AP European History

  • 1492

    Voyage of Columbus

    Voyage of Columbus
    This journey...
    - put the North American continent on the map and spread rumors of granduer to be found there.
    - popularized a new age of exploration into the great North American expanse, opening the door for European expansion into the continent.
    - brought a vast array of new livestock, technology, and diseases to the Native American peoples.
  • 1499

    Columbus: Most Important (1400's)

    The voyage of Columbus discovered the Americas, which is arguable the biggest event of the 15th century. It introduced Europeans to the natural reserves and native peoples of the region, changing the landscape on both sides of the Atlantic forever.
  • 1511

    Raphael's School of Athens

    Raphael's School of Athens
    This painting...
    - came to symbolize the marriage of art, philosophy, and science that was unique to the Renaissance.
    - provided documentation of the major scholars and creative geniuses of the time, as well as those with major influence on humanism.
    - incorporates humanistic patterns in both its subject matter and style, providing future generations with supreme example of the artistic specificities of the time.
  • 1517

    95 Theses

    95 Theses
    The posting of these theses...
    - introduced Luther's problems with the Church to the world.
    - kickstarted the Protestant Revolution by garnering support from the general public.
    - changed the ecclesiastical and social ways of life of Europe.
  • 1519

    Cortez Conquers the Aztecs

    Cortez Conquers the Aztecs
    This event...
    - ushered in centuries of Spanish rule over the area.
    - introduced the spanish language, culture, and religion to the native peoples.
    - opened the door for European exploitation of this new land, and in the end was responsible for the great Atlantic Slave Trade.
  • 1527

    The Sack of Rome

    The Sack of Rome
    The fall of this great city...
    - debilitated the League of Cognac.
    - shifted the balance of power away from the Pope and towards the Emperor.
    - caused Rome, which had been a center for the High Renaissance, to suffer massive destruction and population decline which caused renaissance thinkers to disperse.
  • 1534

    Act of Supremacy

    Act of Supremacy
    The passing of this historic act...
    - established Henry VIII as the supreme head of the Church of England and made him the sole source of power.
    - severed ecclesiastical ties with Rome and the Pope.
    - allowed him to divorce his wives in an effort to produce a male heir.
  • 1542

    Fall of Constantinople

    Fall of Constantinople
    The fall of this great city...
    - greatly affected trade in the region, taking away one of the major trade bases of the area.
    - led to the fall of the Byzantine Empire, clearing the way for the Ottoman Turks to become the dominant power of the region.
    - forced Greek and Roman scholars into Italy, reviving the Italian Renaissance.
  • 1543

    Copernicus - On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

    Copernicus - On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
    The publishing of this book...
    - challenged traditional connections of religion and science
    - stated that the sun was the center of the universe and paved the way for future cosmic discovery
    - proposed that we do not occupy a special or privileged place in the Universe
  • 1545

    Beginning of the Council of Trent

    Beginning of the Council of Trent
    The establishment of this council...
    - embodied the counter reformation in response to the Protestant reformation.
    - defined the Catholic doctrine and made great decrees on self reform.
    - helped revitalize the Roman Catholic Church.
  • 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    Peace of Augsburg
    The passing of this treaty...
    - allowed both the Christians and Lutherans to freely practice their religions in private.
    - decided that local rulers would determine the religion for their citizens, either Catholicism or Lutheranism.
    - ended the religious conflict and violence between the two.
  • Edict of Nantes

    Edict of Nantes
    The passing of this treaty...
    - obliterated memory of previous religious conflict from the official memory of the state.
    - established Catholicism as the official religion of France.
    - allowed Calvinists to hold government office, educate themselves, and practice their religion in specific places.
  • Cortez and the Aztecs: Most Important (1500's)

    I believe that the establishment of Europe in the Americas was arguably the most decisive occurrence of the 16th century. This event ushered in a wave of cultural, idealogical, and agricultural trade, introducing a slurry of new plants, animals, religions, political ideas, and diseases to both Europe and the Americas. It was the effective connection of the globe through the Columbian Trade.
  • Start of 30 Years War

    Start of 30 Years War
    This bloody religious conflict...
    - in the end marked the beginning of the modern state system, fragmenting most of Europe.
    - resulted in the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire as its provinces greatly declined.
    - resulted in the fall of the Hapsburg Powers.
  • English Civil War

    English Civil War
    This bloody war...
    - made important developments in military, economic, and technological advancements.
    - declared England as a republic.
    - abolished the office of the King and the House of Lords.
  • Peace of Westphalia

    Peace of Westphalia
    The passing of this treaty...
    - established Calvinism, Lutheranism, and Catholicism as acceptable religions.
    - resulted in the German territories' descent into fragmentation and localism.
    - ensured secularism become the predominant force behind political decisions.
  • Beheading of Charles II

    Beheading of Charles II
    This historic death...
    - lead to the abolishment of the monarchy in England.
    - allowed Oliver Cromwell to take control of the English commonwealth.
    - took a positive step towards democracy in England.
  • Ottoman Siege of Vienna

    Ottoman Siege of Vienna
    This seige...
    - failed to take the city of Vienna.
    - marked the end of the Turkish expansion into Europe.
    - weakened the city of Vienna significantly.
  • Newton - Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy

    Newton - Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
    The publishing of this book...
    - established the laws of gravity as a force attracting all matter in the universe.
    - helped to advance the fields of physics , astronomy, mathematics and natural sciences.
    - laid the foundations of classical mechanics.
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    This upheaval...
    - established the power of Parliament to rule British affairs.
    - freed the colonies from strict anti-Puritan laws.
    - lead Britain into a constitutional monarchy.
  • Locke - Essay Concerning Human Understanding

    Locke - Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    The publishing of this essay...
    - established that everything we know, we discover through personal observation.
    - eradicated technical terms from philosophy that made no sense.
    - established that knowledge of God was not innate but learned.
  • Newton's Laws : Most Important (1600's)

    I believe the most important event of the 1600's was the publishing of Newton's Laws of the Natural World. This piece of work laid the foundations of classical mechanics and provided definitive laws of the natural world on which to base other scientific revelations. They allowed other scientists of the time to build off of a universal set of laws.
  • Peace of Utrecht

    Peace of Utrecht
    This agreement...
    - marked the rise of Great Britain under Anne.
    - ended dominating French ambitions.
    - secured the balance of power.
  • Start of Frederick the Great’s Reign

    Start of Frederick the Great’s Reign
    The reign of this king...
    - lead his nation through multiple wars with Austria and its allies.
    - expanded and consolidated Prussian lands through advanced military tactics.
    - transformed his kingdom into a modern state and established Prussia as a european power.
  • Start of 7 Years War

    Start of 7 Years War
    This world war...
    - vastly increased Britain's land in North America and changed economic, political, and social relations between Britain and its colonies.
    - plunged Britain into debt, leading to the American Revolution.
    - lost French land possesions in North America and Asia.
  • Rousseau – The Social Contract

    Rousseau – The Social Contract
    The publishing of this book...
    - helped inspire political reforms or revolutions in Europe, especially in France
    - argued against the concept of divine right and challenged monarchs who claimed authority from God.
    - said that the people are sovereign and entitled, if not required, to overthrow unsatisfactory governments.
  • The Wealth of Nations

    The Wealth of Nations
    The publishing of this book...
    - marked the birth of capitalism.
    - began the study of the science of economics.
    - introduced the theory of the "Invisible Hand"
  • Steam Engine

    Steam Engine
    This invention...
    - provided quicker transportation.
    - brought people into cities and created more jobs.
    - helped to power the Industrial Revolution.
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    The beginning of this bloody revolution...
    - Established the constitutional monarchy in France
    - Lead to the Reign of Terror and subsequent bloodshed
    - Caused Prussia and Austria to fear uprisings in their own countries
  • Reign of Terror

    Reign of Terror
    This period of suppression...
    - Ended the lives of around 17,000 Frenchmen
    - Suppressed any and all opposition to the Republic within France
    - Defended against outside dangers to the Revolution
  • The Directory

    The Directory
  • Napoleon's Coup

    Napoleon's Coup
    This coup...
    - Overthrew the government under the Directory in France.
    - Cleared the path for the despotism of Napoleon.
    - Effectively ended the French Revolution.
  • French Revolution: Most Important (1700's)

    I believe that the French Revolution was the most important event of the 18th century. It ignited a series of revolutions, overthrows, and political reformations and served as the inspiration for a wide array of reform movements. It essentially changed the political landscape of Europe.
  • Napoleon's Invasion of Russia

    Napoleon's Invasion of Russia
    This failed invasion...
    - Halted Napoleon's expansion across Europe
    - Exiled him to the island of Elba
    - Lost many French soldiers to cold, starvation and disease
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    This decisive battle...
    - Ended the Napoleonic era in France
    - Cause Napoleon to abdicate for the second time
    - Officially ended France expansion across Europe
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    This meeting...
    - decreased the size and power of France.
    - grew the power of Prussia and Britain.
    - increased nationalism in countries under foreign rule, which in turn led to revolutions.
  • Revolutions of the 1830's

    Revolutions of the 1830's
    This wave of revolutions in Europe...
    - overthrew King Charles X in France, moving from one constitutional monarchy to another.
    - led to recognition of the independence of Belgium by the Dutch.
    - led to the establishment of popular/constitutional monarchies throughout Europe.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    These revolutions...
    - led to the abolition of serfdom in Austria and Hungary.
    - ended the absolute monarchy in Denmark.
    - introduced significant cultural and societal change.
    - introduced representative democracy.
  • Communist Manifesto

    Communist Manifesto
    This published work...
    - ignited revolutions of the proletariat throughout the world.
    - challenged the political and social order.
    - outlined the class struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat and sparked unrest in the middle and lower classes.
  • Crimean War

    Crimean War
    This bloody war...
    - Lead to the signing of the Treaty of Paris.
    - Cemented an alliance between France and Britain.
    - blocked Russian expansion into Eastern Europe and the Middle East.
  • Austro-Prussian War

    Austro-Prussian War
    This historic war...
    - shifted the power of the German states away from Austria and towards Prussia.
    - Germany was unified under the Prussian Emperor.
    - Italy received Venetia.
  • Second Industrial Revolution

    Second Industrial Revolution
    This development in Europe...
    - Caused railroads to expand, developing transportation and communication.
    - A much larger portion of the population became able to purchase factory-made goods.
    - The place of women in society changed as they were drawn into the workforce.
  • Unification of Germany

    Unification of Germany
  • Berlin Conference

    Berlin Conference
    This monumental meeting...
    - Laid the ground rules for African colonization, allowing European powers to disregard the natives.
    - Made it so that no nation could stake a claim without notifying the others.
    - By 1914, Africa had been split into many countries.
  • Communist Manifesto: Most Important (1800's)

    I believe that Karl Marx' publishing of the communist manifesto was the most important even of the 1800's for many reasons. For one, it ignited a series of uprisings and proletariat gatherings in favor of socialism and equal societies. It would also become one of the most influential documents known to man and politicians, and would be the basis of much controversy and political activity.
  • World War I Begins

    World War I Begins
    The beginning of this war...
    - Draws almost every European nation into the fighting
    - Begins the first World War in history, which will go on to last 4 bloody years and even involve the nation across the sea (USA)
    - Villianizes Germany and the central powers
  • Russian Bolshevik Revolution

    Russian Bolshevik Revolution
    This revolution...
    - Destroyed the authority of the Zemstvos
    - Established the Bolsheviks as the rulers of Russia, making them the first communist country
    - Ended Russia's participation in the war
  • End of World War 1

    End of World War 1
    The effects of this world war include...
    - The dimishment of Germany and its breaking up/loss of land
    - Established the United States as a dominant world power due to their participation in the war
    - Paves the way to the rise of Hitler
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    This treaty...
    - Placed the guilt and duty of reparations onto Germany
    - Forced Germany to surrender much of its colonies and land claims
    - Returned Alsace and Lorraine to France
  • Start of Great Depression

    Start of Great Depression
    Effects:
    - this economic turmoil left much of the world open and vulnerable
    - political unrest, due to this instability in the people and economies, lead to dictatorships such as the Nazi Regime and Japanese military
    - World War two would bring a perceived "end" to the Great Depression because all of a sudden the rationing and starvation was for a cause
  • Hitler Appointed Chancellor

    Hitler Appointed Chancellor
    Effects:
    - Hitler rose to a position from where he could effectively rearm germany and fulfill his expansionist visions
    - Germany was withdrawn from the Geneva Disarmament Conference and the League of Nations
    - Germany's troops were doubled : rearmament of Germany
    - Hitler's desires of abolishing democracy would lead to WWII
  • Nazis Invade Poland

    Nazis Invade Poland
    Effects:
    - Britain mobilizes in defense of their allies, Poland
    - many other countries are pulled into the conflict due to the ally system
    - the second world war begins
  • Nazis Invade USSR

    Nazis Invade USSR
    Effects:
    - factories dismantled and moved so they could continue making war products
    - another industrial revolution in the Soviet Union
    - citizens experienced major food and housing shortages
  • Atomic Bombs End WWII

    Atomic Bombs End WWII
    Effects:
    - Atomic scientists thwarted German efforts to make equally as potent bombs from uranium
    - The bombing of Japan was the most destructive in history : radiation led to even more casualties
    - In Europe and all over the world, millions of people were displaced and found it difficult to put food on the table or return home
    - War conferences began to try and piece the world back together
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
  • Berlin Airlift

    Berlin Airlift
  • Hungarian Rebellion against USSR

    Hungarian Rebellion against USSR
  • Prague Spring

    Prague Spring
  • Fall of Berlin Wall

    Fall of Berlin Wall
  • End of USSR

    End of USSR
  • Maastricht Treaty

    Maastricht Treaty
  • Great Depression: Most Important (1900's)

    I believe the Great Depression was the most important event of the 1900's because of its effect on the people as well as the atmosphere it created that allowed the beginning of WWII. The Great Depression created stark economic instability in much of the world, and left the people of Germany desperate for hope and leadership. This allowed Adolf Hitler to gain power and begin the genocide and total war of WWII.
  • 9/11

    9/11
  • Columbus: Most Important Overall

    I believe that the discovery of the Americas was the most important event of all, and not just because I live here. Without the US there would have been no Great Depression and thus WWII (or WWI for that matter). Also, an entire society of native Americans might still be alive and thriving, not to mention the species of animals that would as well. Finally, America's contributions to the world in the form of science, technology, and politics would not exist.