Aspects of international relations 1945 2004 aqa history for a2  368 p

Aspects of International Relations 1945-2004

  • Yalta Conference

    -Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin
    -Agree UN set up
    -Poland to have "free and fair" elections (Stalin has a different idea)
    -Germany and Berlin divided
    Russia wants:
    -To control its own destiny
    -Wanted spheres of influence
    -Wanted Ger. to remain weak
    -USSR reconstructed at Ger. expense
    USA wants:
    -Collective UN security
    -No spheres of influence
    -Reconstruction of Ger.
    -World Bank and IMF Despite agreements, there was a feeling that the Grand Alliance would not last
  • Potsdam Conference

    -Attlee, Truman, Stalin
    Agreements included:
    -Ger. disarmament
    -Freedom of speech restored
    -USSR get 25% GDP of W.Ger as repairitions
    -Stalin had no need for the Grand Alliance after the war
    -Truman's Atomic diplomacy was abrasive- did not work
    -New leaders- Stalin did not work as well with them
  • The Long Telegram

    -Lengthy telegram which helped shape US policy toward USSR (assume global perspective)
    -Fearful of Soviet undermining Western powers
    -USA must threaten to use force, Soviet policy considered aggressive and USA must counter.
    -"Containment of USSR expansionist tendancies" -Kennan
    Links to Truman Doctrine
  • Churchill's Iron Curtain speech

    "From Stettin in the Baltic to Triest in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the continent... lie in Soviet sphere subject to Soviet influence and control"
    -Set up dividing line of Cold War
    -War time alliance breaks down
    Stalin's response presented a benign Soviet Union:
    "In a desire to ensure its security for the future, tries to achieve that these countries remain loyal"
    -Later developed to say they were defending Europe from US economic, political and ideological expansion
  • Period: to

    Soviet Expansionism in Eastern Europe

    June 1946- Comms win elections in Poland after weakening other parties eg. Peasants Party
    October 1946- Comms. win 75% of the vote in Bulgaria. Mainly due to manipulated elections and removal of opponents like Petkov of the Agrarian Party
    November 1946- Comms win 80% of vote in Romania, an alternative to pre-war government
    1947- In Hungary, Comms ally with other political groups to win 45% of the vote.
    1948- Czech Comms. take over Czechoslovakia
    1949- Comms state of E. Ger. established
  • Truman Doctrine

    -Doctrine of containment for at least 25 years
    -Response to Soviet aggression and expansion
    -Truman needed to present Communism as a demon to US public
    -Greek Civil War 1947- Br stop funding anti-comms, USA must support
    -"Greece the event which ensured bipolarity was not merely a structure of international relations, but a way of life" RCrockatt
    -Links to Marshall Plan
  • The Marshall Plan

    -"Europe is deteriorating" William Clayton
    -$13.5 Bn to 13 countries
    -Condition of aid- proportion spent on US goods
    -Euro. bloc created, benefit US economy
    -Concern with Fr. and Ita. comms.
    -"Marshall Plan drew economy into capitalist orbit" Bidelleux
    -USSR back out of plan, set up Comecon rival Marshall Plan, divided Europe between economic lines
    -Yugo kicked out of Cominform after it responds to Marshall Aid
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    The Berlin Blockade

    -All road and rail links to W. Zones cut off by USSR in response to W. Ger's new currencythat tied them to the west
    -US response resulted in the Berlin airlift, involved multiple countries
    -Airlift was a success, blockade ended in 1949
    -Although there was no direct conflict, could be considered one of the first instances of globalism in CW.
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    The "bomb" and the nuclear arms race

    -USSR develop own atomic weapons in 1949
    -Truman not accept that USSR would be detered from attacking:
    -Attack would come by stealth
    -USA would carry out a pre-emptive strike
    -Necessitated accurate intel. gathering
    -USA must devise anti nuclear defence systems
    Emergence of the H-Bomb:
    -Between Nov 52 and Aug 53, both sides develop H-bomb
    -"Malenkov just telephoned... congratulates everyone who helped build the H-bomb... exceptional contribution to peace" Malyshev
    -Nuclear weapons=Prevent war
  • NATO established

    -Initally pol., changed after USSR tested atom bomb
    -Coalition of states-military aid
    -Prevent Euro. states becoming comms.
    -France not want W.Ger to join, set up "Pleven Plan" to limit troops
    -W.Ger to be bulwark against Soviet expansion
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    The Korean War

    -1949- China falls to Communism, Mao and Stalin work together (Monolithic Communism, but relationship frosty)
    -Domino Theory USA must contain threat
    Significance of the war:
    -US presence in Asia boosted
    -US use the UN to bring in nations
    -First direct conflict of Cold War, no country could back down
    -First example of the effectiveness of containment
    -"We will uphold the rule of law" Truman
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    Khrushchev and Peaceful Coexistence

    1953- Death of Stalin appear to open new era of opportunity
    -Khrushchev denounce Stalinist regime
    -"We stand as we have always stood, for the peaceful coexistance of two systems" Malenkov
    -"There is no dispute or outstanding issue which cannot be solved peacefully"
    -Destalinisation not mean capitalism or freedom
    -Red army sent in when needed eg Hungary
    -Arms + space race + Warsaw Pact
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    Khrushchev and Peaceful coexistance 2

    Khrushchev's main aims:
    -USSR primary comms. power, control E. bloc
    -Compete with US in arms race
    -Conventional military spending reduced
    -Int tensions must be reduced, "In our day, there are only two ways, peaceful coexistance or the most destructive war in our history" Khrushchev
  • The New Look

    -US sec. of state John Dulles argue for "rollback" of Soviet influence instead of Peaceful coexistence
    -"Massive retaliation" deter nuclear attacks (Aggropolicy)
    -Argued that the US must be proactive, not reactive
    But in reality:
    -Rollback not put into practice, USA prefer containment
    -Hungary 1956- USA did nothing
    -Rollback- Paper tiger
  • The Warsaw Pact

    -Soviet response the the formation of NATO
    -E. Euro countries pledge to defend one another in the event of an attack
    -Cold War standoff between NATO and Warsaw Pact
  • Austrian State Treaty

    -Sign of possible peaceful coexistence between E+W
    -Agreement over Aus. neutrality
    -Was it to reduce USSR military costs- focus on nuclear
  • The Geneva Summit

    -Slow paced nuclear discussions
    -Open skies policy- Khrushchev rejects- US spy planes more advanced
    -Unified Ger. as member of NATO idea rejected
    -Failure in peaceful coexistence
  • Sputnik and Gaither Report

    -First satelite to orbit Earth successfully
    -USA saw this as clear evidence that USSr had superior missiles
    -Gaither report- huge expansion in USSR nuclear arsenal- based on assumption
    -"Soviets probably surpassed us on ICBM development"
    -Report call for increase in ABMs
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    Crises over Germany

    1958-Khrushchev propose making Berlin a free city
    Not acceptable to the west because:
    -E. Ger land access
    -Would be seen as a retreat from Berlin
    Khrushchev gave the west 6 months to agree otherwise he would allow E.Ger control
    -Potential nuclear crisis, dropped after visits to the US
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    Background- The Cuban Missile Crisis

    -USA's own backyard
    -Pro-US Batista regime overthrown by Castro
    -Introduce agrarian reform, remove US influence
    -Soviets visit Cuba in 1960, provide $100m
    -USA want to remove Castro- Bay Of Pigs- disaster, consolidated Castro's power
    -Nov 61- Operation Mongoose "Help Cuba overthrow the Communist regime"- covert ops- but success too slim
    -March 62- Operation Quick Kick- US show of military might, Cuba threatened- Khrushchev places missiles on Cuba in May
  • The Paris Summit

    -Were going to discuss deal over Berlin and ban on nuclear weapons in the Pacific
    -China announced it would not be bound by agreement it had not been involved in
    -Summit collapsed after u2 spy plane shot down over USSR
  • Impact of Kennedy's election on Peaceful Coexistence

    -More aggressive, proactive approach, expanded defence budget
    -"USSR threat worldwide"
    -Bay of Pigs and Berlin Wall= end of peaceful coexistence
    -"Ich Bin Ein Berliner"
    -"We shall pay any price to ensure the success of Liberty"
    Results of Peaceful Coexistence:
    -Little impact, US not trust USSR. "Trojan doves" Dulles
    -Crises showed that neither side committed to peaceful coexistence.
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    Cuban Missile Crisis

    Early Summer 62- Castro agree to missile placement
    -By Sept 3 US flights found no deployment. "If Cuba were to become an offensive military base, the US will do whatever must be done to protect its own security + allies" Kennedy
    14 Oct- U2 spy plane discovers missile site
    22 Oct- Kennedy speech to US people "Quarantine" blockade of USSR ships and subs. ExComm established
    23 Oct- UN condemn USSR. Khrushchev calls blockade "act of aggression"
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    Cuban Missile Crisis 2

    24 Oct- Soviet Ships met blockad either stopped or turned around- "We're eyeball to eyeballa and I think the other fellow just blinked" Dean Rusk
    26 Oct- Khrushchev sends letter looking for way out of crisis
    27 Oct- Khrushchev second letter, wants US to remove Turk missiles. Kennedy responds to 1st letter- Turk missiles removed in secret
    28 Oct- Khrushchev removes missiles "Statesmen like decision" Kennedy
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    CMC- The Soviet Rationale

    The Defence of Cuba:
    -"Our only purpose was the defence of Cuba"
    -Nuclear option- sledgehammer to crack a nut
    -Could have used conv. forces
    Bridging the missile gap:
    -Soviets lost atomic leverage, power was in US hands
    -Deployment allow Khrushchev to modernise and expand Soviet arsenal + improve E. Euro economy
    -But lack of secrecy
    Need for friendship:
    -"Intended the missile deployment as an effort to spread revolution in lat. am." JC Gaddis
    -Address Chinese challenge
    Link to Berlin
    Turk missile
  • CMC Results

    -USA appear victors, USSR lost Chinese backing and Khrushchev lost popular support- replaced by Breznhev
    -Cuba remained Communist state 90 miles from USA
    -US missiles removed from Turkey
    -Hotline between E+W established to avoid another crisis
    -Oct 63- Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Testing in Atmosphere, OS and UW- "Watershed, marking important new era in arms control" but "fell short of the comprehensive ban"
    -"Detente showed impress of missile crisis" R Crockatt
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    What the West Wanted:
    -Control conflict with USSR- mutually advantageous
    -Draw USSR into state of interdependency- Link Sov. policies with US
    -Stop Soviets overtaking USA in arms race
    What the East wanted:
    -Overcome Cold War, restore normal relations
    -Preserve world socialism, protect it from capitalism
    -Breznhev Doctrine
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    Sino- US relationship

    June 69- US remove some trade controls on China "artichoke approach". US could gain from Chinese friendship
    Aug-Sept 70- Zhou Enlai policy shift, dual confrontation to US friendship, USSR the bigger threat
    Early 72- Nixon visits China promote Chinese unification, looking for Chinese support to end war in Vietnam
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    Oct 69- Willy Brandt becomes W.Ger chancellor- want to recognise E. Ger and territorial changes- Break Hallstein Doctrine
    7 Dec 70- Joint non-aggression pact with USSR and recognise the Oder-Neisse border with Poland
    May 71- Last Stalinist Ulbreicht resigns- replaced by Hoenecker= change in relations
    Sept 71- Berlin Agreement- W. Berlin and E.Berlin importance noted
    Dec 72- Basic Treaty - Normalise relations between 2 Germanies, potential eco. relations, peaceful settlement of conflict.
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    US-Soviet detente

    May 72- SALT I- limit ABM fields to 2, freeze on ICBMs and strategic bombers, but only current for 5 years
    May 72- Nixon-Breznhev Moscow Summit- Basic Principles agreeement- No alt. to peace, avoid war and conflict. But, no legal status. US-aspirations, USSR-Fundamental
    June 73- Nixon-Breznhev Washington Summit- Agreement on Prevention of Nuclear War- Sov. thought it would weaken defences, lose ability to support revolutions, but would ensure US not use nuclear threat. Keep Sovs. committed.
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    2) US-Soviet detente

    June-July 74- Sov.-Am summit- ABM fields 2>1
    Nov 74 Vladivostok Accord- Ford US pres.- framework for SALT II, agree number of ICMB and SLBM but disagree over which missiles fall under agreement
    Aug 75- The Helsinki Accords- 3 baskets
    -Security in Europe
    -coop in tech + eco
    -coop in humanitarian
    USSR want Ostpolitik expanded, increase eco trade
    USA not accept E.Euro status quo, fear reduced presence
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    Arab-Israeli conflict

    6 Oct- Egypt attacks Sinai end Israeli occupation
    22 Oct- Ceasefire agreed then broken by Israel UN force defuse
    Impact on detente:
    USSR- Backed Egypt with weapons and supplies, question if detente was serving Sov. interests, lose influence in ME
    USA- Back Israel, Increase influence in ME
    -Both sides violate detente, but neither accuse the other of violating them
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    Angolan Civil War

    Apr 74- Angolan independence
    May 74- 3 powerrs MPLA, FNLA and UNITA
    June-July 74- USA and China support FNLA
    Oct 74- USSR fund MPLA
    Jan 76- 12000 Cuban troops to MPLA
    Mar 76- MPLA proclaim victory
    Impact on Detente:
    USA- Until Cuba, USA not regard involvement in line detente
    -Think USSR involved before they are
    -Fail to respond
    USSR-Not support MPLA until US involved
    -Percieve Sino-US partnership
    -Expand influence, undermine China + USA
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    End of Detente

    Jan 77- Carter becomes pres.
    Mar 77-Carter propose reduce ICBMs- Greater impact on USSR- seen as unilateral
    July 77- W. Ger chancellor and Can. PM warn Carter about his robust human rights stance eg Czechoslovakia
    1978- China Card increasing issue for SALT II response to "Soviet expansionist activites in developing world"
    1979- Both sides agree SALT II, some interpret as merely an interruption in decline of detente
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    Apr 78- coup, unstable and chaotic situation- unreliable ally for USSR
    Dec 79- Soviets kill Amin
    3 Jan 80- Carter postpones SALT II talks
    23 Jan 80- Carter Doctrine- Prevent Soviet "expanse" end detente
    USSR interests: Security- shared borded
    -Afgh. could become "imperialist bridgehead" Breznhev
    -Only way they could control was via military intervention (not expansionist)
    US response: Soviet action expansionist "Greatest threat to peace since WWII) Carter
    -Fail to consider range of motives