Apush timeline

  • The Seven Years War

    The Seven Years War
    As the colonies expanded westward away from the Atlantic, they encountered the French who controlled the territory west of the Appalachian mountains. The French refused to cede the territory and colonists refused to stop moving westward. War was inevitable and over the course of nine years, the British would clash with the French in America. The French were vastly outnumbered and capitulated. In the Treaty of Paris, France gave up massive amounts of territory to the West.
  • Stamp Act passed

    Stamp Act passed
    The Stamp act was a very unpopular tax placed on the colonies by Britain. The Stamp Act caused more resistance because it affected the wealthy and the influential the most. Merchants and transporters were hit hard by the stamp act as it taxed all legal documents. Some of the colony's most influential people were heavily involved in the trading of goods across the Atlantic and were not happy at how much tax they would have to pay. This would lead to them writing and spreading discontent.
  • The Boston Massacre

    The Boston Massacre
    As tensions rose in the colonies following various taxes and a large increase in British troops, protests began popping up in Boston. Colonists began to accost soldiers and one such incident would bring the conflict between Britain and America to the forefront. On a snowy night in Boston, several British soldiers were faced by a large crowd of locals who threw stones at them. The confusion and fear of violence led the soldiers to fire on the crowd. The Boston massacre enraged the colonies.
  • The Boston Tea Party

    The Boston Tea Party
    The unpopular taxes levied by Britain had led to major activist groups such as the Sons of Liberty taking drastic action. Led by Samuel Adams, a group of colonists stormed a ship filled with British tea and to protest higher taxes on tea, dumped all the cargo in the harbor. The total damages came out to a huge sum of money. This infuriated parliament who would take a much harder approach to the colonies.
  • The Intolerable Acts

    The Intolerable Acts
    After the events of the Boston Tea Party, an angry British parliament decided it was time to force the colonies to comply. The Coercive acts closed Boston's port, suspended the legislator and local government, and revoked the colonies charter. This completely crippled Massachusetts economy and led to widespread civil unrest. Some colonists believed that Britain had gone too far and in response to these laws, the first Continental Congress came together.
  • The Battle of Lexington and Concord

    The Battle of Lexington and Concord
    Believing that the colonists were preparing for an independence war, the British decided to seize what they believed to be an armory in Concord. When they reached Lexington, a small group of militia exchanged gunfire with them. Despite winning this first exchange, the British would soon find themselves surrounded by hostile colonists who would harass them until they retreated to Boston. Lives had been lost and for all intensive purposes, the American revolutionary war had begun.
  • The Battle of Trenton

    The Battle of Trenton
    After a string of military defeats, Washington was desperate for any kind of victory to show the war was winnable. An opportunity presented itself on Christmas when Washington noticed that a group of unprepared Hessian troops were camped on the other side of the Delaware river. After crossing the river with his army, Washington attacked the British and won a major victory, liberating the town of Trenton. This would begin a trend of military victories against the British and galvanize resistance.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    Now that the colonies were embroiled in a war with Britain, they needed some sort of government to fund an army and prosecute the war. The first attempt at an American government came from the Articles of Confederation. While they did create some federal government for the colonies, they gave over most of the power to the states. This would lead to an ineffective federal government that could not raise funds or maintain an army.
  • The Battle of Yorktown

    The Battle of Yorktown
    After the disaster at Saratoga, General Cornwallis believed that if he could defeat Washington, the war could still be won. His strategy was to lure Washington's army to the port of Yorktown and fight him on familiar ground. Unfortunately for him, the French had already captured Yorktown and he found himself caught between two armies. With no hope of victory, he surrendered. With the loss of Cornwallis's army, the war was effectively over.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    After years of war, it was clear that a war against America was unwinnable. With the French now involved and arriving in great numbers in America, the British decided to sign a peace treaty. The Treaty of Paris made Britain renounce all its territory to the west of the colonies and recognize American independence. Britain was allowed to keep Canada. With the war ended, America was now a real nation. However, its government was plagued with problems and the union was barely holding together.
  • Shays Rebellion

    Shays Rebellion
    After the revolutionary war, many soldiers who had gone without pay during the war returned to find themselves deeply in debt. Wealthy merchants and landowners dominated politics and extorted money from the poor. Angry veterans gathered behind Daniel Shay and formed militias. The Federal government was unable to put down this rebellion under the provisions of the Articles of Confederation. Instead, private armies funded by the wealthy put and end to the rebellion.
  • The Constitutional convention

    The Constitutional convention
    Shay's rebellion had shown the weakness of the Articles of Confederation and if the new country was to survive, they would need a stronger federal government. Delegates from the states met in Philadelphia to discuss a revision to the Articles. However, it was clear that the Articles were too flawed to be saved and it was decided that a new constitution was needed. This Constitution established a federal government with multiple branches and gave it the power to tax and create an army.
  • Judiciary Act of 1789

    Judiciary Act of 1789
    The new nation needed a new justice system to replace the vacuum that British magistrates had previously filled. The act established a new supreme court that could approve or stop laws based on constitutionality. Marbury v. Madison established the supreme courts ability to set precedents and use their power to interpret the constitution and apply it to all things.
  • The assumption of state debt

    The assumption of state debt
    With the states now united, it was time to consolidate the economy into one entity as opposed to thirteen states with thirteen economies. The first move by the federal government was to assume all state debt as repayment for their efforts during the war. This divided the nation as states like Virginia had already repaid their debt and worried their taxes were going to other states. This would start debate over the powers of the government dividing people between federalist and anti-federalist.
  • Creation of the National Bank

    Creation of the National Bank
    To help control the new American currency and provide money for the government, George Washington created an American National Bank. It stored the government's wealth and helped provide American businesses with loans. This was a great victory for the federalist cause and gave the federal government real power. Many anti-federalists were unhappy as they thought that states should have the power to create currency and hand out loans.
  • The XYZ Affair

    The XYZ Affair
    For their help in the Revolutionary War, the United States offered to help the French in a time of crisis. However, when the French revolution happened, the United States chose not to help. This soured relations between the two former allies and resulted in the XYZ affair. The French believed that the Americans were not worth talking to and refused to recognize them unless they were paid a massive amount of money. This was humiliating to John Adams and caused him to be even more unpopular.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    Alien and Sedition Acts
    John Adams's presidency was not nearly as successful as George Washington's. While George Washington had been able to keep the nation united, his death would lead to increasing factionalism within the democracy. John Adams would do everything in his power to ensure federalists like him held onto power. He would create the Alien and Sedition Acts which gave him the power to silence and deport opposition. This would make him deeply unpopular and ensure his loss against Jefferson.
  • Thomas Jefferson's election

    Thomas Jefferson's election
    John Adams's presidency was very unpopular and his desire to keep the federalists in power at all costs led to his defeat at the hands of Jefferson. Many believed that Adams would begin a civil war but just as Washington had done, there was a peaceful transition of power. Jefferson had a very different idea of the way the nation should run. He wanted minimal government intervention and a strict adherence to the constitution.
  • The Barbary Wars

    The Barbary Wars
    The federal government had gone to great lengths to ensure it could provide for an army but had failed to make any kind of navy. Jefferson attempted to avoid the issue but his hand was forced when Barbary pirates from Africa began raiding American merchants and ransoming crews. Jefferson reluctantly created the United States Navy and quickly put an end to the Barbary pirates dominance in the Mediterranean.
  • The Louisiana Purchase

    The Louisiana Purchase
    The French going into the 19th century were fighting a war with the majority of Europe. In need of money to fight the war, Napoleon offered to sell the entire Louisiana territory to America. Jefferson, who'd only wanted the port of New Orleans, initially wanted to refuse. He believed that he couldn't because it was not mentioned in the constitution. Ultimately, he sacrificed his values for the good of the nation. By buying Louisiana, Jefferson had doubled the size of the nation.
  • The Lewis and Clark expedition

    The Lewis and Clark expedition
    After the massive Louisiana purchase, Jefferson wanted to explore the new territories in preparation for expansion. Before the expedition, very little was known about the far west of the continent. Lewis and Clark would spend 2 years exploring with the help of Natives and a small company of frontiersmen. They would collect a variety of new wildlife and create a large amount of maps. This expedition would help provide insight on the west and reveal that the country was connected to the pacific.
  • Embargo Act of 1807

    Embargo Act of 1807
    Towards the end of Jefferson's presidency, tensions in Europe were rising in the aftermath of the French revolution. The Napoleonic Wars threatened to spill over into the Americas. After the Louisiana purchase, the British viewed America with increasing hostility and began impressing American sailors who were shipping goods to France. In response to this, Jefferson banned all international trade. This destroyed the American economy but did boost domestic production.
  • The Underground Railroad

    The Underground Railroad
    With the northern states abolishing slavery, some southern slaves believed that if they could escape to the north, they could be free. Many obstacles lay in their way however. Bounty hunters and local militia were constantly looking for runaway slaves and the punishment for running away was often barbaric. Northerners and Southerners who sympathized with the slaves cause allowed them to hide in their homes and guided them north. This was known as the underground railroad.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    Angered over British refusal to stop impressing American sailors, congress formally declared war for the first time in history. Both sides were unable to decisively beat the other and the war would end in stalemate. The war was seen as unimportant compared to the one in Europe and there were no real territorial gains. The British did launch one invasion which led to the burning of DC and destruction of the White House. The war also made Andrew Jackson famous for his victory at New Orleans.
  • Treaty of Ghent

    Treaty of Ghent
    After a few years of war, neither side could claim a decisive victory over the other and they remained in a stalemate. With the American economy suffering and the British fighting a massive war in Europe, both sides came together and made peace. The treaty restored pre-war borders and ended the practice of impressment. The Americans saw this as a triumph as they were able to stand up to a world power.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    After the wars conclusion, there was still fighting going on across America. It still took months for messages to cross the world and for those in America, the war was still on. The British in an attempt to capture the crucial port of New Orleans landed thousands of troops in the south. The only thing stopping them from taking the city was a general named Andrew Jackson and his small force of militia. By rapidly drafting the locals, Jackson built a fort and decisively defeated the British.
  • The Missouri Compromise

    The Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri Compromise was a federal legislation of the United States that balanced desires of northern states to prevent expansion of slavery in the country with those of southern states to expand it. Slave states were now restricted to be below the thirty sixth parallel. While this temporarily satisfied both sides, it led to many who felt forced to follow beliefs not their own. It also caused further division between north and south
  • The Election 1824

    The Election 1824
    The election of 1824 was a pivotal election as many saw Andrew Jackson as having a good chance of winning. Andrew Jackson promised radical change to the nation and some believed he would destroy the nation. The race was split between Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, and Jackson. Henry Clay dropped out of the race but gave support to Adams. Once Adams had won, he made Henry Clay secretary of state. This led many to call the election the corrupt bargain and Jackson vowed revenge.
  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    In a desperate attempt to please his northern voter base John Quincy Adams introduced an incredibly controversial set of tariffs. They aimed to incentivise Northern industrial growth by raising the prices of foreign goods. While this was moderately successful in the north, the south was dependent on imports for many things and had very little industry. These tariffs united the south against Adams and gave Jackson the majority he needed to win the upcoming election.
  • Andrew Jackson

    Andrew Jackson
    A war hero and renowned duelist, Jackson had won the hearts and minds of the south. His strictly anti federalist views were popular at the time his political opponent John Quincy Adams was deeply unpopular. By galvanizing the many who were against federal power, Jackson took power and set about creating a nation led by the states. His actions would have terrible repercussions and further divided an already fracturing nation.
  • Indian removal act

    Indian removal act
    As American settlers moved west they encountered growing numbers of Native Americans. These groups had relocated to the west where they had signed treaties with the American government that their land would be respected. These treaties were not enough to deter frontiersmen who would violently remove any natives in their way. Andrew Jackson decided to aid the frontiersman and would begin the process of forcibly removing native Americans from their homes and onto distant reservations.
  • Mormonism

    As the Second Great Awakening gripped America, many people were involving themselves in religion to a much greater degree. This led to a widespread growth in Protestantism but also the creation of new denominations. One of the more widely known ones was Mormonism. One Joseph Smith believed that he had been given a vision from god and decided to create his own church. Mormonism gained some followers, but was widely disliked because of how Joseph encouraged polygamy and other blasphemy.
  • The Bank War

    The Bank War
    One of the greatest evils of the federal government that Jackson had vehemently criticized was the federal bank. Jackson saw the bank as corrupt and as a way for foreign investors to invade American business. Jackson decided that it was time for the bank to end and vetoed renewing its charter. He then withdrew all of the money within it and redistributed it to the states. Hyperinflation followed soon after as states tried to fill the gap. The economy would suffer.
  • Nullification Crisis

    Nullification Crisis
    The Tariff of abominations had crippled the southern economy and many in the south believed that the north would never get rid of them. Citing the constitution, South Carolina nullified the tariffs declaring them unconstitutional and that any attempts to use force would result in secession. Andrew Jackson favored a military response which could have plunged the nation into civil war but instead was convinced to simple repeal the tariffs. This made secession an option for future problems.
  • The Taney Court

    The Taney Court
    After the death of John Marshall, Robert Taney was appointed as chief justice of the supreme court. The arrival of Taney would see a major shift in the political leanings of the court. Taney would oversee many controversial and damaging decisions that would restrict American rights and give power to state governments. He was largely responsible for legalizing African American oppression and perpetuating slavery.
  • The Trail of Tears

    The Trail of Tears
    As settlers pushed further westward, they encountered massive tribes inhabiting the plains. The government decided it was time for these tribes to move again. Large numbers of federal troops moved onto Native American lands and began the long process of relocation. Tribes were moved far to the west onto undesired land to make room for settlers. Federal troops used violence to move groups and killed anyone who resisted. A staggering number of natives died on the journey west.
  • The Mexican American War

    The Mexican American War
    Tensions over the disputed territory in Texas and settler encroachment on Mexican lands, the U.S went to war and decisively beat the Mexicans. In a series of major victories, American troops would make it all the way to the capital of Mexico. This would establish American supremacy over the Americas once and for all and destroy the Mexican empire.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    By this point, a civil war seemed almost inevitable. The issue of slavery had driven the north and south to far apart for any real reconciliation but in a last attempt to bring the nation together, Henry Clay proposed a compromise. This compromise allowed states to choose whether they would be free or slave through voting and allowed southerners to recapture slaves in the north. Both sides benefited from this but it wasn't enough to stave off a war.
  • Dred Scott vs. Sanford

    Dred Scott vs. Sanford
    Dred Scott v. Sandford was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court that held the U.S. Constitution did not extend American citizenship to people of black African descent, enslaved or free; thus, they could not enjoy the rights and privileges the Constitution conferred upon American citizens. The Supreme Court's decision has been widely denounced, both for its overt racism and for its crucial role in the start of the American Civil War four years later.
  • Election of Abraham Lincoln

    Election of Abraham Lincoln
    Lincoln was deeply unpopular in the south for his distaste of slavery. Despite not appearing on southern ballots, he overwhelmingly won the election. Abraham Lincoln was an American lawyer, politician, and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War and succeeded in preserving the Union, abolishing slavery, bolstering the federal government, and modernizing the U.S. economy.
  • South Carolina secedes

    South Carolina secedes
    Tired of northern insolence and with the imminent threat of losing their slaves, South Carolina became the first of many states to secede from the union. They believed that the constitution allowed for states to leave whenever they wanted to. These newly separated states joined together to form the Confederacy which was built on the principle of slavery. Abraham Lincoln saw no other option than to destroy the rebels. The Civil war had begun.
  • Ironclads

    One major advantage the Union had over the Confederacy was in its naval power. The Confederates would struggle to dislodge union blockades. In an attempt to gain complete supremacy, both sides uses iron clads for the first time in history. These steel ships were the first real battle ships of today and were much stronger than the previously used wooden ships.
  • Homestead Act

    Homestead Act
    To encourage western expansion, Lincoln decided to start handing out land for free. The Homestead Acts were several laws in the United States by which an applicant could acquire ownership of government land or the public domain, typically called a homestead. In all, more than 160 million acres of public land, or nearly 10 percent of the total area of the United States, was given away free to 1.6 million homesteaders; most of the homesteads were west of the Mississippi River.
  • The Emancipation Proclamation

    The Emancipation Proclamation
    Seeing a chance to destroy the institution he hated in the name of unifying the nation, Abraham Lincoln created the Emancipation Proclamation. It served as a radical statement to the nation and made the war about ending slavery. Foreign powers who were supporting the Confederates backed out since as they had also abolished slavery. Many former slaves and African Americans would rush into the fight and the Confederacy would only lose from here.
  • The Battle of Gettysburg

    The Battle of Gettysburg
    The Battle of Gettysburg, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. In the battle, Union Major General George Meade's Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, halting Lee's invasion of the North. The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the entire war and is often described as the war's turning point.
  • Appomattox Court House

    Appomattox Court House
    The Confederates had suffered a string of major defeats. The Battle of Appomattox Court House, fought in Appomattox County, Virginia, on the morning of April 9, 1865, was one of the last battles of the American Civil War. It was the final engagement of Confederate General in Chief, Robert E. Lee, and his Army of Northern Virginia before they surrendered to the Union Army of the Potomac under the Commanding General of the United States Army, Ulysses S. Grant.
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, was assassinated by well-known stage actor John Wilkes Booth, while attending the play Our American Cousin at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C. Shot in the head as he watched the play. Lincoln died the following day at 7:22 am in the Petersen House opposite the theater. He was the first U.S. president to be assassinated, with his funeral and burial marking an extended period of national mourning. The Civil War ended shortly after.
  • Reconstruction

    The Reconstruction era was a period in American history following the American Civil War and lasting until approximately the Compromise of 1877. During Reconstruction, attempts were made to rebuild the country after the bloody Civil War, bring the former Confederate states back into the United States, and to redress the political, social, and economic legacies of slavery. These attempts were successful at burying the old status quo but some element of southern independence remained.
  • Purchase of Alaska

    Purchase of Alaska
    The purchase of Alaska in 1867 marked the end of Russian efforts to expand trade and settlements to the Pacific coast of North America, and became an important step in the United States rise as a great power in the Asia-Pacific region. Russia offered to sell Alaska to the United States in 1859, believing the United States would off-set the designs of Russia’s greatest rival in the Pacific, Great Britain.
  • 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments

    13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments
    Over the course of a few years, America rid itself of slavery and amended the constitution by making every American a citizen regardless of race. The 13th amendment freed all American slaves and abolished slavery. The 14th amendment gave every American citizen the full protection of the law and guaranteed everyone personal liberties. Finally, the 15th amendment gave African Americans the right to vote. Though sometimes ignored, these amendments were revolutionary for the nation.
  • Women's Christian Temperance Union

    Women's Christian Temperance Union
    The stated purpose of the WCTU was to create a "sober and pure world" by abstinence, purity, and evangelical Christianity. Annie Wittenmyer was its first president. Wittenmyer was conservative in her goals for the movement focussing only on the question of alcohol consumption and avoiding involvement in politics. The constitution of the WCTU called for "the entire prohibition of the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors as a beverage."
  • Jim Crow Laws

    Jim Crow Laws
    The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enforcing racial segregation in the Southern United States. One of the strangest things about the career of Jim Crow was that the system was born in the North and reached an advanced age before moving South in force.These laws would remain enforced for decades and provided a legal way to keep African Americans segregated from everyone else. This discrimination was backed up by the supreme court and lawmakers.
  • The Tuskegee University

    The Tuskegee University
    Tuskegee University (Tuskegee or TU), formerly known as the Tuskegee Institute, is a private, historically black land-grant university in Tuskegee, Alabama. The school began as the Normal School for Colored Teachers at Tuskegee in a tiny space at the Butler Chapel. The university suffered discrimination and a lack of funding due to lingering confederate sentiment. Over time though, the university would expand and provide Southern African Americans an opportunity for higher education.
  • Haymarket Square Riot

    Haymarket Square Riot
    The Haymarket Riot was when a labor protest rally near Chicago’s Haymarket Square turned into a riot after someone threw a bomb at police. At least eight people died as a result of the violence that day. Despite a lack of evidence against them, eight radical labor activists were convicted in connection with the bombing. The Haymarket Riot was viewed as a setback for the organized labor movement in America, but at the same time, many in the labor movement viewed the convicted men as martyrs.
  • The Dawes Act

    The Dawes Act
    This act allowed the federal government to break up tribal lands. The federal government aimed to assimilate Native Americans into mainstream US society by encouraging them towards farming and agriculture, which meant dividing tribal lands into individual plots. Only the Native Americans who accepted the division of tribal lands were allowed to become US citizens. This ended in the government stripping over 90 million acres of tribal land from Native Americans.
  • Wounded Knee massacre

    Wounded Knee massacre
    The Wounded Knee Massacre, also known as the Battle of Wounded Knee, was a massacre of nearly three hundred Lakota people. In a misunderstanding that occurred while American troops were disarming the tribe led to the wholesale slaughter of innocent women and children as well as several soldiers. The public's indifference to the massacre shows how anti native American sentiment was widespread during this time.
  • Sherman Anti-trust act

    Sherman Anti-trust act
    The Sherman Act outlaws every contract, combination, or conspiracy in restraint of trade, and any monopolization, attempted monopolization, or conspiracy or combination to monopolize. It was aimed at the massive companies that used predatory practices to maintain control over entire markets and shut down competition. This led to unfair labor practices and a massive wealth gap. The anti-trust act would start to break up these monopolies.
  • How the Other Half Lives

    How the Other Half Lives
    How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York, is an early publication of photojournalism by Jacob Riis, documenting squalid living conditions in New York City slums in the 1880s. The photographs served as a basis for future "muckraking" journalism by exposing the slums to New York City's upper and middle classes. They inspired many reforms of working-class housing, both immediately after publication as well as making a lasting impact in today's society.
  • The Populist Party

    The Populist Party
    The People's Party, also known as the Populist Party or simply the Populists, was a left-wing[2] agrarian populist[3] political party in the United States in the late 19th century. The Populist Party emerged in the early 1890s as an important force in the Southern and Western United States, but collapsed after it nominated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in the 1896 United States presidential election. It failed to have the same mass appeal as the democratic and republican parties.
  • The Pullman Strike

    The Pullman Strike
    As a result of economic recession and low wages, many workers and their families faced starvation. When a delegation of Pullman workers tried to present their grievances about low wages, poor living conditions, and 16-hour workdays directly to the company’s president, George M. Pullman, he refused to meet with them and ordered them fired. The delegation then voted to strike. The strike was massive but devolved quickly into violence leading to federal troops being called in and occupying Chicago.
  • Plessy vs Ferguson

    Plessy vs Ferguson
    Plessy v. Ferguson was a decision that upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation under the “separate but equal” doctrine. The case stemmed from an incident in which African American train passenger Homer Plessy refused to sit in a car for Black people. Rejecting Plessy’s argument, the Supreme Court ruled that a law that “implies merely a legal distinction” between white people and Black people was not unconstitutional. As a result, public accommodations based on race became common.
  • Annexation of Hawaii

    Annexation of Hawaii
    The overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom was a coup d'état against Queen Liliʻuokalani, which took place on January 17, 1893, on the island of Oahu. A group of Americans on the island prevailed upon American minister John L. Stevens to call in the U.S. Marines to protect the national interest of the United States of America. The insurgents established the Republic of Hawaii, but their ultimate goal was the annexation of the islands to the United States.
  • USS Maine explodes

    USS Maine explodes
    Maine was a United States Navy ship that sank in Havana Harbor on February 15, 1898, contributing to the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in April. U.S. newspapers, engaging in yellow journalism to boost circulation, claimed that the Spanish were responsible for the ship's destruction. The phrase, "Remember the Maine! To hell with Spain!" became a rallying cry for action. The Maine explosion served as a catalyst that accelerated the events leading up to the war.
  • 1898 Treaty of Paris

    1898 Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris officially ended the Spanish-American War. The once-proud Spanish empire was virtually dissolved as the United States took over much of Spain’s overseas holdings. Puerto Rico and Guam were ceded to the United States, the Philippines were bought for $20 million, and Cuba became a U.S. protectorate. Philippine insurgents who fought against Spanish rule during the war immediately turned their guns against the new occupiers leading to countless American deaths in the fighting.
  • Theodore Roosevelt

    Theodore Roosevelt
    Theodore Roosevelt Jr. often referred to as Teddy or by his initials, T. R., was an American politician, statesman, soldier, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He previously served as the 25th vice president under President William McKinley from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd governor of New York from 1899 to 1900. His presidency would be one of great success.
  • Wright Brothers First Flight

    Wright Brothers First Flight
    The Wright Brothers were inventors who had for years experimented with airplanes. They made the first controlled, sustained flight of a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft with the Wright Flyer on December 17, 1903, 4 mi (6 km) south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, at what is now known as Kill Devil Hills. The brothers were also the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible.
  • Panama Canal

    Panama Canal
    The Panama Canal is an artificial 82 km waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean and divides North and South America. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a conduit for maritime trade. One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects ever undertaken, the Panama Canal shortcut greatly reduces the time for ships to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, enabling them to avoid the lengthy, hazardous Cape Horn route.
  • The Jungle

    The Jungle
    The Jungle is a narrative fiction by American muckraker novelist Upton Sinclair. Sinclair's primary purpose in describing the meat industry and its working conditions was to advance socialism in the United States.However, most readers were more concerned with several passages exposing health violations and unsanitary practices in the American meat-packing industry during the early 20th century, which greatly contributed to a public outcry that led to reforms including the Meat Inspection Act.
  • Antiquities act

    Antiquities act
    The Antiquities Act was signed into law by President Theodore Roosevelt during his second term in office. The act resulted from concerns about protecting mostly prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts -- collectively termed "antiquities" -- on federal lands in the West, such as at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Removal of artifacts from these lands by private collectors, "pot hunters," had become a serious problem by the end of the 19th century.
  • The Pure Food and Drug Act

    The Pure Food and Drug Act
    The Jungle revealed food adulteration and unsanitary practices in meat production, public outrage prompted Congress to establish federal responsibility for public health and welfare. The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 prohibited the sale of misbranded or adulterated food and drugs in interstate commerce and laid a foundation for the nation’s first consumer protection agency, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

    The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)[a] is a civil rights organization in the United States. Its mission in the 21st century was "to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate race-based discrimination". The organization worked hard organizing protests and civil disobedience to protest the discrimination prevalent in the south.
  • Federal Reserve

    Federal Reserve
    The Federal Reserve System (“Fed”) is the central bank of the United States. Congress established three key objectives for monetary policy in the Federal Reserve Act: maximizing employment, stabilizing prices, and moderating long-term interest rates. It helped instill greater faith in the government and control inflation. it was made in response to several financial panics and the looming threat of The Great War.
  • The first Billionaire

    The first Billionaire
    Rockefeller became the country's first billionaire, with a fortune worth nearly 2% of the national economy. He was the owner of standard oil which was the world's largest oil producing company. His personal wealth was estimated in 1913 at $900 million, which was almost 3% of the US GDP of $39.1 billion that year. That was his peak net worth, and amounts to $24.7 billion.
  • Zimmerman Telegram

    Zimmerman Telegram
    While there were several reasons the US entered the war like the Lusitania and submarine warfare, the Zimmerman telegram was a step too far. In January 1917, British cryptographers deciphered a telegram from German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmermann to the German Minister to Mexico, Heinrich von Eckhardt, offering United States territory to Mexico in return for joining the German cause. This was seen as an act of war and the U.S quickly set about joining the world wars.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles, signed in 1919 at the Palace of Versailles in Paris at the end of World War I, codified peace terms between Germany and the victorious Allies. The Treaty of Versailles held Germany responsible for starting the war and imposed harsh penalties on the Germans, including loss of territory, massive reparations payments and demilitarization. This went against the ideas that U.S. President Woodrow Wilson had outlined in his famous Fourteen Points in early 1918.
  • Prohibition

    Prohibition was the legal prevention of the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages in the United States from 1920 to 1933 under the terms of the Eighteenth Amendment. Although the temperance movement, which was widely supported, had succeeded in bringing about this legislation, millions of Americans were willing to drink liquor (distilled spirits) illegally. Organized crime and moon shining became commonplace as people sought alcohol.
  • The Harlem Renaissance

    The Harlem Renaissance
    A large movement in the African American movement of art, literature, music, and civil rights. There are many writers still being read from this period, and Jazz very quickly became mainstream. This was a strong movement of black pride and self recognition. Notable people being Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Louis Armstrong, Marcus Garvey, and Bessie Smith.
  • Model T Ford

    Model T Ford
    The Model T was sold by the Ford Motor Company. The Model T was actually affordable and it became so popular at one point that a majority of Americans owned one, directly helping rural Americans become more connected with the rest of the country and leading to the numbered highway system. The manufacturing needs of the Model T went hand in hand with Ford’s revolutionary modernization of the manufacturing process.
  • Black Tuesday

    Black Tuesday
    The Stock Market Crash of 1929 occurred on October 29, 1929, when Wall Street investors traded some 16 million shares on the New York Stock Exchange in a single day. Billions of dollars were lost, wiping out thousands of investors. In the aftermath of that event America and the rest of the industrialized world spiraled downward into the Great Depression, the deepest and longest-lasting economic downturn in the history of the Western industrialized world up to that time.
  • The Dust Bowl

    The Dust Bowl
    The Dust Bowl was the name given to the drought-stricken southern plains region of the United States, which suffered severe dust storms during a drought in the 1930s. As high winds and choking dust swept the region from Texas to Nebraska, people and livestock were killed and crops failed across the entire region. The Dust Bowl intensified the crushing economic impacts of the Great Depression and drove many farming families on a desperate migration in search of work and better living conditions.
  • Smoot Hawley Tariff

    Smoot Hawley Tariff
    The Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act raised import duties to protect American businesses and farmers, adding considerable strain to the international economic climate of the Great Depression. Smoot-Hawley contributed to the early loss of confidence on Wall Street and signaled U.S. isolationism. Nations around the world matched American tariffs and caused the global market to collapse. Unemployment and homelessness would spike and would take years to recede.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt

    Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Franklin D. Roosevelt was in his second term as governor of New York when he was elected as the nation’s 32nd president in 1932. With the country mired in the depths of the Great Depression, Roosevelt immediately acted to restore public confidence, proclaiming a bank holiday and speaking directly to the public in a series of radio broadcasts or “fireside chats.” His ambitious slate of New Deal programs and reforms redefined the role of the federal government in the lives of Americans.
  • WPA ( Works Progress Administration )

    WPA ( Works Progress Administration )
    The WPA was an ambitious employment and infrastructure program created by President Franklin Roosevelt during the bleakest days of the Great Depression. Over its eight years of existence, the WPA put roughly 8.5 million Americans to work building schools, hospitals, roads and other public works. Perhaps best known for its public works projects, the WPA also sponsored projects in the arts—the agency employed tens of thousands of actors, musicians, writers and other artists.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    Pearl Harbor is a U.S. naval base near Honolulu, Hawaii, was attacked by the Japanese on December 7, 1941. On that Sunday morning, hundreds of Japanese fighter planes descended on the base, where they managed to destroy or damage nearly 20 American naval vessels, and over 300 airplanes. More than 2,400 Americans died in the attack, including civilians, and another 1,000 people were wounded. The day after the assault, President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan.
  • D-Day

    The Battle of Normandy, resulted in the Allied liberation of Western Europe from Nazi Germany’s control. Codenamed Operation Overlord, the battle began on June 6, 1944, also known as D-Day, when some 156,000 American, British and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of France’s Normandy region. The invasion was one of the largest amphibious military assaults in history and required extensive planning.
  • GI Bill of Rights

    GI Bill of Rights
    A huge piece of legislature that redefined American values. After serving in WW2, soldiers would come home to an education, trade school or college, low interest home loans, low interest business loans. Not only did it help to employ those 18 1/2 million who served, it also gave opportunity rather than money or jobs for those soldiers to create a good life. Because of this an emphasis was placed on higher education and it supports the American Dream.
  • End of the World War 2

    End of the World War 2
    In the West this was months after D-Day and the taking back of Europe, Hitler committed suicide, and the Germans were defeated. In the east this did not end until the second atomic bomb was dropped on Japan. At the end, importantly, the USSR did not leave eastern Europe as well as took over places like Afghanistan and other nations. This leads to Eastern Europe falling under an Iron Curtain and the start of the Cold War.
  • The Berlin Airlift

    The Berlin Airlift
    Berlin was divided between the Western powers and the Soviet Union. The Russians, who wanted Berlin all for themselves, closed all highways, railroads and canals from western-occupied Germany into western-occupied Berlin. Instead of retreating from West Berlin, however, the U.S. and its allies decided to supply their sectors of the city from the air. This effort, known as the “Berlin Airlift,” lasted for more than a year and carried more than 2.3 million tons of cargo into West Berlin.
  • The Korean War

    The Korean War
    The Korean war began when some 75,000 soldiers from the North Korean People’s Army poured across the 38th parallel into South Korea. American troops entered the war on South Korea’s behalf. As far as American officials were concerned, it was a war against the forces of international. Russian and Chinese troops would also swarm into Korea in large numbers leading to millions of deaths and a stalemate along the 38th parallel. Korea was the first major proxy war between ideologies.
  • McCarthyism

    The Red Scare was hysteria over the perceived threat posed by Communists in the U.S. during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States. Federal employees were analyzed to determine whether they were sufficiently loyal to the government, and the House Un-American Activities Committee, as well as U.S. Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, investigated allegations of subversive elements in the government and the Hollywood film industry.
  • Brown V Board

    Brown V Board
    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka was a landmark Supreme Court case in which the justices ruled unanimously that racial segregation of children in public schools was unconstitutional. Brown v. Board of Education was one of the cornerstones of the civil rights movement, and helped establish the precedent that “separate-but-equal” education and other services were not, in fact, equal at all. A major victory for civil rights.
  • The Vietnam War

    The Vietnam War
    The Vietnam War was a long, costly and divisive conflict that pitted the communist government of North Vietnam against South Vietnam and its principal ally, the United States. The conflict was intensified by the ongoing Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. The U.S used massive amounts of ordnance and chemical weapons killing millions of Vietnamese civilians. The war ended with an American withdrawal and a communist victory.
  • National Interstate and Defense highways act

    National Interstate and Defense highways act
    An act passed under Eisenhower that not only would interconnect major cities throughout America, supporting its automotive industry, as well as commerce and had a military background. The roads could be use as landing strips and to help evacuate cities in case of attacks or nukes. This greatly improved automotive sales as well as the commerce between cities. However it worked like rivers and railroads, as it took the life out of smaller, not connected towns.
  • Launch of Sputnik

    Launch of Sputnik
    The Soviet Union inaugurated the “Space Age” with its launch of Sputnik, the world’s first artificial satellite, on October 4, 1957. The spacecraft, named Sputnik after the Russian word for “fellow traveler.” This led to an intense fear in the U.S that the Soviets were going to attack from space and started the Space Race. This would last decades as the two nations desperately tried to beat each other to major milestones.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis

    The Cuban Missile Crisis
    During the Cuban Missile Crisis, leaders of the U.S. and the Soviet Union engaged in a tense, 13-day political and military standoff. This was over the installation of nuclear-armed Soviet missiles on Cuba, just 90 miles from U.S. shores. A war seemed inevitable as Kennedy blockaded the island. However, disaster was avoided when the U.S. agreed to Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev’s offer to remove the Cuban missiles in exchange for the U.S. promising not to invade Cuba.
  • The March on Washington

    The March on Washington
    This happened right after the summer of 1963 in Birmingham where King was arrested. This was the culmination of all the protesting, lawsuits, deaths, and segregation in the South. MLK was the keynote speaker and delivered his famous I have a dream speech. Around 250,000 people showed up in support, and it was a sign of an end to the conflict. With such overwhelming support from the people, it was only a matter of time before the segregationist system would be dismantled.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    The legislature signed into by Johnson, however drafted by JFK that was to give everyone equality. Stating " prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin". However this was met with not enough compliance and voting was still very restricted. Southern politicians used various taxes like literacy tests to prevent African Americans from voting. This led to the Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Voting RIghts Act of 1965

    Voting RIghts Act of 1965
    The last of legislation that enforces the voting rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, barring any voting poles or tests. This however was not the end of the movement as later groups like the Nation of Islam, Black Panthers, and Malcom X came and went. It did help lift many barriers to voting in the south making any form of poll tax or test illegal. Any state in violation would be barred from Congress.
  • The Lunar Landing

    The Lunar Landing
    On July 20, 1969, American astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin became the first humans ever to land on the moon. About six-and-a-half hours later, Armstrong became the first person to walk on the moon. As he took his first step, Armstrong famously said, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." This officially ended the Space Race and not many more attempts were made at landing on the moon afterwards.
  • Creation of EPA

    Creation of EPA
    The Environmental Protection Agency was created in response to the dawning realization that human activity can have major effects on the planet. Created in response to the dawning realization that human activity can have major effects on the planet. The EPA would monitor pollution and continually report on climate change and environmental conditions.
  • Watergate

    The Watergate scandal began when several burglars were arrested in the office of the Democratic National Committee, located in the Watergate complex of buildings in Washington, D.C. This was no ordinary robbery: The prowlers were connected to President Richard Nixon’s reelection campaign, and they had been caught wiretapping phones and stealing documents. Nixon took aggressive steps to cover up the crimes. With the house threatening impeachment Nixon decided to resign leaving Ford as president.
  • Reagan

    Dubbed the Great Communicator, the affable Reagan became a popular two-term president. He cut taxes, increased defense spending, negotiated a nuclear arms reduction agreement with the Soviets and is credited with helping to bring a quicker end to the Cold War. Though his policy of trickle down economics did not work, the economy which had been struggling started to improve. He also helped bring about a conclusion to the cold war by weakening the Soviet economy.