AP Euro Timeline Project

  • 1453

    Fall of Byzantine Empire

    Fall of Byzantine Empire
    -The buffer between the Muslim Middle East and the Latin West no longer existed.
    -The Byzantine's were unable to reestablish power in the Balkan's
    -The power over territories such as Serbia, Bosnia, and Wallachia shifted from the Byzantine empire to the Turks.
  • 1486

    The Oration on the Dignity of Man

    The Oration on the Dignity of Man
    -It Introduced a new faith in human potential which was different from ideas of previous eras.
    -It encouraged people to cultivate skills such as painting and sculpting.
    -It pushed the idea of humanism and creating one's own destiny towards a larger amount of people.
  • 1492

    Colombus' First Voyage

    Colombus' First Voyage
    -This helped establish European settlements in the "New World", which aimed to enrich Europe
    -Further ignited the spark of exploration
    -Many Amerindians were killed
    * This is the most important event seen in the 15th century because it led to the colonization and habitation of America as a whole, and led to Cortes conquering the Aztecs. This also led to a greater expansion of the economy throughout Europe as a whole in the 16th and 17th centuries.
  • 1517

    95 Theses

    95 Theses
    -This circulated the ideas Luther had on the corruption of the church
    -Caused a Social revolution with the peasants
    -This caused religious warw between the Catholics and reformers who were against the Catholic Church's malpractice
  • 1519

    Cortes Conquers the Aztecs

    Cortes Conquers the Aztecs
    -After Cortes conquered the Aztecs overworking, & warfare took a large toll on the indigenous people. This contributed to a total of 24 million deaths from 1519-1605.
    -Europeans discovered that sugar could flourish in the newly conquered land, leading to the creation of sugar plantations with large amounts of manual labor from African slaves being used.
    -After the conquering of the Aztecs, Animal-bourn diseases ravaged the indigenous population, also contributing to the 24 million total deaths.
  • 1534

    The Act of Supremacy

    The Act of Supremacy
    -This declared the king the supreme head of the English Church
    -The Church of England became a Separate Church
    -It gave the church less ruling power and issued measures to control the clergy.
  • 1543

    On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

    On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
    -It introduced the idea of a heliocentric solar system
    -It caused Giodorno Bruno to teach and expand upon Cornicus´ ideas
    -It caused Catholics and Protestants to denounce heliocentricity, saying it was against Christian dogma.
  • 1545

    Council of Trent

    Council of Trent
    -The Council of Trent banned the selling of indulgences
    -It established methods to clean up corruption in the clergy
    -It reestablished church doctrines such as the belief in purgatory and transubstantiations.
  • 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    Peace of Augsburg
    -This established the Lutheran Church as an alternative to Catholic Church
    -Allowed Princes to define their country as Catholic or Lutheran
    -Lastly, this split the unity of the Christian Church seen in the Middle Ages
  • Edict of Nantes

    Edict of Nantes
    -The edict of Nantes ended the Religious wars
    -It introduced religious tolerance to France
    -France gained a small respite from violence
  • Defenstration of Prague

    Defenstration of Prague
    -It caused Ferdinand II to go to war to convert Bohemia to Catholicism to prevent an imbalance in power.
    -This caused a civil war to start, which soon went international.
    -Albrecht Wallenstein recognized Ferdinand needed help, so he introduced a new to fund wars, where wars would be funded by potential losers and winners
  • English Civil War

    English Civil War
    -Radicals, Men and Women, raised new demands for social justice.
    -Groups of Protestant radicals arose called Llevers, due to the poverty they faced after the war.
    -Charles surrendered to the Scotts and was turned back over to England where he moved through prisons, eventually being executed due to accusations of Treason.
  • Peace of Wastphalia

    Peace of Wastphalia
    -The Peace of Westphalia ended the 30 years' war
    -It allowed German princes to choose the religion of their state, but individuals still could not choose their religion
    -It introduced balance of power which ensured peace by making all European countries equal in power.
  • Ottoman Siege of Vienna

    Ottoman Siege of Vienna
    -Austrian forces fought back and took control over the majority of Hungary
    -The Ottoman Empire ceased to expand and gain new territories
    -The Ottoman's source of wealth dried up
    -The Ottoman's military tactics fell behind the rest of Europe
    -Ottoman leadership and powers further deteriorated
  • Principia

    Principia
    -It introduced the ideas of gravitational attraction to the public
    -It introduced the laws of motion
    -It introduced the idea that the universe is infinite and has no center; it is held together by atomic explainable forces
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    -The parliament demonstrated that the power to rule rested in the people through representatives.
    -The position of Protestantism in England was secured, by making Catholics ineligible to rule
    -It Caused parliament to begin meeting annually to secure the authority of the revolution
    -It caused John Locke to write "The Second Treatise of Government" to justify the revolution and the legitimacy of William of Orange.
  • Essay Concerning Human Understanding

    Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    -It caused many to question the wisdom of the enlightenment
    -It introduced the idea that at birth the human brain is like a blank sheet of paper
    -It caused skepticism among many writers about religious dogmas
  • Peace of Utrecht

    Peace of Utrecht
    -The Peace of Utrecht ended Louis XIV's ambitions to create a strong partnership of bourbon Monarchs in France and Spain.
    -He lost many of his land holdings in North America
    -This Further decreased his popularity throughout the French Monarchy.
  • Seven Years' War

    Seven Years' War
    -Caused the forming of an alliance between France and Austria and Russia
    -Great Britain allied with Prussia
    -The Treaty of Paris was formed
    -Great Britain became one of the world's biggest colonial powers
  • The Social Contract

    The Social Contract
    -It greatly influenced the development of democratic theory
    -It offered a solution to the conflict between freedom and social restrictions: people could enter a compact with one another, agreeing to surrender individual liberty, but gaining freedom by being part of society's general will
    -It justified authoritarian political systems and supported participatory democracy
  • Invention of the Steam Engine

    Invention of the Steam Engine
    -It allowed factories to move away from bodies of water such as rivers
    -It led to the building of canals for cheaper and easier coal transport
    -It led to an overall increase in coal transport
  • Wealth of Nations

    Wealth of Nations
    -Introduced an emphasis on commerce, welfare, and nature, rather than agriculture
    -Introduced the idea that individuals should pursue self-interest
    -Laissez-Faire adopted the book for economic guidance
  • The Tennis Court Oath

    The Tennis Court Oath
    -It marked the beginning of the French Revolution
    -It caused Louis XVI to grudgingly accept the National Assembly
    -It caused Sans Cullotes to storm the Bastille
  • Reign of Terror

    Reign of Terror
    -16,000 Parisians died to the guillotine, and a total of 50,000 died throughout all of France
    -The committee of Public Safety was created which suspended the constitution and controlled the nation
    -A policy of de Christianization was enacted, to establish enlightenment ideas
    -Robespierre was executed
  • Napoleon's Coup

    Napoleon's Coup
    -It ended the era of the French Revolution
    -France now dominated the European continent and spread revolutionary ideas around the world.
    -Frances colonies now sometimes fought against colonial rulers
  • Napoleon's Invasion of Russia

    Napoleon's Invasion of Russia
    -Only 40,000 of the original 600,000 French soldiers returned home
    -The Russians implemented the scorched earth policy, burning everything behind them to prevent the French from living off the land
    -The French hegemony ended
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    -It created territorial adjustments, such as the creation of the German Confederation
    -It imposed the congress system to prevent future conflict
    -It treated France moderately to ensure no feelings of revenge.
    -There was 100 years without major conflict
  • 1848 Revolutions

    1848 Revolutions
    -It caused Fredrick William IV to reject the German crown, therefore preventing a liberal and united Germany.
    -Many People died including 300 early in the revolution, and over 1,500 in the bloody June Days
    -It caused Meissoner to paint "Memory of Civil War"
  • Crimean War

    Crimean War
    -It caused the death of over 250,000 soldiers
    -It made Russia's military less formidable
    -The Sebastopol was attacked by France, Britain, Piedmont, and the Ottomans
  • Austro-Prussian War

    Austro-Prussian War
    -Austria was expelled from the German Confederation
    -Prussia gained control over the Northern German Confederation
    -Four times as many troops died in Austria than Prussia
  • Franco-Prussian War

    Franco-Prussian War
    -The Liberals overthrew the government of the second empire and declared the third empire of the French Republic
    -King William I became emperor of German Empire
    -German Unity was Achieved
  • Second Industrial Revolution

    Second Industrial Revolution
    -The annual production of steel rose more than 50 fold from 1850
    -By 1912 the Us was the world's largest producer
    -New chemical-based fabrics spawned many infant industries
    -Electricity and Petroleum became practical sources of power because of the electrical dynamo, steam turbine, and internal combustion engine.