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Armed Conflicts Inside and Outside of the US

  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    This uprising was caused by Virginia Governor Berkeley's friendly policies towards Native Americans after a series of attacks on the colonists. About a thousand Virginians, lead by Nathaniel Bacon, attacked Native Americans, then chased Berkeley out of Jamestown and burned it down.
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    King William's War

    This war was mainly fought between the British colonials and the French fur trappers, with their Native American allies. Since, neither world power saw America as a territory truly worth fighting for, soldiers were never sent in. The war was fought with a type of guerilla warfare. Native Americans mostly attacked the British colonies while Spain, allied with France, attacked southern British colonies. This war was a result of a world war that spilled over into the New World.
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    Queen Anne's War

    This war was very similar to King William's War in that it was virtually made up of guerilla warfare between Native Americans, English colonials, French fur trappers, and the Spanish. This war was also a result of a world war that spilled over into the New World. The main difference was that this war ended in a a peace treaty signed at Utrecht in 1713. In the peace agreements it is clear that the English won the war because they gained the Hudson Bay, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland.
  • Stono Rebellion

    Stono Rebellion
    This rebellion took place in South Carolina. Jemmy, a literate slave, lead about 80 slaves in a bloody rebellion that killed about 25 whites and 44 slaves. After this rebellion slaves throughout the colonies were treated much worse and their assembly, education, and movement was severely restricted.
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    King George's War

    This war, also known as the War of Jenkin's Ear, broke out when an English captain's ear was sliced off by a Spaniard over a trade disagreement. France yet again allied with Spain in another world war that spilled over into the New World. At the end of the war English colonials were angered to learned that the peace agreement gave back Louisbourg, a valuable French fort which had been bravely captured. France also managed to keep its land in North America.
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    French and Indian War

    Also called the Seven Years War, this was the last of the four major world wars involcing the New World. This first shots were fired between George Washington, who was attempting to claim land in the disputed Ohio River Valley, and French soldiers. A bloody war resulted in which many colonists were attacked by Native Americans. After the French defeats at Quebec and Montreal, the war ended. The Treatyl of Paris gave all land east of the Mississippi to England, and all land west of it to Spain.
  • Pontiac's Rebellion

    Pontiac's Rebellion
    This three year war began after Chief Pontiac urged Native Americans to attack Brtish colonists. In attempt to regain the Ohio River Valley, Natice Americans attacked and wiped out many western forts in the Great Lakes region killing over two thousand colonists. In a retaliation, one British commander gave blankets infested with small pox to the Native Americans. This event led to the stationing of British troops in America as well as the Proclamation of 1763.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre occurred when a group of unruly colonists began to throw snowballs with rocks at a smaller group of British soldiers. The soldiers eventually fired into the group killing or wounding eleven. This small "massacre" significantly angered the colonists.
  • Battle of Lexington and Concord

    Battle of Lexington and Concord
    This small battle sparked the American Revoloution. Near Boston, a small group of British troops were sent to take storages of colonial gunpowder. The colonial "Minute Men" confronted them and the first shots were fired. The British pushed on, but were later forced to retreat back to Boston because of the numerous militiamen.
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    American Revolution

    Britain was favored to win this war because it had a superior army and navy, and far more men and money than the colonies. On the other hand Britain did have many disadvantages such as having to operate 3,000 miles away from the fighting, little knwoledge of the land, and an older style of fighting. Also, the Americans eventually received French support and the British hired German mercenaries. Gifted with superb leaders, high morale, and knowledge of the land, the Americans were successful.
  • Battle of Trenton

    Battle of Trenton
    This battle was one of the main turning points in the Revolutionary War. After being chased through New Jersey into Pennsylvania and suffering from heavy losses and a lack of morale, Washington decided to cross the Delaware at night on Christmas. Washington's army surprise attacked Trenton early morning and captured about a thousand Hessians. This decisive victory significantly boosted American morale.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    This battle was also a major turning point in the war. Burgoyne's attempt to split New England in half failed when he was surrounded by American forces and forced to surrender. Not only was this a very large military success, but it was also the victory that convinced France to become involved in the war. France supplied much needed supplies, ammunition, soldiers, and most importantly a navy.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    This was the last major land battle of the Revolution. After a long campaign through the South, Washington's army assisted by the French army and navy, finally cornered the British army, under the command of Cornwallis, in Yorktown. After a long siege Cornwallis was forced to surrender and the Revolutionary War was virtually over. Peace negogiations began soon after.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    This uprising took place in Massachusetts and consisted mainly of angered veterans who hadn't been paid as well as farmers distraught by economic downturn. Daniel Shay and his followers attempted and succeeded in taking over government buildings such as an armory in Massachusetts. The federal government's delayed and insufficient response proved the inefectiveness of the Articles of Confederation and lead to the Constitutional Convention.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    Part of Alexander Hamilton's program to fund the national debt involved an excise tax on whiskey. Westerners were especially hurt by this tax and a rebellion in some western states took place. The rebellion was quickly put down by the federal government. This event showed the new government's power and ability to put down violent uprisings.
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    War of 1812

    This war, fought between Britain and the US, was caused by the impressment of US sailors, trade restrictions caused by European wars, and Native American attacks encouraged by the British. Although, there were no significant outcomes of the war there were some important events during the war. For example, the White House was burned down, the Battle of Tippiecanoe made future president Harrison famous, and lastly the national anthem's lyrics were written about the defense of Baltimore.
  • Nat Turner's Slave Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Slave Rebellion
    This rebellion took place in Virginia and was the bloodiest slave rebellion with the deaths of 55-65 whites. This rebellion caused widespread fear throughout the South and resulted in many executions and mob killings of slaves. Education and assembly rights of slaves were severely restricted.
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    Mexican-American War

    After many disputes over Texas, which Mexico considered to be it's property, blood was shed in a confrontation on the Nueces strip. The war was part of Polk's expansionist goals, but it lead to many slavery issues. The US had superior military forces including the use of a naval blockade. After the war the US gained all of the land stretching to California.
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas
    On May 30, 1854 the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed and that territory would be subject to popular sovereignty to determine whether or not they would be slave states or free states. After this was passed there were a series of violent events during the next six years known as bleeding Kansas. Anti-salvery northerners, such as John Brown, clashed with pro-slavery "Border Ruffians" who came from Missourri. At one point there where even two seperate governments in place.
  • Battle of Fort Sumter

    Battle of Fort Sumter
    This was where the first shots of the Civil War took place. Most of the Southern states had already seceded and South Carolina demanded that the Union army abandon Fort Sumter near Charleston. Tensions rose when the Union army refused to leave, and early in the morning on April 12 Confederate forces began bombarding Fort Sumter and the Civil War began. The Union forces were outnumbered and the fort was surrendered the next day.
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    Civil War

    After Lincoln was elected in 1860 all of the Southern slave states began to secede over the slavery issue. This war was the bloodiest war that the US has ever been involved in. The South, or the Confederacy, was disadvantaged because it lacked factories, railroads, and men. On the other hand the North, or the Union, had to invade the South in order to win, and also the South had better generals such as "Stonewall" Jackson. The war was mostly fought in the South and it was very badly damaged.
  • Battle of Bull Run

    Battle of Bull Run
    This was the first major battle of the Civil War. It took place in Virginia where the Union troops were hoping to march on to Richmond, the Confederate capital. Unfortunately, it was a major victory for the Confederates and the Union army was forced to retreat. "Stonewall" Jackson, a Southern general, became famous and got his nickname by standing his ground. This battle showed to the Northern soldiers and civilians who had chosen to watch, that the Civil War would be a long and bloody war.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    This three day battle was the bloodiest battle of the Civil War and was also a major turning point in the war because it marked the last time the Confederates would try to invade the North. This epic battle climaxed with Pickett's Charge: a failed Confederate charge of 12,000 men across an open field under heavy fire. There were almost 60,000 casualties during this three day battle. Also, Lincoln's famous Gettysburg Address was given shortly after to honor the dead.
  • Battle of Vicksburg

    Battle of Vicksburg
    The month long siege of Vicksburg, a Confederate fort on the Mississippi, concluded with it's surrender the day after Gettysburg. This contributed to the major turning point of the war because the Union now had control of the Mississippi and it split the Confederate states apart.
  • Sand Creek Massacre

    Sand Creek Massacre
    At Sand Creek, Colorado, Colonel Chivington's militia killed about four hundred Native Americans. These Indians thought they had been promised impunity. Women and children were among the many Native Americans who were killed, scalped, and even tortured that day. On some occasions some victims were shot for "sport."
  • Lincoln's Assassination

    Lincoln's Assassination
    Shortly after the conclusion of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln was shot and killed. John Wilkes Booth was the assassin responsible and he shot Lincoln while he was in the Ford Theater. The assassination was part of a larger plot to dissaray the Union by attacking several others such as the vice president and the secretary of state, though no other assassinations were successful.
  • Fetterman Massacre

    Fetterman Massacre
    Captain William Fetterman's militia of eighty-one soldiers and some civilians were going through the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming when they were ambushed by a Sioux war party. The men were on protecting a team of people that were gedtting wood for a fort and were not prepared to fight such a large force. The Sioux didn't leave a single survivor and mutilated many of the corpses. One man's body was left with ove a hundred arrows stuck in him.
  • Battle of Little Bighorn

    Battle of Little Bighorn
    Colonel Custard's Seventh Cavalry's goal was to suppress the Sioux and return them to the their reservation. When Colonel Custard came upon what appeared to be a small Sioux village he created a plan to take a small fraction of his men into battle while the rest of the men prevented Indian retreat and guarded ammunitions. When Custard's army of only 264 men arrived at the Sioux village and found about 2,500 warriors they were surrounded and killed. None of Custer's men survived the battle.
  • Nez Perce War

    Nez Perce War
    When gold was discoverd on the Nez Perce's resevation, it's size shrunk by 90 percent. Lead by Chief Joseph, the Nez Perce trekked 1.700 miles north in an attempt to escape to Canada. Many battles were fought along this long trek throughout 1877. Before reaching Canada they were cut off, and forced to go to a reservation in Kansas after being promised they would be sent back to their ancestral lands.
  • Garfield's Assasination

    Garfield's Assasination
    Only a few months into his presidency, James A. Garfield was shot in the back. Charles J. Guiteau, the man who shot Garfield, was a mentally deragned man who was dissapointed after not getting a job. When he was caught, Guiteau stated "I am a Stalwart. Arthur is now President of the United States." Garfield lived in agony for eleven weeks and and died on September 19, 1881. (VP Chester Arthur then took over)
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    Througout the late 19th century lynchings occured on average, well over 100 times per year. At first they commonly took place in the West because there was no real law enforcement there yet, but later on African-Americans were often lynched in the South to fear and intimidate other African-Americans. These events involved large mobs of people attacking individuals often regardless of whether or not the individual had even done anything wrong. The victims were often hung, burned or worse.
  • Haymarket Riot

    Haymarket Riot
  • Wounded Knee Massacre

    Wounded Knee Massacre
    White soldiers, fearing the Native American ritual known as the Ghost Dance, went to arrest Sitting Bull. Sitting Bull's son shot at one of the soldiers, and then a soldier shot Sitting Bull. When news of this reached a nearby Sioux tribe, they tried to flee. White soldiers caught up to them at Wounded Knee Creek. The soldiers demanded the Sioux turned in their weapons, but when a deaf Sioux refused to turn in his gun a bloody massacre erupted. Two hundred men, women, and children were killed.
  • Homestead Strike

    Homestead Strike
    The summer of 1892 was filled with countless strikes nationwide. One fo the most brutal was the Homestead Strike. Henry Clay Frick, who was in charge of Carnegie's Homestead Steel Plant near Pittsburg, called in 300 Pinkerton detectives in July to crush a strike that was occuring because of pay cuts. Strikers, armed with rifles and dynamite, fought the detectives in a battle that killed ten men and wounded sixty. Evetnually troops were called in to break the strike and the union.
  • Rebellion in Hawaii

    Rebellion in Hawaii
    US planters in Hawaii dissapointed by the high tariff rebelled against the native government in Hawaii. US soldiers intervened to help the rebellion overthrow Queen Liliuokalani. When polled, Hawaiin citizens clearly did not want Hawaii to become part of the US so Hawaii was not annexed untill 1898.
  • Pullman Strike

    Pullman Strike
    Eugene Debs, a labor leader, organized the American Railway Union. When wages at the Pullman Palace Car company near Chicago were cut substantially these workers went on a strike that started May 11 and lasted well into July. Workers paralyzed traffic going through Chicago and overturned Pullman cars. When the strike began interfering with the delivery of mail, Cleveland sent in troops to break up the strike(July 6). In the fight between strikers and soldiers 13 were killed and 57 were wounded.
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    Spanish-American War

    "Yellow journalism" and the sudden explosion of the USS Maine fueled anti-Spanish feelings in America. In early April, McKinley urged Congress to declare war on Spain to free the oppressed Cubans. The war was very short and had very few casualties, but many soldiers died from yellow fever. The strong US navy was greatly responsible for the US victory as well as the Rough Riders. Months later when the armstice was signed, the US gained the territories Guam, Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
  • Manila Bay

    Manila Bay
    Dewey lead six warships at night into Manila Bay in the Philippines. He fired on the weak ten ship Spanish fleet, and quickly destroyed them. Dewey's fleet did not lose a single man while the Spanish had 400 casualites.
  • Battle of San Juan Hill

    Battle of San Juan Hill
    Teddy Roosevelt and his Rough Riders, as well as two crack black regiments took part in the Battle of San Juan Hill. These soldiers suffered many casualties charging up the hill towards a Spanish stronghold. It was a decisive American victory.
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    Philippine-American War

    The war was sparked by the shooting of a Filipino soldier by an American. American soldiers were trying to capture Emilio Aguilnaldo, the leader of the Philippine Republic. Filipinos used guerrilla warfare, and fought at night. To combat this, American soldiers declared marshall war and viewed every Filipino on the island as an enemy. Torture, the cholera epidemic, and concentration camps made this war extremely brutal and resulted in high casualities.
  • Boxer Rebellion

    Boxer Rebellion
    The patriotic "Boxers" in China, angered by the spheres of influence and foriegners, rebelled in 1900 killing over 200 foriegners and white missionairies. A joint force of foreign armies including the US crushed the rebellion.
  • McKinley's Assassination

    McKinley's Assassination
    Not even a full year into his second term, President McKinley was assassinated by the deranged anarchist Leon Czolgosz. Mckinley died days later on September 14 and was replaced by Theodore Roosevelt. Leon Czolgosz, a son of two Polish immigrants, shot McKinley twice while he was at the Pan-American Exposition.
  • Panama Revolution

    Panama Revolution
    Columbian rebels who had rebelled many times in the past, were funded by Bunau Varilla to start a revolution. He bought 500 Columbian troops for a price of $100,000 to fight in this revolution. Varilla wanted this revolution to succeed, so that he could sell the Canal to the United States. The US navy blocked the Columbian troops from fighting.
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    Mexican Revolution

    Mexican president Huerta (who replaced Madero) collapsed under pressure from Argentina, Brazil, and Chile and was replaced by Carranza. Pancho Villa, disappointed by Carranza's new leadership, crosses into America, burns down Columbus, NM, and murdered 19 Americans. General John Pershing was ordered to stop Villa and his army, and penetrated deep into Mexico to fight Villa. Before Villa was captured, Pershing was forced to withdraw from Mexico due to the start of WWI.
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    US Intervention in the Caribbean

    During Wilson's two terms, the US played a significant role in the Caribbean. Wilson had to go against his anti-imperialistic words to stop riots or protect American property many times during his term. US troops visited Haiti, Cuba, the Dominican Republic and Nicaragua for extended periods of time during Wilson's two terms. In many cases troops stayed long after Wilson left office (this timespan ends when Wilson leaves office).
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    US Involvement in World War I

    After German "atrocities" such as the sinking of the Lusitania and Sussex, and the Zimmerman Telegram, America declared War on the Central Powers. Although our battlefield victories were extremely limited, America's ability to have fresh troops, supplies, and munitions helped to win the war for the Allied Nations. Our casualities throughout the war were limited, and the armistice on November 11, 1918 ended the fighting and eventually lead to the Paris Peace Conference.
  • Second Battle of the Marne

    Second Battle of the Marne
    Nine American dvisions, and 4 french divisions effectively pushed back the last German Offensive. This counter-offensive was lead by the French general Ferdinand Foch.
  • Battle of Chateau-Thierry

    Battle of Chateau-Thierry
    German forces coming close to Paris were haulted by incoming US Troops. This was the first battle for some 30,000 troops, and was significance because it marked the entry of US soldiers into the War.
  • Battle of Meuse-Argonne

    Battle of Meuse-Argonne
    Pershings Army lead the last of the Allied offensives in World War I that lasted from late September to early November. This 47 day battle was the largest American battle of all time and included 1.2 million American troops. One objective of this battle was to cut German railroads that were feeding the western front.
  • Chicago Race Riot

    Chicago Race Riot
    In this bloody race riot hundreds of people were injured and dozens were killed, Racial tensions grew as black populations increased and expanded into white neighborhoods. Also, black WWI veterans returning to the workforce angered many people. The event was sparked by the drowning of a black child at a bathing beach.
  • St. Valentine's Day Massacre

    St. Valentine's Day Massacre
    This massacre of seven disarmed members of a rival gang was the peak of the notorious Chicago gang wars that took place throughout the 1920's and into the 1930's. Al Capone was believed to be responsible, since it was his gang that was responsible for the shooting, but since the "Public Enemy Number One" was on vacation in Florida he could not be convicted for this crime. The gangsters of Chicago wre famous for their illicit activities such as gambling, prostitution and narcotics.
  • Bonus Army in Washington DC

    Bonus Army in Washington DC
    During the spring and summer of 1932, thousands of WWI veterans marched to Washington DC, demanding that they receive their entire bonus immediately instead of in 1945. The "Bonus Expeditionary Force" set up unsanitary camps right outside of the capitol. On July 28, Hoover ordered an army to evacuate the bonus army after a bonus bill failed to pass. The eviction involved tear gas, bayonets, tanks, and it injured some veterans and killed a baby.
  • Sinking of the Panay

    Sinking of the Panay
    The USS Panay, an American gunboat, was attacked and sunk by Japanese planes when it was sailing in Chinese waters. This event killed two and injured thirty. Japan quickly apologized and paid a proper indemnity for this outrage. Although an event like this might have started war in another era of US history (USS Maine) the US was so isolationist at the time that it had little effect on American opinion.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor

    Attack on Pearl Harbor
    On the "Black Sunday" morning of December 7, 1941 the US naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii was attacked by Japanese bombers. This surprise attack caused about three thousand casualties and the destruction of eight battleships and many aircraft. This day "which will live in infamy" thrust the US into World War II and eliminated all feelings of isolalationism in the US.
  • Battle of the Philippines

    Battle of the Philippines
    This campaign which actually lasted from December until May was lead by General MacArthur. The Japanese forces pushed back the twenty thousand American soldiers and even more Filipino soldiers to the Bataan penniinsula where they held off attacks for as long as possible. MacArthur was ordered to evacuate before the soldiers surrendered, but promised to return. The soldiers who surrendered were mistreated and forced to endure the 85-mile Bataan death march in which many died.
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    US in World War II

    "The Great War" was sparked by the expansion and aggression of Hitlers Nazi Germany. Although the war began years earlier, America only entered in 1941 the day after Pearl Harbor, when war was declared on Japan leading to Germany declaring war on America. The main Axis powers consisted of Germany, Italy, and Japan. The main Allied powers were the US, Britain, Russia, and France.
  • Battle of the Coral Sea

    Battle of the Coral Sea
    In this important battle the seemingly unstoppable Japanese suffered heavy losses from an American carrier force. This four day battle was the first battle to consist of entirely carrier-based aircraft attacks. This battle also prevented the Japanese from invading Australia.
  • Battle at Midway

    Battle at Midway
    This pivotal three day battle was a turning point in the Pacific theater. Japan in attempt to seize the Midway island, from which they could launch devastating attacks on Pearl Harbor, clashed with US air forces. This battle cost the Japanese navy four carriers and stopped Japanese expansion.
  • D-Day Invasion

    D-Day Invasion
    On June 6, 1944 the Allied powers executed Operation Overlord, more commonly known as D-Day. This was the largest amphibious effort to date and involved months of planning. Thousands of ships landed at the Normandy beaches in France and Allied soldiers poured into France. This opened the second front and marked the beginning of the liberation of France.
  • Battle of Leyte Gulf

    Battle of Leyte Gulf
    This colossal battle is considered to be the largest naval battle of all time. This three day battle took place in October of 1943 in the Philippines. The Japanese sea powers attempted to wipe out General MacArthur's transport and supply ships at the Philippines, but failed. The battle actually consisted of three seperate naval battles and an intense aircraft battle involving many Japanese kamikazee runs. The Japanese navy lost about sixty ships and was virtually retired for the rest of the war.
  • Battle of the Bulge

    Battle of the Bulge
    This ten day battle was the last major offensive attempted by Hitler's armies. The surprise d American forces were pushed back many miles through the snowy and foggy Ardenne forest past the original front into a large "bulge". This offensive was stopped at the city of Bastogne which was held strong by American forces.
  • Battle of Iwo Jima

    Battle of Iwo Jima
    This 25 day battle was part of the island hopping strategy in the Pacific. The island was needed for damaged American bombers returning from Japan. Over four thousand American soldiers died in the capture of this heavily defended island.
  • Battle of Okinawa

    Battle of Okinawa
    This battle was also part of the island hopping strategy in the Pacific. The well defended island was needed to destroy the cities industries of nearby Japan. Fifty thousand American soldiers died in this battle which laste untill June. Japanese kamikazees were able to sink about thirty American ships in their last ditch efforts to win.
  • VE Day

    VE Day
    Germany surrendered to the Allies when Berlin was taken over in a desperate defense for the capital was put up by the Axis soldiers, causing 450,000 of Hitlers men to be killed in this single battle.
  • Dropping of the Atom Bomb on Hiroshima

    Dropping of the Atom Bomb on Hiroshima
    Truman gave Japan the warning for either surrender or destruction, and that the United States has a massive weapon. The Atomic Bomb had been originally designed to be used on Germany, but when Japan refused to surrnender the bomb "Little Boy" was dropped on the city of Hiroshima. 90,000 to 166,000 people were killed, only half of these deaths occuring when the bomb was actually dropped. 3 days later when Japan still hadn't surrendered a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.
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    Korean War

    The war started when North Korea (supported by USSR) invaded South Korea in June 1953. Truman, backed by the UN, intervened (following his containment policy) immediately. US forces lead by MacArthur pushed back North Korean forces untill China stepped in and evened out the war. In the end no land had been lost or gained and over 36,000 Americans had died.
  • First Hydrogen Bomb Test

    First Hydrogen Bomb Test
    Codenamed "Ivy Mike" this bomb was tested by the US on a Pacific atoll in 1952. This marked the beginning of an era of newer and bigger nuclear weapons which heightened the tensions of the Cold War. It's detonation released a yield of 10-12 megatons and created a fireball over three miles wide. Unfortunately, radiation later fell on ships many miles away.
  • Iranian Coup D'etat

    Iranian Coup D'etat
    Leading up to this event the Iranian government was becoming increasingily friendly to the USSR and it was beginning to resist the Western capitalist companies who needed Iran's petroleum. The CIA engineered a coup that would make Mohammed Reza Pahlavi the new shah of Iran. This US friendly dictator was eventually disliked by his people so much that he was overthrown.
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    Civil Rights Protest Violence

    Civil Rights protests lead to many violent outbreaks and in many cases, riots. Such violent events included the death of Emmett Till, Police brutality in Birmingham Alabama, and Race Riots in many majro cities.
  • Guatemalan Coup D'etat

    Guatemalan Coup D'etat
    Leading up to this event the leader of Guatemala was becoming increasingly communist in his policies. The CIA organized a coup to overthrow the current leader and put in place Carlos Castillo Armas. Similar to the coup in Iran, this event showed the US intervening in foriegn affairs to stop the spread of communism
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    Vietnam War

    This war was fought by US forces and S. Vietnam on one side, and the guerilla Viet Cong and N. Vietnam on the other. This war was an act of containment to prevent the spread of communism into S. Vietnam. This conflict was probably the most unpopular war in American history. It's high casualties and length combined with the "credibility gap" made this a very protested war. On the warfront, the guerilla warfare and the many cases of brutality made this war unpopular for the soldiers as well.
  • U-2 Incident

    U-2 Incident
    Cold War tensions were suddenly raised when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down while flying over the USSR. This event took place just 15 days before the scheduled Paris Conferences between the US and the USSR. The conferences were not successful because of this incident.
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Bay of Pigs Invasion
    This invasion was an unsuccessful attempt at overthrowing Fidel Castro's communist government in Cuba. About 1500 Cuban exiles, who had been trained by the CIA, were the main force of the invasion. They had been expecting air support from the US, but because of numerous reasons they never received any. Also, they were extremely outnumbered. The invasion was a complete failure which tainted the Kennedy administration.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    This two week confrontation between the USSR and the US was the peak of the Cold War and probably the closest we came to nuclear war. On October 14 a spy place over Cuba spotted multiple missile silos capable of launching nuclear missiles at the US. After much debate, the US decided to quarantine Cuba to prevent the USSR from placing more missiles in Cuba. Finally, the USSR agreed to remove the missiles if the US would never invade Cuba and remove its missiles in Turkey.
  • JFK Assassination

    JFK Assassination
    Joh F. Kennedy was parading through Dallas, Texas with his wife and the governor of Texas when he was shiot and killed. Lee Harvey Oswald was the assassin believed to have killed JFK. Oswald fired three shots, the last of which was a fatal shot to the head, from the top floor of a warehouse where he worked. There are multiple conspiracy theories regarding this assassination.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Incident

    Gulf of Tonkin Incident
    In this incident the USS Maddox, a US destroyer, was supposedly attacked by three North Vietnam torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin off of Vietnam. There were no US casualties, but this attack prompted the passing of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolutions. This resolution gave all necessary power to the president in the matters of Southeast Asia, and in result leading to the escalation of the Vietnam War. It is very likely that the US battleship was the one to fire the first shots.
  • Tet Offensive

    Tet Offensive
    This attack made by the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese targeted almost every city in South Vietnam. Although the communist forces were pushed back within about one month, the offensive displayed the power of the these forces and how the war was not going well for the US. On the homefront, the Tet Offensive increased war dissaproval. It also increased the "credibility gap" because many Americans no longer believed what the government told them.
  • MLK Assassination

    MLK Assassination
    Martin Luther King, Jr. was shot at theLorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennesse. James Earl Ray shot MLK while he was staniding on the second floor balcony of his motel. Despite MLK's anti-violent preachings, riots erupted in many cities across the nation in result of the assassination
  • RFK Assassination

    RFK Assassination
    Robert F. Kennedy was shot while walking through a kitchen at the Ambassador Hotel. Senator Kennedy had just won the primaries in California and was likely to be the winner of the presidential election of 1968. Sirhan Sirhan, a middle eastern immigrant, was convicted for the murder, but similar to the JFK assassination, there are many conspiracy theories regarding the incident.
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    Iran Hostage Crisis

    During the Iranian revolution, in which the people of Iran overthrew the government the US had put in place (Pahlavi), the US embassy in Iran was stormed and 52 US hostages were taken. Carter was unable to negotiate a return of the hostages, and a rescue mission attempt failed. These hostages were held for 444 days and were released the day that Ronald Reagan was elected.