APUSH Review: Alex Vazquez

  • Period: 1491 to

    Period 1/2: 1491-1763

    Native America, Exploration, and Colonial America
  • Jamestown is settled

    Jamestown is settled
    Jamestown, Virginia was the first permanent British colony in America, and though it was a rough start, the development of a new strain of tobacco by John Rolfe made Jamestown a profitable and successful colony by establishing cash crops as the economy for developing colonial America.
  • Mayflower Compact

    Mayflower Compact
    The Mayflower Compact, created November 11, 1620, established the first direct democracy in the new colonies by the pilgrims of the Plymouth settlement. It established the importance of self-governance early on in the Americas. Many other colonies would follow later on, such as the Connecticut colony creating the first written constitution.
  • Rhode Island is founded

    Rhode Island is founded
    Rhode Island was founded when Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony when he spoke against the Puritan's beliefs and advocated for the Separation of Church and State. He founded the Rhode Island colony for complete religious freedom and would set the example for religious freedom in other colonies, such as Pennsylvania. Also founding Rhode Island, was Anne Hutchinson who spoke about antinomianism and got banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony because of it.
  • Trade and Navigation Acts

    Trade and Navigation Acts
    These series of laws were an attempt to regulate mercantilism as law, but they were not heavily enforced as Britain was focused on many other conflicts in Europe. This is an example of what salutary neglect looked like, and it wouldn't be until 100 years until laws were
    actually enforced by the British Crown.
  • King Phillip's War

    King Phillip's War
    Also known as Metacom's War, this conflict resulted in a difference in the understanding of property between settlers and Native Americans. The natives attempted to defend themselves against their land being taken away by the settlers in fraudulent agreements and debt payments made on behalf of the chief. This is an example of the many conflicts that would occur between the settling Europeans and the native population as they attempted to protect their land.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    Led by Nathaniel Bacon against the Virginia Governor William Berkely, this rebellion happened out of a wealth divide and the Governor's opposition to allow the lower class to live west. The results of this rebellion created a shift from indentured servitude to slavery as the wealthy didn't trust the lower class for cheap labor.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    The Glorious Revolution was a coup in which King James II was replaced by William and Mary. Prior to this revolt, the Dominion of New England was created in which the charter of Massachusetts was revoked, and trade and navigation laws were enforced under a strict rule. As a result of the revolution, the Dominion ended and the colonists responded by kicking out the ruler of the Dominion. All of these events would serve as a preview as to what happens when salutary neglect ends in the colonies.
  • The Age of Enlightenment

    The Age of Enlightenment
    The Enlightenment is a period in which scientific reasoning brought many ideas and discoveries within the realm of science and of how governments should work. Many of these ideas are expressed in political science theories by Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Montesquieu and would later serve as the main ideas that sparked the revolution.
  • First Great Awakening

    First Great Awakening
    The First Great Awakening marked the dissolution of Puritan rule in the colonies. New intense preaching created an interest in religion and brought an understanding of secular ideas to the common man. The "new lights" of the Awakening went against the established ways of preaching and this would later serve as inspiration for the revolution as it planted the roots of questioning authority.
  • The French and Indian War begins

    The French and Indian War begins
    Also known as the Seven Years War, the conflict began as the French formed alliances with natives in the Ohio Valley for fur trading. This created a conflict among territorial claims which resulted in a war between Britain and France. As a result, Britain gained tremendous territorial expansion, but Britain also acquired massive debts. War debt collection through taxes on the colonies would result in the ending of salutary neglect and the beginning of a much larger conflict.
  • End of Salutary Neglect

    End of Salutary Neglect
    The End of Salutary Neglect begins with the end of the French and Indian War. Because of the war, Britain obtained large war debts that were being paid by many acts passed that would collect taxes from the colonists. Also, due to the territorial gains, Britain restricted the movement of the colonists into new territory with the Proclamation Act in an effort to maintain easier control over them.
  • Period: to

    Period 3: 1763-1800

    American Revolution, Articles of Confederacy, and early Republic
  • Townshend Acts

    Townshend Acts
    Prior to this act, the Stamp Act was met with a violent response on behalf of the colonists and was eventually repealed. With the Townshend Acts, the taxes collected were used to pay royal governors so the British crown could manipulate them, and this tax affected many products that the colonists consumed. The reaction from the colonists was a non-importation agreement that would hurt British Merchants. Eventually, it was repealed, but Britain would only continue with the Tea Act.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    After being harassed by colonists, British troops fired into a crowd and killed 5 violent demonstrators. As a result, many early revolutionaries, such as Paul Revere, created anti-British propaganda that would fuel resentment against the British Government from the colonists.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    As a result of the Tea Act, the Sons of Liberty organized and threw tea from British ships in an attempt to provoke unwise retaliation. The British response resulted in the Intolerable/Coercive Acts which would be the final straws before the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
  • 2nd Continental Congress

    2nd Continental Congress
    The Second Continental Congress created the Olive Branch Petition for an attempt at a peace deal with Britain. The Petition shows that the revolutionaries were hesitant towards total war. After Britain refused, Congress appointed George Washington as the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and authorized an invasion of Canada.
  • Battles of Lexington and Concord

    Battles of Lexington and Concord
    When the British heard of illegal weapons being stashed in Lexington, they sent troops to confiscate them. This resulted in the first battle of the American Revolution and would be heard of in Britain as their first loss.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    Written by Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration of Independence would borrow elements from the Enlightenment as justifications for why America should declare their independence. It also included a list of grievances of actions the British crown took to oppress the colonies, such as taxation without representation, not allowing fair trials, and maintaining troops in times of peace.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris would officially make the United States independent from Britain's rule. Independent America would experience changes in the economy and lifestyle as the British no longer ruled over them. For example, the "republican motherhood" role of women would surge after the revolution, and the Anglican church would longer be the state church of the colonies.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    After the revolution, the US adopted the Articles of Confederation which proved to be a weak system of government. A weak government without a central power was exposed in Shay's Rebellion which resulted from economic downfall. This would spur the founding fathers to call for creating a stronger form of government by "revising" the Articles. Out of the Articles, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 established how territories would become states.
  • Constitution Ratified

    Constitution Ratified
    The US Constitution would set up how the government would work; a government split into 3 powers. It would establish federalism, and the Great Compromise would establish how states would be represented in Congress. The Constitution was created to be flexible with the Elastic Clause, but an anti-federalist faction would want a Bill of Rights to be added.
  • Washington Elected President

    Washington Elected President
    George Washington would be unanimously elected as the first President of the United States. His presidency would establish many firsts, such as his Cabinet, and a 2-term tradition carried out until FDR.
  • Cabinet is Established

    Cabinet is Established
    Washington's cabinet is composed of the officials of executive offices that advise him. Alexander Hamilton would be the first Treasury Secretary under Washington and his economic plan would create the first BUS, Washington D.C., and would establish an Excise Tax. This tax would be placed on whiskey and the Whiskey Rebellion caused by it would be shut down by Washington proving the power and effectiveness of the US government under the Consitution.
  • Start of Second Great Awakening

    Start of Second Great Awakening
    The Second Great Awakening began in New York as a religious revival and it brought religion to the frontier emphasizing individual faith. The movement focused on the common person and the perfectability of mankind which would then inspire utopian societies and influence reform movements. Similarly, a philosophical movement arose around the same time with authors talking about unconventional ways to enlighten oneself. This movement would be known as transcendentalism.
  • Bill of Rights Adopted

    Bill of Rights Adopted
    The Bill of Rights outlines the freedoms and personal rights of American citizens. Over history, many amendments would be added to the original 10 established in the Bill of Rights. The right to freedom of speech can be seen as early as the 1730s with the Zenger trial. By adding the Bill of Rights, the concerns of the anti-federalists were eased.
  • Cotton Gin Invented

    Cotton Gin Invented
    Invented by Eli Whitney, the cotton gin would be one of the biggest inventions of the agriculture revolution. Along with this invention, Eli Whitney developed interchangeable parts which would help the agriculture industry be more efficient. Fewer people needed to work in agriculture and moved to cities, but this also created a need for more slave labor in the south. Eli Whitney would be one of the names of the Market Revolution that changed America into becoming more industrialized.
  • Treaty of Greenville

    Treaty of Greenville
    This treaty occurred under the Washington Presidency and it is a treaty between the "natives" and the US in which Ohio territory was bought for 20 million dollars. The expansion of the US would only become more important throughout time, and fraudulent negotiations with native people would dispossess them of their ancestral land.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts passed

    Alien and Sedition Acts passed
    Under the presidency of Federalist president John Adams, the Alien and Sedition Acts would be used to target and suppress political opponents and empower the Federalist Party. As a result, the Democratic-Republicans responded with the VA/KY Resolutions which proposed the concept of nullification.
  • Period: to

    Period 4 pt.1: 1800-1824

    The Early Republic, War of 1812, and Era of Good Feelings
  • First Barbary War

    First Barbary War
    The Barbary War would be the first "show overseas" in Tripoli as Thomas Jefferson dealt with the Barbary Pirates attacks on American ships. They demanded a tribute to stop attacking, but Jefferson refused and sent William Eaton to capture the City of Derna. This would be the first military victory overseas for the United States and would define the foreign policy under Jefferson in early American history.
  • Marbury v. Madison

    Marbury v. Madison
    This Supreme Court case would establish the court's power of judicial review. This gave the Supreme Court the power to see if an act is Constitutional; effectively holding the Constitution as the "supreme law of the land." The Marshall Court that had decided Marbury V. Madison would be one of the most consequential courts of all time as they upheld property contracts/rights, asserted national law supremacy, and established judicial review.
  • The Louisiana Purchase

    The Louisiana Purchase
    Under Jefferson, the US sought to acquire the port of New Orleans and wanted the city for 10 million dollars, but Napoleon sold the entire French territory for 15 million. This came as a result of the Haitian Revolution as the French had no more use for the port since the country lost its colony on the island. Since such a large acquirement of the territory was unprecedented, Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to explore the territory.
  • Start of War of 1812

    Start of War of 1812
    After British and French aggression towards American ships, Thomas Jefferson placed an embargo on the world. When James Madison took office, he inherited the embargo, but he quickly replaced it with a non-intercourse act. Meanwhile, in congress, young politicians named Warhawks called for war and the vote for the War of 1812 was split as New England did not want to enter the war. The end result for this war resulted in no change, but for America to diplomatically solve issues with Britain.
  • Hartford Convention

    Hartford Convention
    During the War of 1812, the power of the Federalist Party was waning and they called for a convention to occur. In this convention, many changes to the Constitution were proposed and they would make the role of the government weaker which contrasted the platform of the Federalists. This event marks the end of the Federalist Party as these proposals showed that they only sought to remain in power rather than having following their platform. Proceeding the war would be the Era of Good Feelings.
  • Adam-Onis Treaty signed

    Adam-Onis Treaty signed
    The Adam-Onis Treaty, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty or Florida Purchase, would give the US Florida for 5 million dollars, establish the boundary between New Spain and Louisiana, and would give up Spain's claim on Oregon. This came as a result of many conflicts, such as the First Seminole War, and it would be one of the treaties negotiated by John Q. Adams under the Monroe Presidency during the Era of Good Feelings.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    Known as the "the great compromiser," Henry Clay would create the Missouri Compromise as a result of early western expansion and the question of the expansion of slavery. This compromise entered Missouri as a slave state, Maine as a free state, and created a boundary at the 36' 30' parallel where the south was slave territory and the north was free territory. This would later be challenged with the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and would lead to the Civil War.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    Author of the Monroe Doctrine, John Q. Adams would outline the US foreign policy in Latin America. It called for no new western hemisphere colonization, no US interference in European affairs, and any attempt of colonization by Europe would be seen as a direct threat to the US. The Doctrine would establish US foreign policy up until the Roosevelt Corollary was added.
  • Period: to

    Period 4 pt.2: 1824-1848

    The Jacksonian Era and Westward Expansion
  • Erie Canal completion

    Erie Canal completion
    As a result of industrialization, transportation also needed to be revolutionized. The Erie Canal paid itself with the tolls it collected and it quickly turned NYC into the biggest trading hub as it connected the Hudson with the Great Lakes. Steam power replacing water power, steam locomotive development, and development of Morse Code would also come as a result of early industry growth.
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    The beginning of the 2nd party system would occur with the rise of the Democratic Party led by Andrew Jackson. The "Age of Jackson" would be defined by the rise of the common man and popular politics that developed in this election. Rather than platforms based on policy, campaigns became about electing the most favorable candidate based on personality. The democratization of the political process and anti-intellectual movements would result from the expansion of voting rights to all white men.
  • Indian Removal Act passed

    Indian Removal Act passed
    The Indian Removal Act of 1830 would remove native people to a designated territory as a result of land scarcity. This would be the defining law that reflected native policy between the US government and Native Americans during the "Age of Jackson." Consequentially, many natives did not want to leave their ancestral lands which lead the Trail of Tears and many legal battles in the Supreme Court. Native people had assimilated, yet the government still saw a need to remove them.
  • Start of Nullification Crisis

    Start of Nullification Crisis
    The Tariff of Abominations of 1828 would be met by a poor southern response with Calhoun's "Southern Exposition" that detailed that SC could nullify it. The conflict then begins in 1832, when a new lower tariff is introduced, but South Carolina believed it was permanent and attempted nullification. Henry Clay then introduced a compromise tariff that would gradually reduce the tariff. Andrew Jackson during the crisis introduced a Force Bill in which he could use the military to enforce the law.
  • Bank War

    Bank War
    Andrew Jackson disliked the BUS and Nicholas Biddle wanted to recharter the bank early to make Jackson look bad for the upcoming election. Though the early recharter passed through Congress, Jackson vetoed it; he then sought to destroy the bank. So, he took the money out of the BUS and put it in "pet banks" (Removal of Deposits). Biddle then called back loans to make Jackson look bad, but it backfired. As a result, inflation occurred because of the Specie Circular leading to the Panic of 1837.
  • "Gag Rule" passed

    "Gag Rule" passed
    The House of Representatives introduced the "Gag rule" in which the topic of abolition would be tabled from being discussed in Congress. The topic of abolition would eventually be necessary to be discussed after the Mexican-American War as the United States continued to expand and the expansion of slavery was in question.
  • Period: to

    Period 5: 1844-1877

    Antebellum, Civil War, and Reconstruction
  • "Manifest Destiny" phrase published

    "Manifest Destiny" phrase published
    A belief that the US had a God-given authority to expand territory was first written in the 1840s and came as a result of an interest to expand to Oregon territory due to an increasing population. James K. Polk would want to expand and annex TX and CA and also expand to 54' 40' parallel, but he negotiated a treaty and expanded the 1818 treaty to the 49th parallel. The need to expand into California would result in the Mexican-American War.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    The question of the expansion of slavery would occur as the US ceded territory from Mexico and the issue of abolition would have to be addressed by Congress. The Wilmot Proviso was proposed and it would ban slavery in the Mexican Cession. Though it was never passed as law, the Proviso served as a wake-up call to Congress and led to a debate about the expansion of slavery. Congress would then temporarily settle with the Compromise of 1850.
  • Start of Mexican-American War

    Start of Mexican-American War
    After the annexation of Texas that proceeded the Texas Revolution, the US sought to annex California. Polk attempted to stage a revolution in California, but it failed. He then attempted to purchase the territory, but Mexico refused which led to the bloody conflict. The war resulted in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in which Mexican territory was ceded for 18 million dollars.
  • Oneida Community Founded

    Oneida Community Founded
    As a result of the 2nd G.A., the perfectability of mankind was attempted in utopian societies, such as the Oneida Community. Though there were many secular-based societies, such as the Oneida Community and the Shakers, many also arose out of the purpose of expanding the arts. The Brook Farm would be based out of a community of arts, and New Harmony would be an experiment with socialism.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The first wave of the Women's Rights movement would be defined by the Seneca Falls Convention that was created by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott. The "Declaration of Sentiments" would highlight the inequalities between men and women despite the Constitution outlining freedoms for all the people. This would lay the groundwork for the Women's Suffrage Movement in the 20th century. This is also one of the many reform movements that resulted from urbanization and the 2nd G.A.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    Because of the 1849 California Gold Rush, the state's population rapidly increased making it eligible for statehood. They adopted a constitution that did not allow slavery which sparked outrage in the south. Henry Clay then pushed forward the Compromise of 1850 in which California came in as a free state, popular sovereignty would determine the status of slavery in UT and NM, and it would have a newer and stricter fugitive slave law. The effects of the compromise would prove to be problematic.
  • Clayton-Bulwar Treaty

    Clayton-Bulwar Treaty
    One of the few moments in which the US dealt with foreign affairs during the antebellum would be the signing of the Clayton-Bulwar Treaty. This treaty outlined that the US and Britain would jointly construct the Panama Canal. This would much later be challenged as the US backed out of the treaty by singing into the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin is Published

    Uncle Tom's Cabin is Published
    The publishing of this book created a surge in people advocating for abolition as the novel sold thousands of copies and made the struggle close and upfront with the reader. This book came only 2 years after the Compromise of 1850 which created a stricter fugitive slave law that also forced the North to confront the issue of slavery as they had to comply with the new system. These events would be what expanded the amount of people advocating for abolition before the Civil War.
  • End of Second Party System

    End of Second Party System
    The birth of the Republican Party would mark the end of the Second Party System. The Whigs had already become split into northern and southern factions as a realignment in party platforms took off because of the issue of the abolition of slavery. This came as a result of the Compromise of 1850.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    Stephen Douglass proposed a bill in which popular sovereignty would determine the status of slavery in the new Nebraska and Kansas territories. He wanted to organize the territory so that the transcontinental railroad would pass through his state of Illinois. As a result, this bill would undermine the MO compromise and would create a bloody conflict as the people were split to vote on free or slave statehood. This event would be known as Bleeding Kansas and would be a precursor to the Civil War.
  • Dred Scott V Sanford is decided

    Dred Scott V Sanford is decided
    Before the Civil War, the south had a positive outlook with the Dred Scott decision. The Supreme Court ruled that enslaved people were property and could not file a lawsuit to claim their freedom even though they lived in free territory. This would strengthen the Fugitive Slave Law and would give the south even more justification for slavery, but the case raised the question if the MO Compromise would continue to be relevant.
  • Panic of 1857

    Panic of 1857
    This panic resulted from the overproduction of goods and the railroads but it only affected the north and not the south. This would fuel sentiment in the south to justify that the southern slave agriculture system was the superior economic model.
  • Raid at Harper's Ferry

    Raid at Harper's Ferry
    Abolitionist John Brown in October of 1859 would attempt to raid a federal arsenal in an attempt to start a freedom crusade, but he failed as he was defeated by Robert E. Lee. John Brown would then be arrested and executed, but he would be remembered by abolitionists as a martyr. This, along with Bleeding Kansas, showed how the fight for abolition had gotten to the point of bloody conflict and it would be inevitable that a Civil War would occur.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    The Election of 1860 would be the tipping point of the Civil War as the Democratic Split between the north and south and they each held their own conventions. Their division would result in the victory of Abraham Lincoln of the Republican Party and it would make the south feel as their vote was not important. This would then result in the secession of southern states occurring between the election and the inauguration of Abraham Lincoln.
  • South Carolina Secedes from the Union

    South Carolina Secedes from the Union
    Following the Election of 1860, South Carolina would become the first state to secede from the union. The Confederate States would form in February of 1861, but the US would not recognize them as a separate country. Though attempts at compromises were made, the first battle of the war would occur at Ft. Sumter, South Carolina.
  • Emancipation Proclamation is issued

    Emancipation Proclamation is issued
    The Union victory at Antietam would give Lincoln sufficient confidence to issue the Emancipation Proclamation which freed enslaved people in all states that were in rebellion. This reinforced the idea that the Union was fighting to end slavery and it would keep Britain from siding with the CSA. This would also boost the amount of enslaved people joining the Union Army, but freedom would not occur until the 13th Amendment.
  • Period: to

    Period 6: 1865-1898

    Reconstruction and the Gilded Age
  • Reconstruction Act of 1867 is passed

    Reconstruction Act of 1867 is passed
    Military Reconstruction would occur in 1867 and would divide the south into 5 military zones as a way to protect new freedmen and enforce the new Reconstruction Amendments. Many would refer to this as "radical reconstruction" and this period would see many African-Americans holding positions in office. During this period, many northerners referred to as "carpetbaggers" would migrate south to help with social work and make money doing so.
  • Andrew Johnson is Impeached

    Andrew Johnson is Impeached
    Andrew Johnson wanted to take control of how Reconstruction would occur, but he was highly unpopular in Congress. Congress would pass the Tenure of Office Act in which a president who was finishing another one's term could not fire the appointees of the predecessor. Johnson had fired the Secretary of War, so Congress brought articles of impeachment on Johnson. The Senate would ultimately acquit Johnson, but his political power ceased and Congress solely took care of Reconstruction.
  • Credit Mobilier Scandal

    Credit Mobilier Scandal
    The Transcontinental Railroad would prove to be a success, but also a showcase of the corruption of railroad companies during the Gilded Age. The Credit Mobilier scandal involved the Union Pacific Company and Credit Mobilier as they sold stock at cheap rates to make a profit. This would be just one of the many scandals, such as the Whiskey Ring, in what would be called the "era of good stealings" and would mark the Grant presidency with corruption.
  • Panic of 1873

    Panic of 1873
    The Panic of 1873 would be the worst panic to date and it occurred as railroads and industry over-expanded. No exchanges were allowed in banks to prevent them from closing, but this raised questions in currency. The question of backing currency in silver or gold would become crucial as more money needed to be in circulation and war bonds had to be paid back.
  • Compromise of 1877

    Compromise of 1877
    The Election of 1876 was too close and a special commission formed as a result to decide the election. Because the neutral party member of the commission left and was replaced by a Republican, the Democrats were outraged and sought a compromise. The Compromise of 1877 would make Hayes (R) the President, roll back reconstruction, send federal money to the south, and make a cabinet seat Democrat. As a result, the Democrats took back the south and African-Americans would no longer be protected.
  • Railroad Strike of 1877 Begins

    Railroad Strike of 1877 Begins
    This strike resulted from the wages of railroad workers being cut and it would disrupt the largest form of transportation in America at the time. President Rutherford B. Hayes sent in troops and it became a violent clash between the troops and the demonstrators. The end result would be a failure for the railroad workers and this event would reflect the many failures of taking on large companies during the "Gilded Age."
  • James Garfield is Assassinated

    James Garfield is Assassinated
    The assassination of James Garfield resulted because Charles Giteau believed he deserved a position in office for helping Garfield's campaign. This would result in the Pendleton Act which would be the start of civil service reform. This Act required that federal jobs would require qualification and it would begin the decline of the spoils system.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    Chinese Exclusion Act
    The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 would ban Chinese laborers from entering the country. This came out of a fear that Chinese immigrants would be stealing the jobs of Americans. This would lay the groundwork for many more immigration restrictions in the early 20th century that were based on racism and xenophobia.
  • Haymarket Square Riot

    Haymarket Square Riot
    The Knights of Labor formed in 1869 as a union of skilled and unskilled workers. They would be involved in protests at Haymarket Square that became violent because the police were sent in and they clashed with the demonstrators. This event marked the beginning of the decline of the Knights and would create a violent image for unions that many feared.
  • Dawes Act

    Dawes Act
    The Dawes Severalty Act would divide reservations into private properties in an attempt to assimilate native families. The surpluses of land would be taken up by the US Government and sold. This Act also established boarding schools for native children in which they would "kill the Indian and save the child" and strip them of their identity as a way to try to assimilate them.
  • Interstate Commerce Act

    Interstate Commerce Act
    The Interstate Commerce Act would be one of the few progressive acts from the "Gilded Age." It would create the ICC which would be able to regulate railroads, but it was not heavily enforced until the Progressive Era of the early 20th century. Another reform victory would be the Sherman Anti-trust Act which would end any monopoly, but it would also not be effective until the 20th century; early on it was even used to break up unions.
  • Wounded Knee Massacre

    Wounded Knee Massacre
    The "Battle" of Wounded Knee would be as a result of the Ghost Dance Movement. Soldiers were sent into South Dakota and they killed 200 natives that participated in the religious ritual. This event would mark the end of armed resistance on behalf of native people.
  • Pullman Strike

    Pullman Strike
    As a result of the Panic of '93, the Pullman company would deduct rent from the wages of workers which caused them to strike. Eugene Debs would step up and lead the strike, but the Pullman RR owners would make sure they would still operate by placing mail cars on trains; legally requiring to run them. In the end, the government stepped in and sided with the company, but the result was that Eugene Debs would create the Socialist Party and this strike would set up future labor successes.
  • Election of 1896

    Election of 1896
    The Populist Party would establish the "Omaha Platform" that called for no national banks, direct election of senators, new voting practices; initiative and referendum, government ownership of telegraph; railroads; and telephones, lower tariffs, and bimetallism. In the Election fo 1896, Democrat candidate William Jennings Bryan outlined many parts of the Populist platform and received the endorsement of the party. This would mark the end of the Populists who would join with the Democrats.
  • Plessy V. Ferguson is decided

    Plessy V. Ferguson is decided
    Plessy V. Ferguson was a Sumpreme Court case in which the Court ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were allowed. This would write segregation as legally constitutional and would be used as justification until Brown V. Board of Education. This was one of the many "Jim Crow Laws" that kept African-Americans oppressed after the end of Reconstruction. Other examples would be grandfather clauses, convict leasing, and vagrancy laws.
  • Sinking of the USS Maine

    Sinking of the USS Maine
    One of the events that would become the buildup to the Spanish-American War was the sinking of the USS Maine. With yellow journalism exaggerating stories and calling for intervention in the Cuban Revolt, Americans felt a great deal of resentment against the Spanish and this would eventually result in the War. The sinking of the USS Maine could've been an accident, but the press blew up the story and it would be an instigating event leading up to the conflict.
  • Period: to

    Period 7 pt.1: 1898-1918

    Progressive Era, New Imperialism, and WWI
  • Spanish-American War

    Spanish-American War
    Though Spain was willing to negotiate with the US on giving Cuba independence, yellow journalism fired up American citizens and they put pressure on Congress to start a war and intervene in Cuba. The Teller Amendment in the war declaration would outline that they would only help Cuba and not take control of them. The US would invade the Spanish Philippines first and then Puerto Rico would also be captured. The end result was the US expanded and had new land in the Pacific and Caribbean.
  • The Insular Cases

    The Insular Cases
    The Supreme Court in the early 1900s decided the Insular Cases which would outline that constitutional rights would fully extend to US territories. These would be the new guidelines for US territories as the country took part in imperialism and expanded to islands in the Pacific and Caribbean.
  • Anthracite Coal Strike

    Anthracite Coal Strike
    In Pennsylvania, miners went on strike, but the mine owners did not want to negotiate. Both sides went to the White House for a solution and Theodore Roosevelt would threaten to nationalize the coal industry if they did not want to negotiate with the strikers. This would be one of the many successes in the Progressive Era where corporations were being taken on. Under TR's presidency, the earlier ICC and Sherman Anti-trust Act were beginning to be used properly in regulating large industries.
  • Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

    Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
    As a result of the Spanish-American War, the US expanded and needed a way to navigate from the Atlantic to the Pacific. So, the US pulled out of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, assisted the Panamanian Revolt, and then signed onto the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty which gave the US the canal zone from the French for 10 million dollars and 250 thousand dollars annually. The canal would be finished by the US in 1914 and it would be expensive, an engineering marvel, and would cost the lives of many workers.
  • Roosevelt Corollary

    Roosevelt Corollary
    For the past century, the US maintained a period of isolation and refrained from intervening in foreign affairs. This would change as the US entered a period in which they would also become involved in New Imperialism. The Roosevelt Corollary would be an addition to the earlier Monroe Doctrine in which the US established they had the right to intervene in Latin American affairs. This is a part of TR's foreign policy which also included Big Stick Diplomacy.
  • Northern Securities Case decided

    Northern Securities Case decided
    Northern Securities was a railroad trust that was brought into court because they were a monopoly. The Sherman Anti-trust Act was upheld and Northern Securities was forced to split up. This is an example during the Progressive Era of the start of the proper use of the Sherman Anti-trust Act under Theodore Roosevelt's presidency.
  • The Jungle is published

    The Jungle is published
    The expansion of industry would bring about a better living standard for everyone, but the wealth gap would be much more severe. Industries often exploited their workers to make a bigger profit and made decisions on production tactics also as a way to increase profit. As a result, muckraker journalists exposed these corporations leading to Progressive Era reform. Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle" exposed the meatpacking industry and the book's popularity would result in food safety regulations.
  • Niagara Falls Movement

    Niagara Falls Movement
    Led by W.E.B DuBois, the Niagara Falls Movement would be the creation of the NAACP. They would meet in Canada as segregation kept them from lodging in the US. DuBois would be one of the most prominent figures of the early Civil Rights movement as he advocated for immediate equal rights. This contrasted Booker T. Washington's idea of gradual equality that would occur by becoming equal economically.
  • Election of 1912

    Election of 1912
    This election was won by Democrat Woodrow Wilson as TR split the Republican Party by creating the Progressive Party. He created the party because he was not satisfied with William Howard Taft as president and wanted to advocate for even more progressivism. Eugene V. Debs would also run as the Socialist Party candidate. All of the platforms of this election were based on progressive policy.
  • Federal Reserve Act

    Federal Reserve Act
    Under the presidency of Woodrow Wilson, he signed the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 which would create the Federal Reserve. Banks would not be insured until FDR, but this act would regulate the flow of currency and the interest rate. The Fed would also serve to prevent panics. Other parts Wilson's domestic policy would include trust-busting and the reduction of the tariff.
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated

    Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated
    The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand would be the event to start WWI. This assassination uncovered many alliances between European countries. Apart from these alliances, militarism and nationalism would be causes of this conflict.
  • Zimmermann Telegram

    Zimmermann Telegram
    The Zimmerman Telegram would be one of the reasons, alongside unrestricted u-boat warfare, that drove the US into entering WWI. The US had persued to be neutral in this European conflict. Germany sent a telegram to the Mexican Ambassador proposing an alliance and rewarding Mexico with territory lost to the US.
  • US entry into WWI

    US entry into WWI
    The US entry into WWI would come as a result of German aggression and the need for American troops as allied countries had suffered great losses. The Allies also needed assistance at the Eastern front as Russia pulled out because of their revolution. On the homefront, anti-war sentiments were crushed by law and the demographics of the workforce would temporarily change. Woodrow Wilson would also outline a vision for world diplomacy with his 14 points speech.
  • Period: to

    Period 7 pt.2: 1918-1945

    The 1920s, The Great Depression, and WWII
  • Red Summer

    Red Summer
    In Chicago, many African-Americans clashed with white people as a result of events that took place at a segregated beach. African-Americans were moving to the north in the Great Migration, but the fear of change in white Americans would result in violent clashes. Racial violence would continue to occur all over the country and it was seen in the south in the form of lynchings.
  • Volstead Act is enacted

    Volstead Act is enacted
    In the mid-19th century, many advocated for temperance because they believed alcohol was the root cause of domestic violence and moral decay. In the 20th century, this would be the base for the Prohibition movement which found success with the 18th Amendment and the Volstead Act that banned the sale, production, and distribution of alcohol. The end result backfired as organized crime and speakeasies rose in the cities which resulted in a law enforcement problem.
  • Treaty of Versailles is signed

    Treaty of Versailles is signed
    The Treaty of Versailles would create the League of Nations, 9 new countries in Eastern Europe, and would blame Germany for the war. The US would not join the League of Nations, and Germany accumulated billions of dollars in reparations. The Treaty is seen as a failure because these provisions would serve as the reasons for the start of WWII.
  • Palmer Raids (1st Red Scare)

    Palmer Raids (1st Red Scare)
    The Russian Revolution saw a rise in the fear of communism in the United States. This would be known as the First Red Scare. Attorney General Mitchell Palmer ordered agents to raid houses in search of evidence that people were communist sympathizers. This resulted in the arrests of 6,000 people and the deportations of 250 people.
  • Ratification of 19th Amendment

    Ratification of 19th Amendment
    The second wave of the women's rights movement would bring about the 19th amendment which gave suffrage to white women. This was a result of years of advocacy on behalf of women since the Seneca Falls Convention.
  • Sacco and Vanzetti Trial

    Sacco and Vanzetti Trial
    Sacco and Vanzetti were accused of a murder that occurred in their neighborhood. They were put on trial and the evidence used was personal rather than factual information. The trial would result in their executions despite the fact that someone else confessed to the crime. This is an example of the fear of change that was prominent in the 1920s as Sacco and Vanzetti were both Italian immigrants.
  • National Origins Act of 1924

    National Origins Act of 1924
    The first cap on immigration allowed in the US would be with the 1921 Emergency Immigration Quota Act. It would use the 1910 census to determine the number of citizens allowed in the US. Then in 1924, the National Origins Act would see an even stricter cut as it used the 1890 census. By using an outdated census, it would specifically target and restrict "new immigrants." These would be examples of immigration policy that restricted "new immigrants" out of xenophobic sentiment.
  • Scopes Trial is decided

    Scopes Trial is decided
    A conflict over "moral values" was seen with the Scopes Trial in 1925. John Scopes taught evolution in the classroom which violated Tennesse laws that prohibited the teaching of evolution. This case would turn into a debate over fundamentalism v. evolution and the end result was the jury found Scopes guilty.
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact signed

    Kellogg-Briand Pact signed
    The domestic politics of the 1920s was an attempt to go back to "normalcy." In foreign policy, the 1920s saw the signing of many treaties that would prevent war from happening by outlawing it. This was be seen with the Kellogg-Briand Pact and would provide the world a false sense of security. There was no way to enforce any of these anti-war treaties and the rise of fascist countries would not be stopped leading to WWII.
  • Stock Market Crash begins

    Stock Market Crash begins
    Though the economy was already at a bad place for farmers because of the Dust Bowl, the Stock Market Crash came as a result of buying stock on credit and it would signal the beginning of the Great Depression. Many banks went under as people panicked and took money out of circulation worsening the crisis. A worldwide depression also occurred because of debt that had gone unpaid as a result of the First World War, and the Hawley-Smoot Tariff which stagnated US manufacturing sales overseas.
  • Bonus Army Incident

    Bonus Army Incident
    Bonus Army veterans from WWI wanted to claim their payment for fighting in the war early because of the economic crisis. They would protest but it would become violent as Herbert Hoover sent troops to destroy their camps. This painted a bad image of Herbert Hoover s a president that failed to grasp the severity of the crisis and would lead to the election of FDR in 1932. Though Hoover attempted to provide relief programs, they were simply not enough for the severity of the crisis.
  • FDR is inaugurated for 1st time

    FDR is inaugurated for 1st time
    FDR was elected in 1932 amidst an economic crisis. He became popular because as Governor of NY, he put in place many relief programs to help those affected by the Depression; contrasting Hoover's policy that did not do enough. His first hundred days in office were marked by the passage of many programs that provided relief, boosted recovery, and built reform. Many criticized the New Deal, and many of his programs were unconstitutional. The US would not get out of the Depression until WWII.
  • Lend-Lease Act

    Lend-Lease Act
    Though the US was technically neutral, the US signed the Lend-Lease Act which proceeded the Cash and Carry policy that aided Great Britain during WWII. The Lend-Lease Act would give war material to any country fighting the Axis Powers. It would be inevitable that US would join into fighting WWII as FDR outlined that the US should protect democracy abroad; he has outlined that the US would be the "great arsenal of democracy."
  • Pearl Harbor is attacked

    Pearl Harbor is attacked
    The attack on Pearl Harbor would be the instigating event that resulted in the US entrance in WWII. During the war, industries expanded greatly and pulled the US out of the Great Depression. This would also mean that many African-Americans and women were also now working in factories as many men were drafted to fight in the conflict. During the war, many Japanese-Americans were sent to internment camps out of fear of an internal attack.
  • San Fransisco Conference

    San Fransisco Conference
    Between V-E Day and V-J Day, many world leaders would meet in San Francisco as the United Nations was established. The UN would be a new way to resolve issues between countries diplomatically rather than another world war.
  • Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    After victory in the European theater, the US focused on the war in the Pacific. The Manhattan Project was revealed to Truman and he made the decision to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. It was evident to US officials that the war would've been prolonged if the US had not done it because the Bombing of Tokyo did not make the Japanese seek a surrender. As a result of the bomb, the Soviet Union and the US would soon enter into an arms race.