Ap Euro History Timeline

  • Jan 1, 1350

    Development of the cannon

    invention of the cannon mounted on ships helped with territoty expansion.
  • Jan 1, 1356

    the golden bull of 1356

  • Jan 1, 1400

    The "rebirth" a new golden age

  • Jan 1, 1400

    indiidualis, humanism, and seculerism

  • Jan 1, 1429

    Joan of arc rallies french monarchy

  • Jan 1, 1434

    Cosimo de Medici inherits family banking power in florence

  • Jan 1, 1453

    Sultan Mohammed II seizure of constantipole

  • Jan 1, 1453

    End of the hundred years' war french victory

    relief of orleans and joan of arc
  • Jan 1, 1469

    Marriage of Isabela of Castile and Ferdinand of Agron.

  • Jan 1, 1477

    union of habsburg and burgundy dynasties through marriage of Johanna and phillip.

  • Jan 1, 1477

    Habsbrg unity of most europe, marriage of miximilian I and Mary of burgundy

  • Jan 1, 1487

    Diaz pushes portugal south from north africa

    Bartholomew Diaz under prince henry the naviagtor of portugal pushes south from north africa.
  • Jan 1, 1492

    Columbus lands in the "New World"

  • Jan 1, 1494

    Charles VIII of france invades italy

  • Jan 1, 1500

    Brazil is claimed by portugal.

  • Jan 1, 1509

    Portugal controls the indian trade

    the portuguese gained contol of Indian trade by overpowering muslim forts in India.
  • Jan 1, 1516

    The Concordat ofBologna the treaty thatallowed French kings toeffectively control theappointment and policiesof the church officials

  • Jan 1, 1517

    Martin Luther wrote95 theses on the power ofindulgences. Explaining hisbelief that indulgenceswere wrong and did notcorrectly repay for sinscommitted.

  • Jan 1, 1519

    Magellan claimes the western isles for spain

    Magellon sails to the western isles and claims them for spain and proves the earth is rounder and larger than columbus thought
  • Jan 1, 1519

    cortez conquers aztecs

    Cortez also claiims mexico city as the capital of new spain.
  • Jan 1, 1523

    german translation new testament

  • Jan 1, 1525

    Peasants’ revolt inGermany because oflandlord seizure to villageland and crop failures (notsupported by MartinLuther).

  • Jan 1, 1525

    English translation of the new testament

  • Jan 1, 1527

    status of renaissance artists highered.

  • Jan 1, 1530

    Gold and silver rush of spain

    Caused by the opening of new mines through spanish expansion.
  • Jan 1, 1531

    Pizarro conquers Incas

    Pizarro conquers the incas of peru and opens the potosi mines shortly after.
  • Jan 1, 1533

    Ivan the terrible reigns russia

    throne at age 13
  • Jan 1, 1542

    sacred congregation of the holy office

  • Jan 1, 1555

    Most of NorthernEurope was broken in thecatholic church andProtestantism wasfragmented into sects

  • Jan 1, 1556

    Revolt of the Netherlands

  • Jan 1, 1559

    End of Spanish-French wars

    Spanish victory was the cause of many european wars
  • Jan 1, 1561

    Francis bacon experimental method

  • Jan 1, 1568

    Alva + troops sent to low countries

    Sent to crush disturbances in the low countries under habsburg rule
  • Nov 21, 1570

    tycho brahe astrological observations

  • Serfdom reestablished

    reestablished in prussia, russia, poland.
  • Dutch east India company founded

    A joint-stock company founded by regents of holland.
  • Thirty years' war bohemian phase

  • Battle of white mountain

    czech nobles defeated by habsburgs.
  • Rene Descartes deductive method

    Discoveries in geometry, algebra, and deductive method.
  • Society of london founded

    brought scientists and practical men together
  • richileu dominates french government

  • Copernicus' theory rejected by church

  • The counter-reformation

    catholic church discouraged science, protestant church pro-science.
  • Galilieo tried by the church for heresy

    forced to recant his views.
  • Richielieu named first minister

  • english civil war until 1649

  • Baroque style

  • French classicism

    Age of french classicism art and literature.
  • Treaty of Nijmegen

    Louis XIV gains flemish and Franche-Comte property.
  • Glorious revolution of England

  • Ottoman attack on Austria fails

  • edict of Nantes revolked

    The catholic Louis XIII revolked the edict of nantes that gave protestant huguenots religious freedom.
  • Fontelle's "conversations of the plurality"

    Stressed progress and uncertainty about religious truth.
  • Newton principia showed universal gravitation

  • Hungary and Transylvania conquered by habsburgs

  • Great briatin trade expansion

  • Peace of utrecht

    end of the french expansionist policy
  • pragmatic sanction

  • frederick william I of prussia

  • elementary school mandatory in prussia

  • foudling homes established

  • Wesley preches revival in England

  • Jesuits ordered out of France louis XV

  • 1765 Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny which helped women spin multiple threads at once.

  • 1769 Watt creates a more efficient steam engine than the ones created by Savery and Newcomen.

  • American revoultion

  • infanticide common among poor

  • 1789 formation of the national assembly called to by the third estate but was cancelled by king Louis XIV

  • 1789 tennis court oath was written and demanded the representatives of the three estates not leave until they wrote a new constitution

  • 1789 the storming of the bastille by parasians angry about the rising prices of bread

  • 1789 the national assembly's decleration of the rights of man proclaimed the rights of all citizens and guaranteed equality before the law and a representative government

  • 1789 women march Versailles and force the royal family into paris

  • 1791 the decleration of pillnitz is proclaimed by European monarchs afraid of the liberal and radical ideas spreading to their countries promised the restoration of a monarch and threatened the invasion of france by Austria and Prussia.

  • 1792 national convention proclaimes france a republic

  • 1793 Louis XIV and Marie Antionette convicted of treason for attempting to run away, Louis XIV guillotined.

  • 1793 Robespierre creates the committee of public safety and executes girondist leaders with help from the sans-cullotes, he gains complete power

  • 1793 the reign of terror under paranoid Robespierre whom jailed or guillotined thousands of people who didn't have similar ideas

  • 1794 execution of maximillien Robespierre due to his paranoia and excessive guillotining.

  • 1794 thermadorian reaction

  • 1795 the directory rules france

  • smallpox conquered by innoculation

    edward jenner
  • 1798 Thomas Malthus publishes his essay on overpopulation entitled "Essay on the principle population" arguing that population would grow at a faster rate than food supply

  • 1799 Napoleon overthrows the directory and seizes power of france

  • 1799 French voters approve napoleons constitution

  • 1799 the combination acts law is passed by parliament outlawing the organization of unions and strikes for workers.

  • Illigetamacy explosion

  • Literacy expansion

    france, scotland, england.
  • 1800 napoleon creates the bank of France

  • 1800's Ideas of the romantic movement begin to spread across Europe.

  • mad scramble

    a race between the euopean states to conquer countries in africa to expand their territories and colonies.
  • 1801 France defeats Austria, gains territory in Italy and Germany through the treaty of Luneville

  • 1802 France signs the treaty of Amiens with Britain

  • 1802 the use of pauper apprentices forbidden by parliament

  • 1804 napoleon declares himself the emperor of France

  • 1805 Napoleon defeats Austria and Russia at the battle of Auscherlitz

  • 1810 the cotton spinners in Manchester, England go on strike.

  • 1812 Napoleon and his army invade Russia, but makes a disastrous retreat

  • 1812 luddites attack factories in northern England that they believed were putting them out of work

  • 1812 France goes to war with the great powers, great powers are victorious.

  • 1814 Russia, Austria, Britain, and Prussia form an alliance to defeat Napoleon

  • 1814 Congress of Vienna held by conservatist Metternich of Austria meets with Russia, Prussia, and Britain in order to construct a settlement for peace in Europe and to keep France in check.

  • 1815 the holy alliance (Russia, Prussia, Austria) formed declaring "divine legitimacy" and equal faiths

  • 1815 revision of the corn laws in Britain

  • 1819 Carlsbad decrees issued by Metternich carried out by the German confederation that placed spies to investigate radical and liberal organizations and restrict freedom of the press.

  • 1820-1848 The divided Italy attempted a revolt but was put down by Austrian forces

  • discovery of quinine

    helped tret malaria
  • 1824 the combination acts are repealed by parliament and unions were allowed but they weren't fully accepted until 1825.

  • 1830 Stephenson creates England's first important railroad with his locomotive the rocket.

  • 1830 Greece inspired by the national revolution fights and becomes independent from the ottoman empire with the help of Britain, France, and Russia.

  • 1832 reform bill in passed Britain and increases the number of eligible voters by 50 percent.

  • 1833 the factory act is passed limting the workday hours for young children and adolescents.

  • 1840's rapid population increase causing overcrowding and unsanitary health conditions due to urban industrialization.

  • 1840's The chlorea outbreak begins in Europe due to unsanitary water wells

  • 1842 the mines act is passed prohibiting women and children under the age of 10 to work underground due to health hazards.

  • 1842 Edwin Chadwicks "sanitary conditions of the laboring population" describes the unsanitary and unsafe conditions of the working population in detail.

  • 1854 the germ theory by Louis Pasteur begins to develop

  • 1845 the great famine begins in Ireland due to potato deficiencies and diseases, and a large increasing population.

  • 1846 polish revolt against Austria

  • 1847 radical and conservative civil war in Switzerland.

  • 1847 the ten hours act is passed in Britain limiting work hours for women and children.

  • 1848 uprising in Naples, Italy.

  • 1848 the revolts of France, Austria, and Prussia.

  • Louis Napoleon III elected president of France in 1848

  • 1851 the crystal palace (England) holds the great exposition to show off new inventions to the world

  • Count Camillo Cavour was appointed prime minister of Sardinia by Emmanuel II, he worked towards unification of Italy 1852

  • perry (united states) opens japan for trade

    • through the use of millitary intimidation
    • japan wanted to be independent from trade of the united states and europe
  • 1854 Louis Pasteur develops the method of pasteurization after studying fermentation.

  • 1855 Sardinia gained allies with france and Britain by fight with them in the Crimean war against russia

  • 1859 Sardinia with the aid of france successfully fights a war with Austria, and annexed lombardy

  • 1860 Garabaldi leads volunteers in "red shirts" into sicily and successfully conquer sicily and naples

  • 1862 Bismarck becomes chief minister of prussia

  • 1866 Bismarck successfully leads Prussia in the austro-prussian war

  • Completion of the suez canal

  • 1870-1871 Bismarck wages the Franco-Prussian war against france to bring southern Germany into the union

  • Congress of berlin

  • widespread idea of social darwinism

    Belief that the white race was superior to the people of asia and africa influincing the idea of new imperialism.
  • british take control over egypt

  • berlin conference

  • ethiopia repels italian invasion attempt

  • hundred days reform-china

  • united states takes over the phillipines

  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary murdered

    • start of world war I Murdered by a group of radical bosninan serbs
  • Austria-hungary issues an ultimatum to serbia

    resulted in war
  • Russians begin mobilization

    -A response to Austro-hungary's decleration of war on Serbia
    - Russia had a pact to be allied with serbia in case of war
  • Germany declares war on Russia

    • because they saw moblization/ pact with serbia as a threat
  • Germany declares war on France

    • because of French moblization the same day as the russians moblized & entangling alliances
  • Germany executes the schlieffen plan

    • Millitary strategy in which the germans would attack france and neutral belgium quickly and then advanced to Russia before they got a chance to help the french due to the fact that they were geographically surrounded by their enemies. (Attack on belgium caused britain to join the side of the french and russians)
  • First battle of the marne

    • French and German armies on the coast of flanders attempting to outflank the other army but proved to be long and ineffective, example of the practice of trench warfare
  • Sinking of the Lusitania

    • Example of the naval warfare practiced by germany, they declared the water around britain a war-zone and sank any ship that tried to enter british ports, the lusitania was a british ship carrying american passangers which made the americans upset and caused them to eventually join the war on the side of russia, britain, france
  • Rasputin murdered by a group of arch-monarchists

  • Zimmermann telegram

  • First russian revolution

    • Collapse of capital city Petrograd due to major food shortages where the soliders joined the strikers
    • Provisional government took over authority
  • United States declares war on germany

    on the side of the allies (france, russia, britain)
  • Russians sign the treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    removing them from the war, german confiscation of land was huge but didnt last due to their defeat in the war
  • Bolsheviks led by Lenin gain power in russia

  • Bolshevik revolution

    • Bolsheviks take over key positions and gain control through a small revolution causing the collapse of the short-lived provisional government
  • Armistice ends the war

    • Wilhelm (germany) signed an armistice ending the war due to fear that germany would follow the example of russia and revolt
  • treaty of versailles (French, united states, britain, Italy)

    • Made germany responsible fore the outbreak of war
    • Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France
    • Germany forced to pay huge repeartions for war
    • Germany had to limit their army
  • Czechoslovakia created by combining the lands of the czechs and the slovaks

  • Hungary became independent

  • Romania created out of the former Austro-Hungary

  • Serbia gains territory and creates the state of yugoslavia

  • Poland becomes independent

  • Baltic states Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Finland created

  • collapse of the ottoman empire

  • Mussolini (italy) organizes the first facist party

  • Wildrow wilson's fourteen points & proposal of the league of nations

    • League of nations: international body that would work to settle disputes between nations to create peace
    • fourteen points: A document that sought to reduce future tensions between nations by maintaining free trade and ending secret negotiations, emphasized peace between nations to prevent future wars
  • weinmar constitution established

  • formation of communist international

  • Bolsheviks adopt the name communists

  • Fredrich Ebert approves the "free corps" in the weinmar republic

    • Voluntary paramillitary groups who served to put down radical rebellions that threatened the exsistence of the republic
  • Lenin introduces the New Economic Policy (NEP)

    • Economic plan that placed control of industry in government hands but also allowed for a scope of private enterprise
    • economy made a quick recovery
  • mussolini becomes prime minister of italy

  • German economic hyperinflation

  • Lenin dies, Joseph Stalin gains power in russia

  • Dawes Plan

    • an attempt following World War I for the Allies to collect war reparations debt from Germany. The Dawes Plan provided short term economic benefits to the German economy. It softened the burdens of war reparations, stabilized the currency, and brought increased foreign investments and loans to the German market.
  • Lucarno agreement (germany and France)

    • Germany accepted the current borders of france and germany (alsace lorraine)
    • French troops withdrew from the rhinelnad
  • Stalin introduces the 5-year plan

    • An economic plan introduced with unrealistic expectations for industrial expansion
    • Forced collectivation of agriculture of the kulaks
  • Kellog-Briand pact

    an international treaty "providing for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy." It failed in its purpose but was significant for later developments in international law. It was named after the American secretary of state Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand, who drafted the pact.
  • Germany joins the league of nations

  • stock market crash

  • Lateran pact

    • between Musssolini and Catholic church
    • Made peace with the catholic church and papacy officailly recognized the italian state
  • Young plan

    • Economic plan in which United States loaned money to germany to help them pay off reperations
  • Spread of Facism in the 1930's

    • specifically in Germany, Italy
  • Nazi party makes huge electorial gains

  • Hitler commits suicide

  • Franklin Roosevelts 'New Deal'

  • Nazis becomev largest party in the reichtag, Hitler becomes chancellor

  • germany withdraws from the league of nations

  • Reichtag fire

    • Reichtag member set the reichstag buidlding on fire which provided hitler with the oppotunity to blame communists and accuse them of being a threat to the government
  • Enabling act

    • Gave nazi party emergency powers to govern the state and made hitler furher after the reichtag fire
  • Night of the long knives

    • Hitler has his old ally and leader of the SA Ernst Rohm murdered because Hitler wanted to make the SA the backbone of a new revolutionary army
  • nuremberg laws directed against german jews

  • german remillitarization of the rhineland

  • British appeasement of Germany

    • British give in to german demands due to fear that if combined with the powers of italy, germany would defeat britain
    • Allowed german occupation of rhineland, creation of the Rome-Berlin Axis, holding of the olympic games in Berlin
  • Germany invades Austria

    • German troops move into Vienna, other countries dont do anything about it
  • Germany threatens to invade czechoslovakia unless the sudetenland was given to the reich

    • Sudentenland was turned over to germany but they invaded czechoslovakia anyways
  • Munich agreement

    • (britain, france, italy, germany) agreed to the transfer of the sudentenland (which had majority german nationality) if germany agreed to respect the remaining czechoslovakia
  • Nazi-Soviet nonagression pact

    • germans and russians agreed not to attack each other after stalin dosent make any progress in negotiations with british and france
  • germany invades poland

    • immediate cause was the german invasion of poland
  • Britain and France declare war on germany

    • WWII begins, caused by Germanys invasion of poland
  • Practice of Blitzkrieg warfare by the german army

    -Swift attacks using tanks and other highly moblie units, supported by warplanes
  • French army defeated by German troops

  • Winston Churchill replaces Chamberlin as prime minister

  • Vichy regime created in France replacing the third republic

    • France made a deal with germany after their defeat by the german troops in which german troops would occupy more than half of france
    • New government created under Marshal Petain who blamed the third republic for the humiliating defeat of FRance who was later convicted as a traitor
  • Battle of Britain

    After quickly defeating most of Western Europe, the Nazis launched an aerial attack against Great Britain in 1940. Believing that the bombing raids would force England's surrender, the raids, targeting both military and civilian targets, lasted until 1941. The British Army withstood the brutal Luftwaffe assault, and Hitler shelved his plan for the invasion of Britain.Turning point of the war for the allies.
  • Entry of the united states into the war

    • second turning point of the war, sparked a new energy of war in the west In response to the Japanese attack on pearl harbor and hitlers decleration of war on the united states brought into the conflict of the axis powers (germany, italy, Japan)
  • Japanese attack pearl harbor

  • Germans launch operation barbarossa

    • German attack on the Soviet Union ( hitler had dreamed of defeating the soviet union)
  • Atalntic charter

    1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII and to work for peace after the war
  • Russia, united states, Britain form an alliance against germany

    "the allies"
  • D-Day invasion

    • Allies invade western europe from great britain, Russian lifting of the seige of Leningrad
    • Marked the beginning of the end for nazis
  • percentages agreement (Churchill and Stalin)

    document between Churchill and Stalin that divided the various nations of Eastern Europe into spheres of influence based on percentages of influence. it was refused entirely by the US
  • Yalta conference

    conference at which the Declaration of Liberated Europe was passed saying that governments were to be formed that were broadly representative of all democratic elements in the population and that free elections were to be held at the earliest possible time
  • Potsdam conference

    • The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdam, outside Berlin in July 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
  • VE day

    May 8, 1945; The name of the day which ended World War II
  • Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima&Nagasaki

  • vj day

    -Japanese government surrendered on August 14, 1945
    --peace was signed aboard USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on September 2, 1945
    --Allies declared victory over Japan
  • United nations created as a charter is ratified

    the organization created to replace the League Of Nations, based in New York to ensure the US' participation in the organization
  • Nuremberg Trials

    • Trials for the crimes against humanity committed by the nazis
  • Establishment of fourth republic france

  • refendelum establishes the italian republic

  • Churchill's iron curtain speech

  • Truman Doctrine

    American policy that dominated the Cold War. "it must be the policy of the US to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."
  • Marshal Plan Introduced

    America's economic aid package for Europe. it resulted in Stalin taking a harsher stance against America, thinking that this was a method through which the States sought to gain support in East European nations.
  • India and Pakistan become independent

  • Soviet Union and Yugoslavia break

  • Isreal established as a state

  • National health service established in Great Britain

    plan that was begun by the Labour Party in 1945 which was a cradle-to-grave social welfare program, providing for a comprehensive system of free health care.
  • NATO formed

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
    Importance- Gave each country the piece of mind they needed agianst the Communists
  • Berlin airlfit leads to ending of the blockade

  • Death of Stalin

  • French defeated in indochina

  • warsaw pact

    treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
  • Uprisings in hungary put down by soviet troops

  • construction of the berlin wall

  • Cuban missle crisis

    the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
  • Student protests in United states and europe

  • Prague spring

    refers to the Czechoslovakian reform movement that occurred in 68. led by Alexander Dubcek
  • Brandt becomes german chancellor

  • "bloddy sunday" ireland

    thirteen catholic peace makers shot
  • Jon Paul II elected pope

  • Margaret Thatcher becomes prime minister

    the first woman prime minister of great britain
  • Gorbachev becomes leader of the soviet union

  • End of communist rule in Europe

  • reunification of germany

  • end of the soviet union

  • maastricht treaty

  • former yugoslavia violent ethnic problems

  • Putin becomes president of russia

  • introduction of the euro

  • former warsaw pact countries enter NATO