America cartoon

APUSH Semester 1 Final

By 23hornz
  • Jamestown

    This is the first permanent English settlement in the North America. These protestant settlers moved for financial opportunity and to "purify" the English church. They faced harsh conditions and lots of starvation and disease. This was known as the starving time. These chartered settlements first found success through the planting of tobacco which was becoming increasing valuable as the world was literally and figuratively getting addicted.
  • French and Indian War

    French and Indian War
    The friction in the developing new world between global superpowers France and Great Britain resulted in this long and expensive war. These rivals fought for territory all over the world, including America. The British victory in 1763 resulted in a huge gain of land as well as a huge amount of debt. Expanding into the new land caused trouble with the Natives something the English desperately wanted to avoid. The cost of the war also but a new burden on the people of the colonies.
  • Proclamation of 1763

    Proclamation of 1763
    The British wanting to avoid any trouble with the Native Americans, barred of all land west of the Appalachian Mountains. This angered the colonist as many had already begun moving out to the land and had to be forced out my soldiers. Other people were mad that they had fought a war and gained nothing. The colonist feeling short handed lead to friction. The American Attitude starts to develop.
  • The Stamp Act

    The Stamp Act
    This was the fist direct tax on the colonies. The tax was meant to help pay for the for debt of the French and Indian War. It also helped pay for the soldiers needed to "protect" the colonist from the land west of the Appalachians. A royal stamp was needed on playing cards, legal documents, newspapers, licences, and more. This tax really targeted the merchants, lawyers, and publishers as they dealt with legal documents often.
  • Common Sense

    Common Sense
    This series of publications written by Thomas Paine untied all classes of the American people in an American attitude and spurred on thoughts of Independence. These poked fun at the British and gave "common sense" reasons for why the people should be free.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    This document was signed and ratified by all thirteen colonies to stand united and declare independence from the British Crown. It was an explanation to the king why they decided to leave and on July 4th it was approved by congress and published. The main author was Thomas Jefferson but his work was edited and changed by a committee of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston.
  • Saratoga

    This is known as the turning point of the war. This victory is not only a great military victory but it also earns the respect of the French and other European nations. It also shows the British how expensive the war will be and raises American moral.
  • The Articles of Confederation

    The Articles of Confederation
    This was the first standing government of the United Sates. It was agreed upon by the 13 colonies on November 15, 1777. It gave the states a lot of power for themselves and made the central government very weak, unable to maintain an army and also unable to tax its citizens. This weak form of government was eventually disposed of on March 4th, 1781.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    In order to end the long struggle in war away land, the British Parliament agreed to sign the Treaty of Paris. This treaty acknowledged that the British recognized the US as an independent country as well as giving British land east of the Mississippi river and north all the way to British Canada.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    A group of Massachusetts farmers were upset about the high taxes, debtors prison's, and seizure of farms by banks and courts. This rebellion was only stopped when a militia formed by Massachusetts businessmen. This showed how weak the federal government was and the creation of a new constitution followed.
  • Invention of the Cottongin

    Invention of the Cottongin
    This invention by Eli Whitney in 1794 revived the dying slave industry in the South, prolonging slavery and the planter class, and southern life for many years to come. This enabled slaves to separate seeds from the cotton fiber, allowing cotton to become an extremely profitable product. Cotton became King, leading to all sorts of consequences such as the genesis of interior slave trade and even the Civil War.
  • The Whiskey Rebellion

    The Whiskey Rebellion
    A group of angry farmer took up arms to protest the new taxes on their form of currency, whiskey. This movement was brought down by George Washington and 12,000 men without any causalities. It showed that the new government had the will and power to put own rebellions.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    Alien and Sedition Acts
    A set of laws that were passed by congress and signed by John Adams. These laws gave the president authority to deport aliens, raised the residential requirements for immigrants from 5 to 14 years, and the power to deport or jail any one they deemed was spreading harmful or anti-government speech. These acts were very controversial and were overturned by the following administration.
  • The Election of 1800

    The Election of 1800
    This was the first instance in the world where power was changing hands peacefully. The world watched to see if the "American Experiment" would work. Thomas Jefferson became the 3rd President of the United States.
  • Marbury v. Madison

    Marbury v. Madison
    James Madison finds an undelivered letter of appointment to William Marbury. Tomas Jefferson instructs Madison to not deliver the letter and Marbury sues Madison. The court ruled that it was illegal for Madison to of withheld the letter and establishes Judicial Review.
  • The Louisiana Purpose

    The Louisiana Purpose
    Thomas Jefferson purchased this mass of land from Napoleon Bonaparte for 15 million dollars, a steal. While contrary to Jefferson's believe of government power he decided to do what was best for the country. This doubled the size of the US.
  • Waltham-Lowell System

    Waltham-Lowell System
    This system of labor consolidated all the steps of manufacturing a product under one roof. This system exploded as steam engines allowed the factories to be away from a river and also enabled women to work. Young women were employed as they could be payed cheaper. This was one of the first opportunities for women in the workforce. This system also created sister hood as many of these factories had boarding homes with strict rules and mandatory church services.
  • The Battle of New Orleans

    The Battle of New Orleans
    This American victory slingshots Andrew Jackson career. It's also an embarrassing British defeat. This victory leads to high moral for the country. This makes the country confident and leads to American pride and nationalism.
  • Construction of the Erie Canal

    Construction of the Erie Canal
    This huge project started on July 4th, 1817, and went from Albany and Buffalo. It enabled steamboats the travel upstream around the Appalachian Mountains, connecting the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. This created a huge economic boom in the Midwest, allowing the farmers and manufacturers to access both national and foreign markets. The population of the Midwest and the cities around the canal exploded as more and more people immigrated their for new opportunities.
  • Panic of 1819

    Panic of 1819
    This economic panic was caused by the poor management by the Second Bank of America. They were too loose on giving out credit and then took it away to cover their mistake, leaving many without their money. Many state banks were often unregulated and gave out large loans with little to back them up. The end of the Napoleonic Wars lead to greater competition, driving the price of wheat and cotton down. Many people, especially high debt farmers, lost their homes or businesses.
  • McCulloch v. Maryland

    McCulloch v. Maryland
    In 1818 Maryland issued a bill taxing currency that had been distributed by the Second Bank of the United States. A cashier working for the Baltimore branch named James W. McCulloch wouldn’t pay the tax and was sued by MD. The SCOTUS unanimously agreed that states have no right to tax the bank as it was impeding something necessary and proper which was protected by the Necessary and Proper Clause. This verdict allowed other financial acts and laws to be passed in the future.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    Henry Clay rushed to save the Union once again. It let in Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state, maintaining balance in the US senate. It also outlawed slavery in states north of the south border of Missouri.
  • Gibbons v. Ogden

    Gibbons v. Ogden
    The Marshall court over saw this trial in which Thomas Gibbons had a federal license to operate his steamboat between NY and NJ. Aaron Ogden had a state given monopoly and challenged Gibbons right to use the river. SCOTUS declared that Congress's power over interstate commerce supersedes the State power, allowing Gibbons to operate.
  • The Corrupt Bargain

    The Corrupt Bargain
    During the election of 1824, no candidate had the majority of the vote. The vote goes to the house of reps where Henry Clay, the speaker of the house, meets with John Q. Adams behind closed doors. Afterwards the House gives their support for Adams, giving him the presidency. When Henry Clay was given the position of Secretary of State this angered the Jackson supporters as they saw it as a corrupt bargain.
  • American Temperance Society

    American Temperance Society
    Created to lobby and move the masses against drinking as they saw it as the root of evil, laziness, crime, and domestic violence. One of the first nation wide organizations to gain support for a specific reform cause.
  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    This was a high import tariff on manufactured goods that hurt the Southern economy. Nicknamed the tariff of Abominations as the south felt that congress was ignoring them and pandering to the industrializing North. The high import taxes on European goods made them put high tariffs on the south's agricultural exports.
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    This is known as the first modern election. It was also the first time all white men could vote. Many new strategies were used like the nation, local, and state party units. Jackson wins as the "common man" and is known as the "king of the mob".
  • McCormick Reaper

    McCormick Reaper
    The Reaper was the first mechanical reaper. This invention made cutting and collecting wheat much more efficient, leading to the loss of many farm hands jobs. Many of the workers migrated to the developing cities like Chicago.
  • The Alamo

    The Alamo
    After Texas declared Independence from Mexico in 1836, General Santa Anna marched his army to suppress the insurrection. The Alamo was a mission turned fortress where the American men fought to the last man, outnumbered 10:1. Famous participants included hero and congressman David Crockett and James Bowie. Their deaths outraged the American people, leading to congress supporting Texan Independence. The phrase "Remember the Alamo becomes a popular battle cry in the Mexican-American war.
  • Miracle Plow

    Miracle Plow
    John Deere invents the Miracle Plow that allows farmers in the Great Plains to cut through the tough buffalo grass efficiently. They were much heavier and made of steel. This allowed farmers to access the amazing Midwestern soil.
  • The Great Scism

    The Great Scism
    As the driving force behind abolition many women are looking for more leadership positions. When they are denied a vote at the World Anti-Slave Convention many of them were outraged and joined the women's suffrage movement.
  • The North Star

    The North Star
    A paper geared towards African Americans. Written by Frederick Douglas who disproves the positive good. His existence and intellect prove that a black man when given the opportunity can do as well as a white man.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo
    This treaty ended the Mexican-American war while also securing the US-Mexico border as the Rip Grande. It also allowed the US to purchase the land that becomes New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Texas, Utah, Nevada, and California for 15 million dollars. This acquisition lead to another fight whether the states would be free or slave. The Compromise of 1850 and the Nebraska-Kansas were needed to try and please the rival ideologies.
  • Tenement Housing (semester 2 overlap)

    Tenement Housing (semester 2 overlap)
    The huge influx of immigrants meant a new need for housing close to industrial centers had to be met. In order to cram as many tenants into the least amount of space possible, cheaply and quickly constructed apartment buildings were built. These apartments became cesspools of disease as people were living right on top of each other with no running water, electricity, or sanitation standards. The lack of building codes meant that collapses were possible. This housing persisted into the 1930's.
  • The Compromise of 1850

    The Compromise of 1850
    This act saved the union from infighting for another decade. The compromise consisted of a package of bills, one outlawing the slave trade in Washington DC, one allowing California as a free state, another allowed the states acquired through the Mexican-American War to choose whether to be free or slave. The Fugitive Slave Act was amended, making it easier for owners to reclaim their lost "property". Once again voiced by Henry Clay.
  • Dred Scott Case

    Dred Scott Case
    A black slave tried to argued for his freedom as he was a slave in a free state that had outlawed slavery. 7-2 judges on the SCOTUS ruled that he was to remain a slave and wasn't given any rights of a US citizen. It established that there were essentially no free states and that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
  • The Attack on Fort Sumter

    The Attack on Fort Sumter
    This Union sea fort held a strategic position for the Union as it was deep within Southern territory and right off the coast of Charleston, SC. This threat made this fort the first to fall to rebel canon balls as it was attacked on April 12th, 1861, after President Lincoln ordered the base to be resupplied. This was the first battle of the Civil War and another four years of bloody fighting.
  • First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)

    First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)
    This was the first major battle of the single bloodiest war in the history of America. The underdog Southern forces completely walked the Union forces, ruining the many overconfident Northerners' picnics.This battle cements the South as a powerful threat who wasn't going anywhere anytime soon. It also opened the eyes of the country to the fact that this war would be very long and very bloody.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    This historic announcement was revealed on January 1st, 1863 after the Union "win" at Antietam. This publicly acknowledges that the war was about slavery, making it much harder for European countries to aid the south morally and while maintaining a good public image. This executive order freed all the slaves that were in "unconquered" or rebelling land, causing chaos. It also stated that any slaves in states that return to the union or had been reconquered would remain in chains.
  • The Freedman's Beruea

    The Freedman's Beruea
    This federal agency was signed into existence by President Lincoln through a bill on March 3rd, 1865. This agency's purpose was to help newly freed blacks assimilate into society after slavery. They built hospitals, fed thousands, and negotiated many labor contracts as well as legalizing slave marriages and finding family members lost through the slave trade.
  • Surrender at Appomattox

    Surrender at Appomattox
    After losing at the Battle of the Wilderness, General Robert E. Lee try’s to escape the Union forces and return to Richmond. On the way he heads to Appomattox to gather essential supplies. General Ulysses S. Grant sends on group of men to stall Lee and another to Appomattox. Completely surrounded and outmanned Lee decided to surrender in order to save his men. Lee surrendered his sword effectively ending the Civil War. Lee’s men were all pardoned and allowed to walk away free.
  • Share Cropping

    Share Cropping
    A new form of economic slavery chained poor whites and black alike to land for generations. The landowners took a portion of the workers crops in exchange for land, equipment, seed, housing, and animals. No matter how hard the workers labored, they were always just a little short, resulting in another contract for another year of work.
  • National Woman Suffrage Association

    National Woman Suffrage Association
    Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were the main leaders of the NWSA. This group was more controversial and “dangerous” compared to the American Woman Suffrage Association as they wanted not only the right to vote, but also the ability to legally divorce as well as education. Their main goal was to improve women’s standing in society as a whole
  • Bessemer Process (2nd semester overlap)

    Bessemer Process (2nd semester overlap)
    This process allows for steel to be mass produced cheaper and stronger than ever before. The rising availability in steel allowed for the building of large ships, bridges, and skyscrapers. Cities grew rapidly. The US became the leader in steel production with Andrew Carnegie at the front. He creates the largest steel company on earth and believed in giving back to the community and funded thousands of schools, libraries, and universities, becoming an incredibly influential figure.
  • Minor v. Happersett

    Minor v. Happersett
    Virginia Minor had been denied the right to vote in St. Louis, Missouri and took action in court against Reese Happersett, the election official. She argued that act this broke the 14th Amendment’s guarantee of privileges and immunities that come with citizenship. The court decided that these “privileges and immunities” weren’t defined and that being denied the right to vote didn’t violate any of her rights as a citizen. This outcome made an addition amendment for suffrage the next goal.
  • The Carlisle Indian School

    The Carlisle Indian School
    The Carlisle Indian School was designed to “kill the Indian, save the man”, like the many other schools apart of the Indian Boarding Schools. This was one of the first and most famous of these schools. Native American children are taken from their homes and forced to speak English, where white clothes, cut their hair, and are assimilated into American culture. When children were returned home they were completely different people.
  • Tweed Courthouse (semester 2 overlap)

    Tweed Courthouse (semester 2 overlap)
    The political machine leader Boss Tweed controlled much of the politics of New York city. He and his goons manipulated the city's elections through the use of illegal voting practices as well as fear and intimidation. The millions of new immigrants were assisted by Tweed and his men who helped them find boroughs of similar ancestry, jobs, housing, and other services in exchange for their vote. Their control was shown through the construction of the Tweed courthouse that was 60x the estimate.
  • Pendleton Act

    Pendleton Act
    This act kills the spoils system after President Garfield is killed by a man angry at not being rewarded a job. This act made an federal employee need to pass a civil servant exam. This created more stability and put better people in positions of power.
  • Haymarket Square Riot (semester 2, overlap)

    Haymarket Square Riot (semester 2, overlap)
    Due to years of horrible work conditions 1,500 workers held a rally in protest at Haymarket Square in Chicago, IL. After days of protest the police were sent in to break up the crowd. During a scuffle a bomb was thrown at the police from within the crowd. The police then retaliated by firing into the crowd, killing 6. The violence lead to the tarnishing of labor movements image, especially the Knights of Labor. Many labor leaders around the country were rounded up as they were seen as radicals.
  • The Dawes Act

    The Dawes Act
    Similar to the Homestead act for Native Americans. 160 acres of land were given to any Indians that would live and work the land as farmers. This was done to separate the individual from the tribe in hopes that they would assimilate and take up white ideas easier
  • The Hull House (second semester overlap) (Jane Adams)

    The Hull House (second semester overlap) (Jane Adams)
    Women didn't only fight for their own rights but also stood at the forefront of many moral issues. These issues included alcoholism, laziness, and crime. The New Immigrants from southern/eastern Europe often fell victim to these. Settlement houses were created in major cities to help the immigrant communities. One of most famous ones was the Hull House in Chicago. Here women helped teach English, other classes, held food/clothing drives, and provided legal help. Women spear headed social change.
  • "How the Other Half Lives" by Jacob Riis (second semester overlap)

    "How the Other Half Lives" by Jacob Riis (second semester overlap)
    The horrors of the poor working class were often overlooked and unnoticed in the large industrial cities. Jacob Riis used a medium that could be universally understood, pictures. He displayed the horrors of tenement houses for all too see, most importantly the middle class. The cold hard truth was available and led many people to action. The emerging middle class began to get involved and attempted to combat the disease, crime, and poor conditions that much of the city was subjected to.
  • National American Women's Suffrage Association

    National American Women's Suffrage Association
    The merging of the National Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association created this power group whose goal was to acquire women's suffrage and also an equal footing in society. These groups became bigger and bigger at the state levels and used their dues to lobby to politicians.
  • Atlanta Compromise (second semester overlap)

    Atlanta Compromise (second semester overlap)
    Booker T. Washington was an incredibly influential leader in the black community. He vied for a philosophy of self help, racial solidarity, and accommodation as methods to earn the respect of the whites. The speech stated that the black community should give up on the idea of full equality for the short term and should focus on educating black children and improving their own communities. He created the Tuskegee Institution which taught young blacks valuable trade skills that would help them.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    In 1896 the SCOTUS ruled 7-1 that "separate but equal" accommodations on railroad cars were following the 14th amendment of equal protection. This case was then used to justify the segregation of schools, bathrooms, and other public spaces. Huge landmark case.
  • Sinking of the USS Maine

    Sinking of the USS Maine
    In response to the brutal treatment of the Cuban people by Spain and the recent exposure of the de Lome letter, the USS main, a newly built ironclad warship, was anchored in the Havana harbor. It suddenly exploded at 9:40 pm on February 15th, 1898, killing 260 men. This "attack" by the Spaniards was the last straw for the American people and President McKinley. This event is known as the straw that broke the camels back.
  • Spanish-American War

    Spanish-American War
    After rising tensions between America and Spain war was declared on April 4th, 1898. This war's main fighting happened in the Philippines and Cuba, ending on December 10th, 1898. This secured America as a world power and freed Cuba from Spanish domination. The US also gained the Philippines for 20 million dollars, resulting in another war with the native people. The US gained influence in Latin American and became a pacific force.
  • Rough Riders

    Rough Riders
    After Teddy Roosevelt gave up his position as the Under Secretary of the Navy he needed a special group of men to serve under him in the Spanish-American War. He hand picked a group of tough sharpshooters from the west to become his cavalry unit. These cowboys, ruffians, and miners became the most famous unit in the war. They were successful in taking San Juan Hill and Kettle Hill with their courage and ability to shoot on horseback.
  • "The History of the Standard Oil Company"

    "The History of the Standard Oil Company"
    Ida Tarbell wrote this book to expose John D. Rockefeller after her father's oil company was destroyed. She becomes an important muckraker and helped in change how the public thought of the powerful "robber barons" of the time. The book inspired many other affected writers to use their voice to criticize the oppressive monopolies and the damage that they caused. The court case Standard Oil Co of New Jersey v United States was heavily influenced by the book as the SCOTUS ruled against the company
  • "The Shame of Cities"

    "The Shame of Cities"
    This book written by Lincoln Steffans criticized the corruption of large cities governments and political machines. The large influx of new immigrants meant these machines had plenty of pawns. The population density also led to disgusting and unsanitary conditions that the people were forced to live in. This work is often regarded as one of the first muckraking articles, making Steffans possibly the first muckraker. His work was the first of many that tried to comment on social issues.
  • Portsmouth Treaty

    Portsmouth Treaty
    Teddy Roosevelt was instrumental in this treaty that ended the Russo-Japanese War. He invited diplomats from both nations to meet and negotiate. This displayed his Big Stick Diplomacy mindset as he was willing to get involved in other nations problems. Later he showed off his might as he had his Great White Fleet sail around the world, right past Japan. He even had them run exercises right off the coast. This flex was used to let the Japanese know to avoid any conflict with the US's firepower.
  • "The Jungle" by Upton Sinclair

    "The Jungle" by Upton Sinclair
    Apart of the muckrakers, Upton Sinclair writes a book about the horrible conditions and abuses that workers face in the meat packing industry. He shines a light on the unsanitary methods that the meat was ground, stored, and shipped. The book was so graphic that many readers well victim to throwing up. The book gets the attention of President Teddy Roosevelt who convince Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act. The later would eventually become the FDA.
  • Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States

    Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States
    Large oil reserves are found in TX, PA, and WV. This becomes extremely valuable as it becomes vital in the nations industrialization. John D. Rockefeller and his colleagues create Standard Oil which becomes the #1 producer of oil in the world. Rockefeller uses ruthless business practices to buy investors and competitors out. The US gov. broke up SO as they deemed it had too much of an influence over the market. This case led to the anti-trust and monopoly movement and legislation to combat it.
  • 17th Amendment

    17th Amendment
    Government reform was greatly needed as at the time the gov. was very inefficient and corrupted. Robert Lafollette was an incorruptible Congressmen from Wisconsin who believed the government could be purified. He proposed the Wisconsin plan which introduced a recall, referendum, and initiative to give the people more power. It also helped the 17th amendment pass as it wanted senators to be directly elected. An Australian ballot was also to be introduced. This idea was essential to gov. reform.
  • Zimmerman Telegram

    Zimmerman Telegram
    The US was holding strong onto their neutral stance during WW1. However, a telegram from Germany to Mexico pushed the US over the line and into action. The telegram was a proposal by the Germans promising to give Mexico back the territories of New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas in exchange for starting a war with the US, distracting them from the war in Europe. This act of war infuriated the American people who willed Woodrow Wilson into action. The outcome of the war and world was changed forever.
  • 19th Amendment

    19th Amendment
    This amendment gave women the right to vote in all elections. This suffrage movement originated in the west where women were responsible for more work and respected. Many organization popped up around the country such as the National American Women Suffrage Association which had thousands of branches in every state. Rallies, marches, lobbying, and well written arguments were used to persuade the masses. The advancements in women's education allowed them to make sophisticated arguments and points
  • Chicago Race Riots

    Chicago Race Riots
    During WW1 many black moved north in what is known as the Great Migration. Many wanted to escape the Jim Crow laws of the south as well as take advantage of many labor openings in the north. When the valiant soldiers returned home they saw that their jobs had been "stolen". This increased racial tensions. This riot was caused by the drowning of a black man who had been attacked while swimming in Lake Michigan. Rumors of the event led to fighting and rioting between gangs and mobs of both races.
  • Sacco and Vanzetti

    Sacco and Vanzetti
    After WW1 patriotism swept across the country. This and the Bolshevik Revolution made the entire country suspicious of many of the New Immigrants that were shipping in as they believed many could be anarchist or communist. Sacco and Vanzetti were two young Italian immigrants who claimed to be anarchist and were arrested for murder of a shopkeeper. They were convicted very quickly and put to death. Their trial has raised many questions about its legitimacy and has prompted civil rights discussion
  • Scopes Monkey Trial

    Scopes Monkey Trial
    The Butler Act was passed by the Tennessee legislator in order to ban the teaching of evolution. John Scopes was a young substitute teacher who was chosen by the ACLU to challenge this act. He deliberately broke the law, was arrested, and put on trial. Clarence Darrow served as Scopes's attorney and brought the prosecutor Williams Jennings Bryan to the stand to trap and humiliate him. Scopes lost but the trial brought up many discussions about using the bible, a religious document, as law.
  • Stock Market Crash of 1929

    Stock Market Crash of 1929
    This was the first well known sign of the Great Depression. While the agriculture business had been suffering for years, this was the first time most of the public realized there was problem. Consumer culture and excessive buying on credit resulted in the worst economic period in the history of the US. The GD left millions unemployed, homeless, and without their life savings. Herbert Hoover and his administration believed in limited gov. action so little was done. The GD was only ended by WW2.
  • The Bonus Army

    The Bonus Army
    The unforeseen economic crisis meant that like normal citizens the WW1 vets were in need of support. The vets were promised a bonus in 1945 but the they wanted it now. 10,000-25,000 vets and their families marched on the capital but were denied by the Senate leading to the creation of many Hoovervilles. After months Hoover calls in the military to disperse the crowd and their makeshift builds are burned and washed away with fire hoses. This creates a horrible of Hoover, leads to election of FDR.
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
    FDR promised the American people that he would get them out of the depression. In the first 100 days he created many agencies and bills that focused on Relief, Recovery, and Reform of many of the financial and social systems. The FDIC created a bank holiday in which banks are inspected by the federal gov. Only "healthy" banks were allowed to reopen. This represents the huge expansion in gov power that occurred through the New Deal. Other acts were the SEC, NRA, and CCC.
  • FDR's Court Packing Scandal

    FDR's Court Packing Scandal
    FDR created many new organizations and agencies. His alphabet soup expanded the government's power dramatically and in some cases the expansion was deemed unconstitutional by the SCOTUS. After a number of his New Deal legislation was shut down he threatened to expand the court to 15 justices. After this incident no other New Deal legislation was cut down. This event destroyed his reputation as well as the momentum that the ND had accumulated. Comparisons to a dictator were beginning surface.
  • HUAC

    The House Un-American Activities was created to investigate any activity of spying or sabotage committed by any potential communist. After WW2 the Second Red Scare was in full swing and this organization investigated thousands of citizens. Anyone accused of being a communist were put on trial. Regardless of the outcome those tried were ostracized by their communities. Many people were convicted and jailed just because of a tiny connection to a potential communist, causing mass panic and paranoia
  • Executive Order 8802

    Executive Order 8802
    Signed by FDR, this outlawed any discriminatory hiring practices in the government and defense industry. It became the building block of the Civil Rights Act in 1965 and gave blacks an opportunity to serve their country and show their worth. It also established the Fair Employment Practices Committee to enforce the order. Black employment would double in WW2 as government contracts required quotas based on race to be met. This order helped influence the Double V campaign that would follow.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor

    Attack on Pearl Harbor
    The only major obstacle of Japan's complete dominance of the Pacific was the powerful US fleet. Seeking a decisive win and a halt to oil embargoes, a surprise attack was launched on Pearl Harbor to cripple the US fleet. The US lost 2,335 servicemen and 68 civilians, 188 planes, and 18 ships during the 5 phase surprise attack. This plan back fired as many vital targets were missed, including 3 aircraft carriers. This led to the US's entry into the war. The Sleeping Giant had been awakened.
  • Japanese Internment Camps (EO 9066)

    Japanese Internment Camps (EO 9066)
    After the attack on Pearl Harbor the American public and government were fearful of spies and saboteurs in their midst. The large population of Japanese / Jap-Americans that lived on the west coast resulted in FDR signing EO 9066 which forcibly removed thousands of American Citizens from their homes and into internment camps. In the camps the inmates experienced uninsulated barrack-like housing with basic heating and water. The trend of civil rights being squashed in times of war is continued.
  • Rosie the Riveter

    Rosie the Riveter
    WW2 saw a drastic transformation of life on the home front. While many men went to fight the women that stayed behind were essential in buildings ships, tanks, guns, and other supplies. Rosie represents the essential role that women played during the war and the traditionally male jobs that many women took on. War jobs led to better opportunities, pay, and conditions for women. Women gained a tougher mindset and began to think higher of themselves and their abilities, creating independence
  • Detroit Race Riot

    Detroit Race Riot
    The Great Migration led increasing contact between blacks and whites in northern cities. In Detroit an eye opening race riot ended with the nine whites and 25 blacks dying along with 675 injured. Thousands of buildings being burned or looted, resulting in two million dollars of property damage. The event got so bad that FDR had to step in and shut down the riots with 6,000 armed troops. This event showcased the racial tension that was and had been present in American society.
  • G.I. Bill

    G.I. Bill
    After WW2 the US gov. wanted to reward its GI's for sacrificing important years of their life. The gov. payed for returning vets college or trade school, gave low interest business/home loans, as well as created and ran VA hospitals. Higher education became accessible and changed who it was "meant" for. The home loans also fueled the expansion of suburbs, creating high demand for infrastructure and other accommodations. The population also exploded as families had more room to raise kids.
  • "The Sinews of Peace" (Iron Curtain Speech)

    "The Sinews of Peace" (Iron Curtain Speech)
    After WW2 the USSR refuse to leave its occupied territories, creating tension between the West and East. Seeing conflict, Winston Churchill delivers a speech that warns the US of the dangers of the Soviet Union. He declares that American must strengthen ties with Europe to fight against the threat of communism and that the United Nations must become a powerful force for good. An outline of the strategy that the West should take was introduced and the phrase "Iron Curtain" was popularized.
  • Marshall Plan (Economic Recovery Act of 1948)

    Marshall Plan (Economic Recovery Act of 1948)
    After WW2 European cities were demolished and the US feared the citizens would lose hope and turn to communism. George C. Marshall devices a plan in which the US will give economic aid to any country that ask for it. This was a great success that helped many countries rebuild their infrastructure and stabilize their governments and economies. The trade/aid provided by the US helped ensure the development of free nations and made communism as a whole look bad. This is a blow to communism.
  • Berlin Airflift

    Berlin Airflift
    West Berlin had been a thorn in the side of the USSR. The Berlin Blockade was meant to cut off supplies to WB, destroying its economic success. In response Pres. Truman orders supplies to be flown into the city with the excess of war planes. Truman threatened Stalin that if a plane was shot down it'd mean war. This was a slap in the face to Stalin and communism as a whole. This was one of the first international conflicts that the US participated in and marked the start of a series of conflicts.
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    This organization was originally made of ten European nations, the US, and Canada. The alliance was meant to strengthen economies, trade, diplomacy, as well as defense. The threat of communist expansion was a major concern for the group. It was believed that strengthening ties would help stop the influence and spread of communism in Europe. The US's involvement helped make it stronger than the LoN. The USSR saw this alliance as a threat and tensions began to rise.
  • Army-McCarthy Hearings

    Army-McCarthy Hearings
    Senator Joe McCarthy was the head of the investigative subcommittee of the Government Operations Committee and had been making claims of communist infiltration into the US government. His string of investigations came to an end when he accused the US Army of being compromised. These televised hearings began to turn the already sour public opinion further against McCarthy. His cruel and bully like tactics were exposed and resulted in the end of public support and his and the GOC's power overall.
  • Brown v. Topeka Board of Education

    Brown v. Topeka Board of Education
    The SCOTUS case Plessy v. Ferguson had given the southern states the ability to keep schools segregated. The schools weren't equal as black schools had old material, no transportation, and provided less services. Thurgood Marshall and other NAACP lawyers specifically picked cases they thought were impactful and that they could win. They took Brown's case and were able to over rule the Plessy ruling through the use of the 14th amendment. This case sets up a number of other critical events.
  • Eisenhower Interstate Highway Act

    Eisenhower Interstate Highway Act
    Pres. Eisenhower introduced this act after being inspired by the German Autobahn. He wanted to update the US's roads and infrastructure as many were unpaved and inefficient. Signed as a "defense" act, it connected the nation and provided econmic prosperity. He also played on cold war fears, stating the system would help large urban areas evacuate during a nuclear threat, serve as emergency runways, and help mobilize troops internally. This became the biggest public works project in history.
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference

    Southern Christian Leadership Conference
    This organization was essential to the planning and organizing of protest and activities throughout the south. Founded my MLK and other, the group was dedicated to using non-violent methods to achieve their goals. They wanted to appeal to the moral values of the white population to gain their trust and their support. This group and others like CORE were important as they led rallies and other forms of resistance while the NAACP handled the legal side of the battle for civil rights.
  • Sputnik 1's Launch

    Sputnik 1's Launch
    The Cold War was more than just proxy wars. All forms of competition between the two super powers served as crucial battles for each sides ideals and overall influence of the world. The Sputnik represented America's worst fear, that the Soviets were becoming more technologically advanced than them. It was also the beginning of the space race in which the US and USSR competed to rack up the most "first" in space. The fear that the Sputnik and other advances caused contributed to the Red Scare.
  • Election of 1960

    Election of 1960
    This was the first election where the pres. debates were televised. Richard Nixon, an experienced politician, and JFK, an unproven rookie, were competing. Kennedy used the televised debates to his advantage as he used makeup and good posture in front of the camera. Anyone reading the debates transcript would've declared Nixon the winner while those watching the silver screen swore Kennedy was the better candidate. This election highlights the huge influence that appearance has over reality.
  • "The Feminine Mystique" by Betty Friedan

    "The Feminine Mystique" by Betty Friedan
    This book was an incredibly influential piece of second wave feminism literature. The book criticized the post war expectations of women, stating that raising children and keeping the home was unfulfilling and opened the eyes of many women. It is a perfect symbol for the new feminist that came to prominence at the time. The other civil rights protest of the 60's inspired many women to make their voices heard and demand a change not only in cultural expectations but also the law (ERA proposal).
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    SCLC, along with support from SNCC, CORE, and the NAACP, planned a huge march in the capital to pressure congress and the JFK administration to pass civil rights legislation. Over 250,000 people bus in from everywhere in the country to support the protesters. MLK delivers his famous "I have a Dream Speech". His speech and the shear numbers that attended delivered a powerful message to the country and the world. Eventually Lyndon B Johnson would sign two bills, directly influenced by the march.
  • Assasination of JFK

    Assasination of JFK
    During a motorcade in Dallas, Texas, President John F. Kennedy was shot in the head by Lee Harvey Oswald. This violent death had been televised and broadcasted through radios, paralyzing the nation. Lyndon B. Johnson was the standing VP and was sworn into office the same day. The constitution left no instructions on what to do following the death of a president. JFK's death made it clear that an amendment was needed to clarify succession practices. In response the 25th amendment became law.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    This was the culmination of the civil rights movement. All of the struggle and effort had led to this moment as LBJ signed this act into law surrounded by a number of prominent civil rights leaders such as MLK. This act prohibits any discrimination of race, sex, religion, color, or nation of origin in processes such as hiring, firing, or promoting. It also outlawed segregation in public buildings, discussed voting rights, and education. It also allowed for agencies to enforce the act.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

    Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    LBJ was much more of a "cold warrior" than JFK. He wanted to up the US involvement in the war from simply advising the South Vietnamese. When the US ships Maddox and Turner Joy are attacked by North Vietnamese forces LBJ uses this to ask Congress for permission and funds to send boots on the ground. This gave the President enormous power and resulted increased action and even the signing of the War Powers Act. The war resulted in a distrust of the government as contributed to Nixons election.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    Lyndon B. Johnson signed this bill into law in order to ban discrimination in local, state, and national elections. It banned any literacy test, intimidation tactics, and any physical violence. More importantly it gave the gov. the ability to investigate and oversee elections in areas with poll taxes and where the voting registration is lower than 50% of the non-white population. Like the Civil Rights Act this was a monumental victory of the civil rights movement.
  • Election of 1968

    Election of 1968
    This election featured Richard Nixon(R) beating Hubert Humphrey(D). Richard's election showed how the American people felt about the war in Vietnam as well as LBJ's Great Society. Nixon was able to appeal to the "silent majority" and promised a return to law and order while also getting out of the conflict in Vietnam. This marked a major change in the political landscape of the US as apart from Jimmy Carter, Republicans would hold onto the WH until 1992. It also led to the US opening up China.
  • Watergate Scandal

    Watergate Scandal
    Richard Nixon had been elected into his second term by a landslide, the largest Rep victory during the Cold War. He had opened trade with China, Detente was forming, and his bombing strategy of North Vietnam had worked and negotiations were beginning to form. It all came crashing down as evidence of his men spying on Democratic campaigns and his attempted cover up were exposed. This destroyed the public's faith in the government and ended in Nixon's resignation after being impeached.