia only suffered 1,400 casualties because of General John Monash’s tactics. He made sure that he used all the technical equipment available to him. Brilliant planning, aeroplanes, machine guns, guns, tanks, motors were all used to gain maximum protection of troops. This battle set an example of how to get to German trenches and how to break a stalemate. This type of fighting was valued and used as much as possible from then on. General John Monash lead Australians to another victory.
  • (3) Battle of Hamel

    (3) Battle of Hamel
    (The picture is an artist's interpretation of The Battle of Hamel, (Explotions in background), secondary source.
  • The War Ends, comming home

    The War Ends, comming home
    It took years to gradually take all the Australians back home. Some families couldn’t recognise them due to injury and disease. The soldiers had to deal with poor food, living conditions and stress. Two out of three men were wounded and more than 61,000 never made it home.
  • The War Ends, coming home

    The War Ends, coming home
    The coming home of Australians, and any soldiers around the world was a momentous occasion, both happy and sad. It helped to encourage people to have a more peaceful future. This was one of the most important moments in World War One and in Australia’s History. (Picture