APUSH review (Walker/Franklin)

  • Period: 1491 to

    Period 1-2 (1491-1763)

    Exploration, colonization, revolutionary war buildup
  • 1492

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus
    Christopher Columbus sails under the Spanish flag searching for quicker water route to Asia. He finds the Americas instead and is coined for being the person who discovered the Americas.
  • 1497

    John Cabot claims Newfoundland, Grandbanks

    John Cabot claims Newfoundland, Grandbanks
    The first English attempt at colonization and exploration in the Americas. This is in North America, near Canada and doesn't succeed but it's a start.
  • Defeat of Spanish Armada

    Defeat of Spanish Armada
    England supports Netherlands in a war vs Spain. This ends the English and Spanish relationships, which encourages England to colonize.
  • Jamestown

    Jamestown
    Formed by the Virginia company and Plymouth company this is the first permanent English settlement. After loads of struggle they introduced the cash crop tobacco which led them to success.
  • Massachusetts School Laws

    Massachusetts School Laws
    In Massachusetts law was passed stating that i a town had 50 families it needed a teacher, and if a town had 100 families it needed a school. This was very important because it started the need for education in the colonies.
  • Pennsylvania Colony

    Pennsylvania Colony
    William Penn starts colony because of a debt owed by the crown to his father. Quakerism, and pacifism are practiced, with religious freedoms that weren't common in other colonies.
  • Anglo-Dutch Wars

    Anglo-Dutch Wars
    The dutch settled New York from the period 1613-25, and it was called new Netherlands. Due to the wars the land was granted by Charles to the Duke of York, and the east coast of north America was primarily under British control.
  • French and Indian War Starts

    French and Indian War Starts
    French Settlers move into Ohio River Valley, starting conflict between Native American and English Trade. This was creates the negative views between colonists and England that enhance the revolutionary war.
  • Albany plan

    Albany plan
    First proposal for a colonial government, and a union of the colonies. Created by Ben Franklin but it wasn't used.
  • Salutary Neglect Ends

    Salutary Neglect Ends
    At the end of the French and Indian war the practice of salutary neglect ends. England believes the colonists didn't do enough in the war, and they can't be trusted in following British law, so they get involved in he colonies much more.
  • Proclamation Act

    Proclamation Act
    Colonists weren't allowed to go west of the Appalachian mountains. This was passed so Britain could control the colonies easier, and the colonies only so this as temporary.
  • Period: to

    Period 3 (1763-1800)

    Revolutionary war, independence
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    Tax on everyday items, affecting most colonists. Colonist response lead to more unity and shared ideas that unified violence will bring forth change.
  • Townshend Acts

    Townshend Acts
    Tax on lead, glass, tea, paper, and paint. Colonist respond with another circular letter, brings boycotts and more unity.
  • Tea Act

    Tea Act
    Attempt to save the British East India Tea co, shutting down every tea company except for it. Colonists didn't except the tea from the company, provoked the Boston tea party.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    In response to the tea act, colonists dressed up as native Americans and boarded a British ship with thousands of lbs of tea. They dumped it all into the harbor as a protest.
  • Intolerable Acts

    Intolerable Acts
    Purpose was to punish Boston. The Boston Port Act closed the Boston port and the Massachusetts government act banned the Massachusetts assembly from meeting.
  • Battle of Lexington and Concord

    Battle of Lexington and Concord
    First battle of the revolutionary war. Colonists win, Britain proposes a way for peace where the colonists will tax themselves on parliaments demand but colonists deny it.
  • Second Continental Congress

    Second Continental Congress
    The leaders of the colonists met in Philadelphia to discuss important things. Most importantly they made George Washington the leader of the continental army.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    Turning point in the war. The French alliance was created.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    The last official battle of the revolutionary war. Cornwallis is surrounded and he surrenders at Yorktown.
  • Articles of Confederation Ratified

    Articles of Confederation Ratified
    Proposed in 1777, it was Americas first plan of government. It was very weak, not having a national currency, the ability to tax, no power to regulate interstate trade and many more flaws.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Treaty concluding the war and granting the colonies independence. Colonies borders were set to the Mississippi river.
  • Shays Rebellion

    Shays Rebellion
    An armed uprising in Massachusetts. This event challenged the articles of confederation and triggers change in the government.
  • Constitution Ratified

    Constitution Ratified
    Written by James Madison, the constitution becomes Americas official framework of government. This includes a system of checks and balances
  • Washington's Presidency

    Washington's Presidency
    George Washington was elected in 1789 and served until 1796. He established the two term precedent, he legitimized the national government and set the tone for US foreign policy.
  • Period: to

    Period 4 pt 1 (1800-1824)

    Era of Good Feelings, early westward migration, agricultural revolution
  • Marbury vs Madison

    Marbury vs Madison
    Case that established judicial review in the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court can decide what is constitutional or not.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    Napoleon sells the US the Louisiana territory, expanding US territory westward. Lewis and Clark are sent to explore the new lands.
  • Burr & Madison Duel

    Burr & Madison Duel
    Aaron Burr challenged Alexander Hamilton to a duel, Burr shoots Hamilton, and Hamilton eventually dies. Burr attempts to get European armies and take back the Louisiana purchase, but none of his attempts work, and he is eventually arrested for treason.
  • Embargo of 1807

    Embargo of 1807
    Recent problems with Britain and France led Thomas Jefferson to put in place an embargo, canceling trade with any other nation. This ends up hurting the US more than they anticipated, and political views on Jefferson are hurt.
  • Macons Bill #2

    Macons Bill #2
    James Madison plan to settle things with Britain and France, saying one gets an embargo, and one gets free trade, whoever says yes 1st gets trade. Leads to the war of 1812
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    Fought between the US and Great Britain and their respected allies. Britain still attacked US ships even though US had positioned neutrality, and many young Americans were excited for war.
  • Election of 1816

    Election of 1816
    James Monroe wins, but the federalist party is dying. The 1st party system is changing into the second party system, and the Era of Good Feelings is the time between the two systems.
  • Adams Onis treaty

    Adams Onis treaty
    US buys Florida for $5 million from Spain. Spain also gives up their claim for the Oregon territory and the northern boundary for Spanish territory is clear.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    As new states were added they had to be slave or free, and this issue came up a lot. Missouri was to be a slave state, Maine was created as free to keep a balance, and the 36 30 line was put into place.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    Written by John Quincy Adams setting US foreign policy. Ideas expressed included encouraging other democracies and limiting European influence in the western hemisphere.
  • Period: to

    Period 4 pt 2 (1824-1848)

    Jacksonian Democracy, westward expansion, the second great awakening, early reform movements, 2nd party system.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    Signed into law by Andrew Jackson, this forced Native Americans to move west passed the Mississippi river. This leads to the Trail of Tears.
  • Death of "King Caucus"

    Death of "King Caucus"
    The caucus system was replaced by political conventions in the election process. The purpose of this was to make the election process more democratic.
  • Nullification Crisis

    Nullification Crisis
    South Carolina and other southern states opposed a national tariff that supported northern industry. S.C declared the tariff void in their state, Jackson lowered the tariff because he didn't want any state to secede.
  • Jacksonian Democracy

    Jacksonian Democracy
    Jacksonian democracy was all about the common man, increasing national suffrage for white males. Also his presidency increased national power, and sectionalism.
  • Birth of the Whigs

    Birth of the Whigs
    The Whig party was created at the end of Andrew Jackson's 2nd term, also creating the US second party system. Whigs didn't like Jackson, were often states rights advocates and northern industrialists.
  • Period: to

    Period 5 (1844-1877)

    Civil War, Abolition, Reconstruction, Industrialization
  • Annexation of Texas

    Annexation of Texas
    One of James K. Polk's accomplishments he achieved that was on his platform was annexing Texas. The territory was a very large addition to the US and key to the start of The Mexican War.
  • US offer to purchase land from Mexico

    US offer to purchase land from Mexico
    The US offer to purchase land from mexico that many Americans lived in, these places were California and New Mexico. Mexico declines, and the secretary of war prompts Californians to rebel against Mexico.
  • Oregon Treaty

    Oregon Treaty
    Treaty between the US and Great Britain, establishing a border at the 49th parallel in the Oregon territory. The US had the south and GB got the North,
  • Bear Flag Revolt

    Bear Flag Revolt
    American citizens living in the Sacramento valley revolt against Mexican authorities. Californians join US troops in The Mexican War
  • Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo
    Treaty ending the Mexican War. The US got all the land they wanted, and future civil war generals got important experience in this war.
  • Kansas/Nebraska Bill

    Kansas/Nebraska Bill
    Proposed by Stephen Douglas, arguing that the transcontinental railroad should go through a middle territory instead of the south. The middle territory would be split into two states, Nebraska and Kansas and they would determine slave or not by popular sovereignty.
  • Formation of the Republican Party

    Formation of the Republican Party
    The Republican Party is formed, replacing the Whig Party. They run on a "free soil" platform on slavery, and are made up of the north.
  • Sumner Brooks Incident

    Sumner Brooks Incident
    Preston Brooks, a South Carolina representative, physically beats Charles Sumner, a Massachusetts senator, at the senate building. Southerners rejoice over the incident, and tensions are very high.
  • Missouri Kansas Border Wars

    Missouri Kansas Border Wars
    The new states were decided to be free or slave by popular sovereignty, and this lead to violence between supporters of both sides. The sacking of Lawrence was an attack on an abolitionist town, and the Pottawatomie Massacre was led by John Brown and they killed pro slavery people.
  • John Browns Raid

    John Browns Raid
    An abolitionist raid at Harpers Ferry Virginia led by John Brown. They planned to break into an arsenal, steal weapons and rescue slaves, but they got caught and were hung for treason.
  • South Carolina Secession

    South Carolina Secession
    After Lincoln wins the presidency without a single electoral vote from the south it is clear war is on the way. South Carolina secedes, followed by GA, AL, FL in January, and MS, LA, and TX in February.
  • Attack on Fort Sumter

    Attack on Fort Sumter
    Union fort near Charleston was bombarded by the confederacy. The south takes control of the fort and the battle starts the civil war.
  • The Emancipation Proclamation

    The Emancipation Proclamation
    In areas of rebellion slaves are free, and African Americans can join the Union army. It makes the war centered on ending slavery, rather than preserving the union, and it makes Britain not join forces with the south.
  • Vicksburg

    Vicksburg
    Vicksburg was the only place on the Mississippi River held by the confederates. Grant surrounds the city and takes it over, completing the anaconda plan, it was the turning point in the west.
  • Gettysburg

    Gettysburg
    Turning point of war, 3 day battle at Gettysburg Pennsylvania. Largest casualty count of any battle, but the Union wins.
  • Appomattox Courthouse

    Appomattox Courthouse
    Sherman pushes from south east, Grant pushes from the west, cornering Robert E. Lee in the town of Appomattox Courthouse. The confederacy surrenders, ending the war.
  • 13th amendment ratified

    13th amendment ratified
    Slavery was the main reason the civil war was fought, and in the wake of union victory the 13th amendment was ratified, abolishing slavery.
  • Lincoln Assassination

    Lincoln Assassination
    Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at the Ford Theater, making Andrew Johnson president, a democrat. Abe Lincolns plan for reconstruction couldn't go through, so the the process of reconstruction was much different without him in charge,
  • Period: to

    Period 6

    Gilded Age, Early Labor Movement, Urban development, Industrialization.
  • 14th Amendment ratified

    14th Amendment ratified
    As a part of reconstruction the 14th amendment was ratified, granting citizenship to all natural born people to America. It also guaranteed all citizens "equal" protection under the law.
  • Transcontinental Railroad completed

    Transcontinental Railroad completed
    The route in the middle of the country was completed, connecting Iowa to the coast of California. This was very important, transporting goods all over the country and it expanded industrialization.
  • Knights of Labor

    Knights of Labor
    The first successful labor organization. Labor organizers weren't too successful during the gilded age, but Knights of Labor found success because how they separated unskilled and skilled workers.
  • Railway Strikes of 1877

    Railway Strikes of 1877
    Railway company workers went on strike after their wages had been cut for a third time in one year. This was the first national strike, and over 100,000 people participated.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    Chinese Exclusion Act
    This law prohibited Chinese laborers to immigrate to the US. This was the very first immigration law prohibiting an entire ethnicity from entering the US, and not the last.
  • Bureau of Labor Established

    Bureau of Labor Established
    The section of government set up to deal with labor standards, such as wage, conditions, hours, etc. Insuring some basics standards was very important for the time because most factory conditions were horrible.
  • Dawes Severalty Act

    Dawes Severalty Act
    This act was very important in the future of Native American culture in the US. Reservations were divided up, and there was allotment of land, also boarding schools were created for Native American Children, blending them into American society.
  • Pan-American Conferences

    Pan-American Conferences
    Leading into new imperialism, the US is beginning to get more involved in its surrounding countries, and trying to spread democracy and american influence around the globe. These conferences take place from '81-'89 between western hemisphere nations.
  • Sherman Anti-trust Act

    Sherman Anti-trust Act
    During the gilded age monopolies and corruption was very common in the economy, so this act was very important to try and end some of that. The act outlawed trusts, monopolies and cartels to increase economic competitiveness.
  • Ocala Demands

    Ocala Demands
    Farmers met in Florida in order to get demands from the government. They wanted no land given to railroads, bimetallism, no national banks, no tariff, no income tax, and direct election of senators.
  • The Battle of Wounded Knee

    The Battle of Wounded Knee
    Taking place in San Diego this is considered to be the end of the Indian Wars. The Sun Dance had been previously banned by the US government, and the military kills 200 natives practicing it.
  • Populist Party

    Populist Party
    The most successful 3rd party of all time, and they did exceptionally well in the 1892 elections. Working to help followers and having a platform called the Omaha platform.
  • Wilson Gorman Tariff

    Wilson Gorman Tariff
    Due to successful expression from the populist party, and demands from farmers, a small reduction of the tariff and the 1st income tax was passed. This success was very important for the future of organizing and protests.
  • Pullman Strike

    Pullman Strike
    Another set of strikes against railroad companies, The Pullman strike was helped ob by Eugene Debs. The government response to the striking was the first time that an injunction was used.
  • Spanish American War

    Spanish American War
    The Spanish American war ended in the Treaty of Paris, which led to the US getting Puerto Rico, Guam, and The Philippines. The US's status changes greatly, as they became a prominent worldly power, they started building a large navy, and they needed to make a canal through central america.
  • Period: to

    Period 7 pt 1

    Imperialism, Progressive Era, Conservation and Preservation Movements, WWI
  • Insular Cases

    Insular Cases
    US Supreme Court cases focused on the status of people living in US territories. It was determined that the people of these territories didn't have the rights of an american citizen.
  • McKinley Assassination

    McKinley Assassination
    President McKinley was shot by an anarchist, leaving the vise president Theodore Roosevelt as president. Roosevelt will lead the US as a progressive, and his egotistical and beliefs had a huge impact on the future of America.
  • Platt amendment

    Platt amendment
    A treaty between the US and Cuba to protect Cuban independence from outside nations. Under the treaty it said that the amendment had to be under Cuba's constitution, the US is allowed to have military presence in Cuba and they can meddle in Cuban affairs
  • Hay/Bunua-Varilla Treaty

    Hay/Bunua-Varilla Treaty
    Treaty signed by the US and Panama, giving the US a 10 mile strip of land across Panama. They had a one time payment of $10 million and $250,000 annually.
  • Us Forest Service Founded

    Us Forest Service Founded
    T. Roosevelt was a conservationist, and one of his priorities was conserving national land and creating national parks. He teamed up a lot with John Muir, a very famous and successful preservationist in order to accomplish these goals, and the US forest service was very important for maintaining the parks.
  • Meat Inspection Act

    Meat Inspection Act
    The food industry hadn't been given important standards before the progressive era, and Roosevelt passed lots of legislation to improve food quality to reduce disease. The act required food crossing state lines to be federally inspected before hand.
  • Pure Food and Drug Act

    Pure Food and Drug Act
    Roosevelt passed a couple food industry acts to better protect american citizens. This act required for food labels to be one hundred percent true and accurate, which is very important for consumers.
  • 16th and 17th Amendments Ratified

    16th and 17th Amendments Ratified
    During William Taft's presidency the 16th amendment, the institution of the income tax, and the 17th amendments, the direct election of senators is passed. These two amendments had been pushed for by many farmers and the populist party during the gilded age, and finally they become law.
  • Panama Canal Construction Completed

    Panama Canal Construction Completed
    With territory all across the pacific the US needed a water route through Central America. After buying land across Panama, they finished building a canal, which was very helpful in trading, traveling and eventually became very useful in the upcoming World War One.
  • Sinking of the Lusitania

    Sinking of the Lusitania
    Woodrow Wilson had an America first policy, trying not to get involved in World War One was a big priority, but German submarine warfare made it difficult. A German u-boat sunk this ship, killing some american passengers, and after continued German aggression toward american ships the US would join the war against them.
  • Zimmerman Note

    Zimmerman Note
    The US intercepted a telegram from Germany to Mexico, proposing an alliance, and if they won then Germany would help Mexico gain back some of the land the US took from them. This was one of the final straws before the US declared war, about 4 months later.
  • US Declaration of War

    US Declaration of War
    The US declared war against Germany on April 6th, 1917, for an accumulation of reasons. Germany had resumed submarine warfare after they agreed to stop, the Zimmerman note was another factor, and the Russian revolution began, forcing Russia to leave on the Allies side.
  • Creel Committee Established

    Creel Committee Established
    The Creel Committee was the committee on public information, and it was very important during war time. It's purpose was to create propaganda campaigns , and the effects of these campaigns made citizens feel the need to help and support the war effort in any way they could.
  • The Selective Service Act

    The Selective Service Act
    During war time male citizens have to enter the draft, where they can be selected to serve for the US army. This act drafted 3 million soldiers during world war one, and there were 2 million soldiers who volunteered
  • Period: to

    Period 7 pt 2 (1918-1945)

    Roaring Twenties, The Great Depression, World War Two, Bolshevik Revolution, The development of mass society
  • The Treaty of Versailles

    The Treaty of Versailles
    Treaty ending World War One, extremely harsh towards Germany. The League of Nations is created, but the US doesn't join it, article x being a big reason why.
  • Henry Ford's Change

    Henry Ford's Change
    Henry Ford was the owner of the ford car company, and his company changed the factory system and much more. They had an assembly line, in order to complete the mass production of the cars, there was a living wage, and a weekend.
  • 18th Amendment Ratified

    18th Amendment Ratified
    The 18th amendment says that is constitutional to prohibit alcohol, and the country enters the prohibition. After long pushed to get this done it finally happened, but it didn't keep people from drinking, there were speakeasys, mobs, etc.
  • Palmer Raids

    Palmer Raids
    The First Red Scare was a time period during the 20's when communism was being spread across eastern Europe and many Americans were afraid of communism and extremely against it. Mitchell Palmer sought out people who supported communism, and his raids ended it 6,000 peoples arrests.
  • 19th Amendment Ratification

    19th Amendment Ratification
    The 19th amendment gives women the right to vote. After years and years of the women's movement they get something they had been working for for so long, but they still didn't have equal pay and many other equalities that they will still fight for.
  • Emergency Immigration Quota Act

    Emergency Immigration Quota Act
    The USA was getting more immigrants than ever coming into the country, so they quickly set up a quota system to limit how many people could come in. This act said that only 3% of the number of immigrants from a certain country in 1910 are allowed in.
  • Black Tuesday

    Black Tuesday
    Referred to as Black Tuesday, the stock market crashes, but the worst is yet to come. Hoover doesn't deal with the crash greatly, thinking that people can handle it on their own and if you work hard you can get by, causing more problems.
  • Bonus Army Incident

    Bonus Army Incident
    Veterans were gifted cash compensations for serving the US during war, and these were redeemable after the war. around 40,000 veterans walked to Washington D.C to get there money early, and Hoover made a terrible mistake. He sent the US army on the veterans, and public opinion was bad on him.
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    With poor leadership from president Hoover, lack of diversification in industry, over speculation in the stock market, and many more reasons the US enters the Great Depression. Hoover is often blamed for the depression, he didn't think it would last very long, and that it would fix itself on its own.
  • The New Deal

    The New Deal
    After replacing Hoover as president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt's first job was to rebuild the US's economy and conquer The Great Depression. He passed a lot of legislation to try and complete the 3 R's, relief, recovery, and reform programs.
  • Burke-Wadsworth Act

    Burke-Wadsworth Act
    This act drafted a total of 2 million soldiers to fight for the US in WWII. Overall there was 15 million total soldiers in the war, 40% volunteered and 60% were drafted.
  • Attack On Pearl Harbor

    Attack On Pearl Harbor
    FDR has made it clear that the US doesn't want to get involved in WWII, but Japanese aggression in the pacific forces them to interact. Japan bombs pearl harbor, The US's largest navy base, and FDR's declaration of war request it passed.
  • Lend-Lease Act

    Lend-Lease Act
    The lend-lease act said that the president could give money or supplies to other nations fighting in war, and they would lend them this instead of selling. $50 billion was given away during it, and the FDR nicknamed the US the "great arsenal of democracy."
  • D Day

    D Day
    A total of 2.8 million allied soldiers were sent to liberate France, crossing the British Isles. They used props as a distraction against the German forces, and France was liberated in August the 25th.
  • Victory In Europe

    Victory In Europe
    The German army was defeated on May 7th, 1945, giving the allied powers victory in Europe. FDR ha died just one month before hand, but he and other European leaders had met at conferences during the last couple years to make sure that another catastrophic war like the last two would never happen again.