Period: Jul 20, 1304 to Jul 19, 1374
Francesco Petrarch's LifeFrancesco Petrarch was a humanist who lived during the 14th century and is considered the "Father of Humanism," because he helped to spark the humanist movement during the early Italian Renaissance. He was born in Arezzo, Tuscany in 1304, and died in Arqua, Carrara in 1374.
Apr 6, 1327
Francesco Petrarch's poems about LauraPetrarch saw a lady named Laura in church during 1327 and began writing poems about her in secret. This is Petrarch's most famous work of literature.
Period: Jan 1, 1337 to Jan 1, 1453
The Hundred Years Warhttp://www.history.com/topics/hundred-years-war
The Hundred Years War (1337-1453) was between France and England in the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, in which the English monarch believed he had claims to the French throne, and the French monarch believed he had claims to certain English land. Even though the English won many decisive battles during the war, near its end, Joan of Arc stepped up and led France to a very patriotic victory, collapsing the English Empire.
Period: Oct 1, 1347 to Sep 1, 1353
The Black DeathThe Black Death, named by the black boils that appeared on the skin of the infected, was an outbreak of the bubonic plague from Asia that spread to Europe by fleas and rats through the ports of Italy and reached England in 1348. The plague wiped out 75 million people, which was one third of the population at the time. The heavy presence of death was viewed as punishment from God and blamed on the Jews.
Period: Jan 1, 1350 to Jan 1, 1550
Jan 1, 1405
Christine de Pizan publishes "The City of Ladies"Christine Pizan's "The City of Ladies" is a book that highlights the virtues of women, their ideal social status, and how they should be educated equally to men. This is Pizan's most famous work. -Michael Sawyer
Period: Oct 21, 1422 to Jul 22, 1461
The Reign of Charles VII of France
Period: Jan 1, 1434 to
Rule of the Medici in Florence (Giovanni, Cosimo, and Lorenzo)The Medici family was compatible with the Italian Renaissance, coming from a humble background, but rising to rule Florence. They were the most powerful citizens of Florence, leaders of the largest bank in Europe, and through strategic marriage alliances, joined Europe's royal families. Giovanni, Cosimo, and Lorenzo Medici rose by building immense wealth and their skill in arranging alliances making them unique among princes of their time.
Mar 25, 1436
Brunelleschi designs Il Duomo (the Dome of the Florentine cathedral)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8e8Cj7VxtfI The Florentine Cathedral was started in the 13th centuries, and fully completed on March 25th, 1436. The decoration inside and the design outside the cathedral stands out very detailed and rich colors. The Florentine church was the major church in Italy during the Italian Renaissance. Amy Zhou
Jan 1, 1440
Gutenberg invents the printing pressAfter several years of of designing the printing press, Johannes Gutenberg, the German goldsmith, created a press with moveable type. The printing press used individually-cast letters that could be arranged into a page and quickly printed, instead of the laborous work of carving letters into wood, which greatly contributed to the spread of literacy and books.
Period: Jan 1, 1450 to
Period: Jan 1, 1455 to Jan 1, 1503
Rule of the Borgiashttps://www.britannica.com/topic/Borgia-family The Borgias were a family of Italy during the time of the Renaissance. They were an extremely powerful family, but did a lot of bad things like murder, poisoning, incest, things of that nature. Callixtus III, the pope, was of the Borgia family as was Alexander VI. The Borgias gained a horrible reputation and associated with dark deeds.
Period: May 22, 1455 to Jun 16, 1487
England's Wars of the RosesWars of Roses were wars for the throne.Red rose of Lancaster&white rose of York.Lancaster Henry IV got the power from Richard III.Lancaster Henry VI married the Margaret the Anjou&excluded Richard of York.Richard fought back&Edward IV got throne.Edward broke with the Earl of Warwick&chaos started.His brother Richard III seized throne.In 1485,Lancaster Henry Tudor defeated Edward&joined the two roses by marrying Elizabeth the York&ended the war.
Period: Jul 20, 1461 to Aug 22, 1483
The reign of Louis XI of France
Period: Oct 18, 1469 to Jan 1, 1504
Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella of SpainFerdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile married on October 18, 1469, and proceeded to unify Spain under their rule through family marriages. They established a new ruling body, the Cortes, that consisted of bureaucrats, gave Spain the official religion of Christianity, established the Inquisition(to discover and punish insincere conversos- converts from other religions), and sponsored the explorer Christopher Columbus.
Oct 27, 1469
Life and important works of Erasmushttps://www.britannica.com/biography/Desiderius-Erasmus
Desiderius Erasmus was the most famous northern humanist and also the first editor of New Testament. He spent most of his life in Catholic church and he gained fame both as an educational and also as a religious reformer. He aspired to unite the classical ideals of humanity with the Christian ideals of love and faithful. “Colloquies” is a collection of “Adages” which is a dialogue talks about religious dogmatism and superstition.
Period: Jan 1, 1478 to
The Spanish InquisitionEstablished under Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, the Inquisition was a judicial institution initiated in order to combat heresy, or non-Catholic practices, in Spain. The goal of the administration was to unify the new monarchy by converting or executing the large Muslim and Jewish community, in often brutal ways. The inquisitors, or officers in change of such events, were clergy, including,Tomas de Torquemada.
Dec 6, 1478
Baldassare Castiglione and The Book of the CourtierCastiglione was an Italian diplomat, courtier, and author, made famous through his work, The Book of the Courtier. It was written about the ideal courtier and how he should conduct himself both in and out of the courtroom. The writing style shows heavy influence from Greco-Roman literature and contains many humanistic ideas. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Baldassare-Castiglione Andrew Carson
Period: Aug 29, 1484 to Jul 25, 1492
Pope Innocent VIIIPope Innocent VIII was pope from August 1484 to July 1492, He swayed the other cardinals to vote for him by bribery. When he was pope, he excommunicated Francesco Coppola and Antonello Sanseverino of Salerno, then he allowed King Charles VIII of France to take over all of naples. photos on link http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08019b.htm
By Cole Shackelford
Jan 1, 1485
Boticelli Paints the "Birth of Venus"The "Birth of Venus" is a famous artwork by Sandro Botticelli. Commissioned by the Medici family, Botticelli completed the work circa 1483-85. A strong representation of typical Renaissance style, it depicts the goddess Venus rising from the sea as a grown woman. This allusion to Greco-roman ideas displays the influence of Humanism on art during this era. The work is currently on display at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy.
Period: Jan 1, 1485 to Jan 1, 1509
The Reign of Henry Tudor VIIHenry Tudor the seventh came to power in 1485 after the Battle of Bosworth field. He was the ruler of England who really centralized England's monarchy. He did this by not calling on Parliament to help him but instead wining the favor of the common people. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-3AzwCaVWWA -Eliza Hogan
Jan 1, 1486
Pico della Mirandola publishes his " Oration on the Dignity of Man"Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) is an Italian Renaissance nobleman, scholar and philosopher. The " Oration on the Dignity of Man", which had been called as the " manifesto of the Renaissance", is a public discourse which he pronounced in 1486. This document focused on the relation of human to the divine, evaluated humanism to a truly Christian level. http://study.com/academy/lesson/oration-on-the-dignity-of-man-summary-quotes-analysis.html Tina Cui
Period: Aug 11, 1492 to Aug 18, 1503
Pope Alexander VIPope Alexander VI was pope after Innocent VIII, he was an avid gambler but became one of the wealthiest men of his time. When pope he was pope, he dedicated himself to rebuilding the fortifications of many Italian cities, and much of The Vatican City. He supported education and also rebuilt the Roman University. He did nothing to try to get rid of the French who still occupied Italy, but tried to make an agreement which failed.
By Cole Shackelford
Oct 12, 1492
Christopher Columbus "discovers" the New Worldhttp://www.biography.com/people/christopher-columbus-9254209#first-voyage-to-the-new-world Commissioned by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabel of Spain, Christopher Columbus(1451-1506) embarked three ships on a 36 day voyage, hoping to discover a faster trade route to India. Columbus credited with the first discovery of the New World that lead to subsequent colony development as well as founding the transatlantic slave trade. Evan Riegle
Jan 1, 1495
The Last SupperThe Last Supper was created between 1495-1498 by Da Vinci. It was on the wall of Santa Maria delle Grazie ,Milan. He used his own technic to paint this. The Last Supper is the story from the Bible. He chose to paint the moment when Jesus announces to the apostles that he knows one of them will betray him to show the different reaction of each apostle. From Da Vinci’s paint, he combined the Christian characteristic of art work, and also humanism idea from Renaissance.
May 19, 1500
Albrecht Durer self portraitAlbrecht Durer lived from 1471-1528 and was born in Nuremberg, Germany into a goldsmithing family. Albrecht Durer most famous work was his self-portrait he made in 1500 right before his 29th birthday, where he resembled himself as a Jesus-like figure. Link text
Jan 1, 1503
Mona LisaMona Lisa was created in Florence, and it took about 4 years for Da Vinci to finish it. He used the technology of sfumato(the use of fine shading), which is a new style created in the Renaissance Period. This paint shows Da Vinci’s idea of the universal link connecting humanity and nature. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IitbJszd1kM
Jan 1, 1504
Michelangelo Finishes His Sculpture of Davidhttp://www.accademia.org/explore-museum/artworks/michelangelos-david/ Commissioned originally by Opera del Duomo to a different artist about a half a century earlier and attempted again by yet other artists, Michelangelo transformed this huge, unfinished block of marble into a masterpiece. The statue depicts David from the Old Testament story of David and Goliath in a state of peak concentration before he was to face, the giant, Goliath. Robert Samuel Wood
Period: Jan 1, 1509 to Jan 1, 1511
Raphael paints The School of Athenshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Smd-q44ysoM
The School of Athens is a fresco painted by Raphael between 1509 and 1511. The philosophers Plato and Aristotle are depicted at the center of the painting, where they are surrounded by other great scientists and philosophers. All the characters' features in Raphael's painting demonstrate his famous contemporaries, and the entirety of the painting can be called a "virtually perfect example of Renaissance technique".
Jan 1, 1512
Michelangelo Finishes His Painting of the Sistine Chapelhttps://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/renaissance-reformation/high-ren-florence-rome/michelangelo/a/michelangelo-ceiling-of-the-sistine-chapel Commissioned by Pope Julius II and started in 1508, Michelangelo's fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel is one of his most well known works of art. It features scenes from the Old Testament of The Bible spanning from the creation of the earth all the way to Noah and the flood. Robert Samuel Wood
Jan 1, 1532
Machiavelli Publishes the Prince (posthumously)Machiavelli Wants You to Click Here Niccolo Machiavelli wrote The Prince as a political treatise that outlined how he believed a prince should behave in Renaissance Italy. He suggests that princes should be feared rather than loved, along with other morally ambiguous ideas. It was not published until about 5 years after his death, in 1532. Caroline Morales
Sep 22, 1567
The Peasant Wedding by Pieter BrueghelThe painting is depicted with oil paint on wood. The picture described the simplicity and poorness of the peasant life. The feast toke place in a barn with stacked-up straws and corns behind the guests next to the wall. The norm of nourishment during middle ages consisted of bread, porridge and soup. In the picture, these dishes were served on a broken down door. https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/renaissance-reformation/northern/antwerp-bruges/v/bruegel-peasant-wedding -Kevin Liu