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Mussolini timeline project

  • Formation of independent Italy

    Formation of independent Italy
    The Risorgimento movement fought and it fulfilled the goal of Italian nationalists and irredentists.
    picture: the Italian royal family that was taken out of power once Italy had gained its independence
  • Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy

    Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy
    Italy took the Papal States over through the backing of a plebiscite held in early October, this happened due to the pope not wanting to agree with Italy’s terms. Both the Papal states and Rome were annexed to the kingdom of Italy.
    picture: a map image of the Papal states
  • Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)

     Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)
    Mussolini wanted to conquer Ethiopia due to the borders but failed due to the Ethiopians defeat of the Italians and Eritreans
    picture: a painting of the first italo-ethiopian war
  • Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti

    Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti
    To take control of his own image, Mussolini took over the Avanti newspaper which was the loudest voice for the Socialist's party.
    picture: a cover of the Avanti newspaper
  • Italy invades and takes over Libya

     Italy invades and takes over Libya
    the Italian government invaded Libya and captured tripoli from the Turkish they did this to conduct a military operation against the ottoman empire.
    picture: a picture taken as Italy invaded Tripoli's shoreline
  • Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I

       Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I
    This was the event in which Mussolini was kicked out of his position in the Italian Social Party (PSI) because of his political standpoints and actively advocating military intervention in WW1. He publicly would oppose socialist policies being neutral.
  • Treaty of London

    Treaty of London
    The Treaty of London was a secret treaty between neutral Italy and the Allied forces (France, Britain, and Russia) to bring Italy into World War I. Italy was promised Trieste, southern Tyrol, northern Dalmatia, and other territories in return for a pledge to enter the war within a month.
    picture: a photo of the treaty of London after being signed
  • Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan

     Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan
    A fascist organization formed by Mussolini in 1919 which was created after WWI and made to appeal to veterans across the political spectrum. This was later reorganized into the National Fascist Party (1921).
    picture: the symbol representing the Fascio di Combattimento
  • Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader

    Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader
    The PNF was an Italian political party formed by Mussolini as a political expression of Italian Fascism and a reorganization of the earlier Italian Fasces de Combat. Mussolini was elected the leader.
    Picture: a symbol of the PNF
  • D’Annunzio takes Fiume

    D’Annunzio takes Fiume
    Gabriele D'annunzio, an Italian Nationalist poet decided to take Fiume, as he gathered men and claimed himself the commandant. The groups name was 'Reggenza Italian Del Carnaro'. This success was later thwarted by the Treaty of Rapallo, naming Fiume a free state.
    picture: The men D'Annunzio gathered on their way to Fiume
  • Beginning of Biennio Rosso

    Beginning of Biennio Rosso
    1919-1920 this was a social conflict within Italy following WWI that led to a violent reaction of the Fascist blackshirts militia and the march on Rome.
    picture: the Fascist blackshirts militia in action
  • Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti

    Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti
    Giovanni Giolitti who was an Italian statesman and was prime minister if offered the fascists an electoral alliance, an antisocialist National Bloc, for the national elections. This is where 35 fascists were elected, including Mussolini.
    picture: a portrait of Giolitti himself
  • March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister

    March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister
    27-29 October, 1922 The march on Rome marked the beginning of fascist rule in Italy and became the downfall of preceding parliamentary regimes of socialists nd liberals. Mussolini was appointed Prime Minister by the king.
    picture: the march on Rome
  • Acerbo Law passed

    Acerbo Law passed
    The Acerbo Law was an Italian electoral law proposed by Baron Giacomo Acerbo and passed by the Italian Parliament. Its purpose was to give Mussolini's fascist party a majority of deputies.
    picture: a portrait of Baron Giacomo Acerbo
  • Corfu Incident

    Corfu Incident
    A brief occupation of the Greek island of Corfu by Italian forces. Italians forming part of an international boundary delegation were murdered on Greek soil, leading Benito Mussolini to order a naval bombardment of Corfu.
    picture: an image of the Italian boundaries being created of of the shores of Corfu
  • Aventine Secession

    Aventine Secession
    Withdrawal of the parliament opposition, mainly comprising the Italian Socialist Party, Italian Liberal Party, Italian Popular Party and Italian Communist Party, from the Italian Chamber of Deputies, following the murder of the deputy Giacomo Matteotti by fascists on June 10th, 1924.
    picture: leaders discussing the Aventine Seccession
  • Matteotti Crisis

    Matteotti Crisis
    1924-1925 political confrontation between liberals and the Fascist government of Italy after the assassination of Giacomo Matteotti, a Socialist opposition deputy, by Fascist thugs in June 1924.
    picture: a portrait of Giacomo Matteotti
  • Battle for Grain

     Battle for Grain
    A campaign by Mussonini with the aim of self-sufficient wheat production in Italy. It was successful obtaining the increase in the national production of wheat.
    picture: Mussolini threshing grain in the marshes
  • Locarno Treaty signed

    Locarno Treaty signed
    A treaty written between Britain, France, Belgium, Italy, and Germany that granted protection of Germany's Western Frontier. Italy committed itself to repelling any armed aggression across the frontier.
    picture: meeting of the Locarno Treaty
  • Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira

    Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira
    An economic policy undertaken by the Fascists in Italy during the 1920's to make Italy maintain its complexion of being a great power.
    picture: a news article criticizing the battle for land/lira
  • Battle for Births

    Battle for Births
    A demographic campaign that aimed at increasing the Italian population from 40 million in 1927 to 60 million by 1950. In order to make this idea more appealing to the public, the government would give loans to married couples and take away taxes to those families that produced at least 6 kids. He would also increase the taxes of bachelors and high merit jobs were only offered to those who were married and fertile.
    picture: a badge of honor to mothers who gave birth to more than 5 children.
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed

    Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed
    15 nations signed the pact at Paris. Signatories included France, the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Belgium, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Italy and Japan. Eventually 62 nations signed this treaty and its main purpose was to prevent war through a means of limiting naval construction.
    picture: world leaders at the Kellogg-Briand treaty meeting signing it
  • Lateran Treaty with Pope

    Lateran Treaty with Pope
    In order to increase he Fascist party agenda, Mussolini created the Lateran Treaties with the Pope. These treaties declared the Vatican City to be its own independent state, the pope would recognize the Italian state, and agreed Roman Catholicism would be the official religion of Italy.
    picture: Mussolini speaking with the pope and discussing the Lateran Treaty
  • Abyssinian Crisis

    Abyssinian Crisis
    a dispute between Italian and Abyssinian forces in the Wal-Wal oasis. Mussolini used this as a reason for the invasion of Abyssinia in 1935. During this march to war, the Abyssinian leader, Haile Selassie, took his case to the League of Nations in the hope of receiving assistance from them.
    picture: a map of where Italy invaded during the Abyssinian crisis
  • Stresa Front

    Stresa Front
    Coalition of France, Britain, and Italy formed in April 1935 at Stresa, Italy, to oppose Adolf Hitler's announced intention to rearm Germany, which violated terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
    picture: a political cartoon depicting Hitler being outcasted in the Stresa front discussion
  • Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed

     Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed
    Rome-Berlin Axis, Coalition formed in 1936 between Italy and Germany. An agreement formulated by Italy's foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano informally linking the two fascist countries was reached on October 25, 1936. It was finalized in 1939.
    picture: Mussolini and Hitler driving together after discussing the treaty
  • Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War

     Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War
    Following the military coup in Spain at the start of the Spanish Civil War, the Spanish Second Republic turned to the Soviet Union and France for support, and the Nationalists requested the support of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Italy sent 80,000 men, of whom almost 6,000 belonged to the Italian Air Force, 45,000 to the army and 29,000 to the fascist militia. Italy was against Spain.
    picture: a political cartoon about the Spanish civil war
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    An agreement between Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France, stating Germany would have permission to annex Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia.
    picture: various world leaders meet at the Munich conference
  • Italy invades Albania

    Italy invades Albania
    Apr 7, 1939 – Apr 12, 1939
    It was a brief military campaign by Italy towards the Albanians. Their previous disagreement was surrounding imperialism policies imposed by Mussolini during the interwar period, resulting in Italian victory and King Zog leaving Albania after it became part of the Italian protectorate.
    picture: Italian troops marching into Durrës, Albania, 7 Apr 1939
  • Italy Enters WW2 on Germany's Side

    Italy Enters WW2 on Germany's Side
    France was about to fall and World War II seemed virtually over, did Italy join the war on Germany's side, still hoping for territorial spoils.
  • Mussolini Brought Down by Coup in WW2

    Mussolini Brought Down by Coup in WW2
    Mussolini is voted out of power by his own Grand Council and arrested upon leaving a meeting with King Vittorio Emanuele, who tells Il Duce that the war is lost. Mussolini responded to it all with an uncharacteristic meekness.
  • Mussolini Killed

    Mussolini Killed
    Benito Mussolini was summarily executed by an Italian Partisan in the small village of Giulino di Mezzegra in northern Italy in the final days of WWII.
    picture: a portrait of Benito Mussolini