Gallipoli

Gallipoli Campaign

  • British naval attacks

    British naval attacks
    Two naval attacks, on the 19 February and 18 March, tried to force open the Dardanelles. This was part of the strategy to capture the Ottoman capital so that the Ottoman Empire would no longer be part of the war. The attacks were thought to allow this to happen. However, mines in the Dardanelles brought down 3 ships and the attacks were unsuccessful. The image shows the dreadnought ship 'Queen Elizabeth' used in these attacks. It was one of the new English ships that made its navy powerful.
  • 1st and 2nd Brigades reach Lemnos for practise landings

    1st and 2nd Brigades reach Lemnos for practise landings
    In the lead up to the start of the campaign, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd brigades met to practice the first stage of the campaign. The image to the left shows small boats full of ANZAC troops being towed by larger boats, which were used to drag these boats in until they were close enough to shore. This was the exact precedure used on the 25th April. Compared to the 25th April though, the image (and practice landing) was taken during daylight, which may reflect their preparation for any situation.
  • ANZAC ships approach land

    ANZAC ships approach land
    The ANZAC ships started to near Z Beach (later known as Anzac Cove) at 2.00am. The image (left) shows the HMS Queen Elizabeth (the paler ship) and a torpedo ship towing ANZAC boats full of troops ashore just before the landing at Z Beach. During this period of the approach this boats had to be as inconspicuous as possible, to minimise detection. The poor quality of this photograph proves the darkness of this approach, and one can only imagine the anticipation the troops would have experienced.
  • Landing of the ANZAC Covering force

    Landing of the ANZAC Covering force
    At 4.15am the ANZAC Covering force landed at Z Beach and were met by Turkish gunfire. The image (left) shows the ANZAC boats approaching land on the first day of the Gallipoli Campaign. The landing was undertaken during darkness to ensure that they were less visible, avoiding as many casualties as possible at this stage. This image (primary source) depicts the terrain and water conditions that they faced, and it is obvious how vulnerable the ANZAC boats would have been to Turkish fire.
  • Ottoman Major Halis opens fire on incoming ANZAC ships

    Ottoman Major Halis opens fire on incoming ANZAC ships
    At 4.50am, Major Halis orders his troops to shell the incoming ANZAC boats from Kaba Tepe after losing communications. At this time the second brigade were coming into shore, and many Australian and New Zealandish troops were killed, which was a small victory for Major Halis and the Turks. The image on the left shows Kaba Tepe (the outcrop of land) and proves just how strategic a point this was for Major Halis to be situated. North of this is Z Beach, where ANZAC boats were landing.
  • ANZACs capture first ridge

    ANZACs capture first ridge
    At around 5.20am, the ANZACs captured the first ridge, which then allowed them to further advance and fight in three different directions, which was a huge advantage. The photograph shows a picture of the first ridge, marked with an X, showing the place that the ANZACs advanced to. Made in 1915, this primary source gives us a good idea of just what the terrain and steepness was like, and the people in the foreground allow us to see the scale of the first ridge and surrounding hills.
  • Battle at Baby 700

    Battle at Baby 700
    At 10.00am the ANZACs reched Baby 700 and a huge battle was fought, during which the hill changed hands five times. That this battle was fought proves just how advantageous and crucial this position was in the campaign, and the image (left), which is a view from Baby 700, shows just why this is. The height of the hill leaves the land below it exposed to shelling and gunfire, which would have been considered crucial to the ANZAC battalions and their leaders, as well as to the Turkish.
  • ANZAC frontline is formed

    ANZAC frontline is formed
    At 11.00am the ANZAC frontline was formed, however after this the ANZACs would barely gain any more ground. The image (left) was taken at midday, only an hour after the ANZAC frontline was established. At the bottom of the photograph, a Turkish trench that has been taken by the ANZACs can be made out, and the height of the hill depicts the struggle they would have gone through to aquire this frontline, especially when constant gunfire is considered.
  • New Zealand and Indian troops arrive

    New Zealand and Indian troops arrive
    At around 12.30pm New Zealand troops arrive at Z Beach as reinforcements for the French, British and mostly Australian troops. At this time the Indian Mountain Artillery also started unloading their supplies. The image shows a group of Indian troops at Gallipoli. The way they are set up shows the little protection provided by the landscape and the disadvantage their position had over the Turkish soldiers. The way their tents are set up also shows the rush to set up and the need for portability.
  • Indian troops retreat from mountain battle

    Indian troops retreat from mountain battle
    At 2.30pm the Indian troops fighting as the Indian Mountain Battery retreated back from the hill. The image shows this Indian Mountain Battery fighting at this time. The Indian men are behind a barricade of sandbags, which they used to protect themselves from possible gunfire and shelling. These sandbags are hidden to some extent behind scrub to conceil them. There is a pile of supplies behind them, and they seem to be cases, perhaps filled wth ammunition. The hill's inclination can also be seen
  • ANZAC evacuation is debated

    ANZAC evacuation is debated
    At 10.00pm evacuating the ANZACs from Gallipoli was heavily debated due the large number of casualties from the first day on the campaign. This idea was rejected, and the ANZACs were told to "dig in" on the belief that victory was possible. The image shows a scene from the actual evacuation months later. This shows some of the concerns that they would have had, such as the waste of many war materials, as well as the Turkish being able to use them once abandonned.
  • ANZACs ordered to "dig in"

    ANZACs ordered to "dig in"
    At 12.00am (midnight) of the first night of the Gallipoli campaign, after the fierce debate over the evacuation of the ANZACs from Gallipoli, the ANZACs were told to "dig in" over the next months and fight for their country. The image shows ANZACs digging trenches during the Gallipoli campaign. The depth of dirt that has been shovelled by these few men shows the hard work they would have gone through, and when the constant gunfire is considered, the stress would have been immense.
  • First battle of Krithia

    First battle of Krithia
    3 days after the ANZAC landing, the British and French attacked the Turkish village of Krithia. The Allies made little progress, but Turkish attacks drove them back. The British and French retreated at the end of the day. The image shows the Krithia area and looks down over the Gully Ravine. The image shows why this high position would have proven useful in the campaign. The Allies also may have presumed that this would have caught the Turkish off guard, which was used as a strategy.
  • Attack on Hill Baby 700

    Attack on Hill Baby 700
    The ANZACs were ordered to attack Baby 700 to try and take this key advantageous place in the Gallipoli battle. The initial advance was lost. The image shows two ANZAC troops from the first battalion. Behind them is a gun that was being used to fire at Baby 700 during this attack. This image was taken only a day after the event started, and when the battle was still raging. The way the two are standing together shows the strong idea of mateship sustained by the ANZACs throughout the war.
  • Second battle of Krithia

    Second battle of Krithia
    The second battle of Krithia started when advances were made and initaillally lost. The ANZACs were involved when two ANZAC brigades were sent as reserves in case they were needed as reinforcements. The image shows two men, on the left of which is a soldier killed during this battle. The expressions of the two men represent the determination through the stress and hardships that were conflicting within them.
  • Turkish surprise assault

    Turkish surprise assault
    Ottoman forces attacked at the 2nd ridge in the ANZAC sector. They did this in the same manor that the British and French forces attacked Krithia, despite low levels of ammunition from defending Krithia from these attacks. The ANZACs were outnumbered, however more Turkish than ANZAC soldiers were killed. The image shows Turkish soldiers, but their attitude juxtaposes what ANZACs would have seen when they launched their assault. It also shows the unusual normality of trenchlife.
  • Truce between the ANZACs and Turks

    Truce between the ANZACs and Turks
    After the surprise assault against the ANZACs, Turkish and ANZACs made a truce for a day to be able to properly bury and respect the dead and help the wounded in no man's land. The image shows Australian soldiers working to properly bury a soldier during this truce. Again the idea of mateship is strongly displayed in this image, as the dedication to properly honor these soldiers with appropriate burial shows commitment to the typical moral of Australian soldiers.
  • Third battle of Krithia

    Third battle of Krithia
    A third attack on the village Krithia was an attempt to capture Turkish trenches and kill many Ottoman soldiers. The British forces did not gain 100 yards, as they anticipated, but instead only a few metres. More than 15 thousand soldiers died due to this battle. The image, taken just outside of Krithia, shows a Turkish burial ground. It gives us a good sense of the sheer scale of casualties and deaths caused by this battle. Despite all of these deaths, few results were established.
  • Battle at Lone Pine

    Battle at Lone Pine
    The Battle of Lone Pine was a diversion from ANZAC attempts to break through the frontline. Strong Turkish positions opposed the mostly Australian force, yet the Australians captured the main Turkish trench after only 20 minutes of fighting. However, despite this, there were more than 2000 Australian casualties alone. The image depicts many dead soldiers, majority of which are Australian, showing just the scale of deaths and injuries due to this battle alone.
  • British offensive at Scimitar Hill

    British offensive at Scimitar Hill
    This unsuccessful offense attempted to unite the Sulva and ANZAC fronts, however the Allies lost the advantage of the sun's position due to clouds and the Turkish strengthened their defensive position. Over all, the British lost the battle with very large numbers of casualties. The image shows the preparation for the attack at Scimitar Hill. The way they are marching shows slight lack of determination or perhaps fear or military disarray as they are not orderly.
  • Evacuation

    Evacuation
    The evacuation of the Gallipoli campaign is considered the most successful part of the whole campaign because it was quickly and successfully carried out without Turkish detection. The evacuation took place around 7 months after the start of the campaign, and soldiers and war materials were carried away during night so they were less likely to be detected. Turkish planes flew too high to see this occur. The image shows a camp at the island Lemnos, where war practices were, after the evacuation.