Pattern 2

15th Century Art Culture

  • Jan 1, 1400

    The Seated Ganesha

    The Seated Ganesha
    The piece was cut out of ivory within the 14th and 15th century. Ganesha is a Hindu god, Shiva and Parvati's first son. He controls the creation and removal of obstacles. It is custom to worship Ganesha before undertaking a serious task. His four arms are grasphing an elephant goad, a box of treats he is sampling, two snakes, and one tusk.
  • Jan 1, 1400

    Haboku-style Landscape

    Haboku-style Landscape
    This is a hanging Japanese scroll painted by was painted by Sesso Toyo in the 15th Century during the Muromachi period. Its 3D character rocks, trees, and mountains are conveyed by ink layer, splashes, and careful brushwork.
  • Jan 1, 1400

    Two Dervishes

    Two Dervishes
    This drawing was made in Iran during the fifteenth century. It portrays two dervishes. Dervishes are Sufi Muslim religious members devoted, having taken vows of austerity and poverty. In their spirited rituals they would spin and dance as a form of prayer. They came into existence around the twelfth century.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1400 to Dec 31, 1500

    15th Century Art & Culture

  • Feb 1, 1400

    Dragon Pine

    Dragon Pine
    This piece was painted in 1400 by a Daoist named Wu Boli. Because pine trees are known to survive winter they are connected with moral virtue, survival, and longevity. The tree may also be a symbol of the "perfect being". Its form resembles that of a dragon, a being whose nature the Daoists strive to tap into. Their source for final energies begins at the stream's edge or mountain's base which is where this pine is located.
  • Jan 1, 1413

    Statue of St. Mark

    Statue of St. Mark
    Work on Donatello's St. Mark began in 1411. The saint is both a disciple and author of the New Testament. The work was meant for a niche in the Orti San Michaelis in Florence where the town market had been. Each guild had a niche. The linen drapers chose Donatello for the project. Each was supposed to be done by 1412, but because of Donatello the deadline had to be extended. In the end, his statue was very much appreciated with its long torse and lifelike proportions. It now stands in a museum.
  • Jan 1, 1417

    Statue of Saint George

    Statue of Saint George
    St. George was sculpted by Donatello in Florence. The story goes that a dragon was pestering the people of Silene, Libya. The princess of the kingdom was to be sacrificed. She was saved when she met St. George, a stranger, on the street. He heard her story and agreed to kill the dragon. Once he had he converted the town, convinced of his divine favor, to Christianity.
  • Jan 1, 1420

    The Forbidden City

    The Forbidden City
    The Forbidden City was the home of the Chinese emperors, beginning in 1420. There is debate over who was the architect. Most believe it was Cai Xin. Others say Nguyen An. It covers 178 acres, has 980 buildings, including gardens, a moat, and a 32 ft. wall surrounding it. The outer court or southern section was the site of general business. Its largest building, The Hall of Supreme Harmony marks its end. The inner court or northern section housed the Emperor and the harem for his concubines.
  • Jan 1, 1424

    Bodhisattva Manjushri as Tikshna-Manjushri

    Bodhisattva Manjushri as Tikshna-Manjushri
    This is a Tibetan Buddhist-style sculpture by an unknown artist during the Ming Dynasty and the reign of the Yongle emperor probably around 1403-1424. He holds a book in one hand (Perfection of Wisdom Sutra) and a sword in his dominant right. In his secondary hands he holds the remainder of a bow and arrow.
  • Jan 1, 1430

    Bronze David

    Bronze David
    The Bronze David by Donatello scholars suggest was commissioned by a patron and friend, Cosimo de Medici in Florence. It was the first statue of its kind because it was made entirely of bronze. The theme is a common Old Testament Bible story of the victory of the boy, David, over the giant, Goliath. His pose is so effeminate that if it weren't for the genitalia, we might think it a woman. It is said that Goliath's head between David's feet is meant to signify the artist's openly gay lifestyle.
  • May 6, 1432

    Ghent Altarpiece

    Ghent Altarpiece
    The Ghent Altarpiece by Hubert and Jan Van Eyck was dedicated in St. John's Church. It was painted at first by Hubert. Then, upon his death, his brother Jan, finished it. It has a realistic effect due to its lifelike scale of plants, animals, and religious figures. Among these figures are nude portrayals of Adam and Eve. With its wings open the main feature is a landscape of paradise where the focus is on the Adoration of the Mystic Lamb.
  • Mar 25, 1436

    Brunelleschi Dome

    Brunelleschi Dome
    In 1420 Filippo Brunelleschi, a goldsmith, won the supervision of the project to finish the dome of the Florentine Cathedral. He proposed to build two domes, one inside the other. It spanned 150 ft. and began 180 ft. off the ground. It was built using hoists and cranes instead of scaffolding. The dome was finished and commemorated at the Feast of the Annunciation by Pope Eugenius IV. Filippo died a decade later of a sudden illness. They buried him in the cathedral's crypt.
  • Mar 25, 1436

    Nuper Rosarum Flores

    Nuper Rosarum Flores
    Guillaume Dufay's "Nuper Rosarum Flores"Translated it means "The Rose Blossoms." This musical piece by Italian composer Guillaume Dufay was written for the dedication of the Florence Cathedral, the Santa Maria del Flores. It's an isorhythmic motet said to mirror the cathedral's architecture and/or possibly that of the Solomonic Temple.
  • May 1, 1437

    Elegant Gathering in the Apricot Garden

    Elegant Gathering in the Apricot Garden
    This Chinese hand scroll depicts a historic event, the meeting of nine scholar-officials in Beijing. In this cultural spring theme, the host is Yang Rong positioned before an ornamental rock. The state of the garden suggests it was painted during the Ming Dynasty. It is painted after the style of Xie Huan, most likely a copy to commemorate the occasion. The chief advisor of the emperor and the oldest in attendance is Yang Shiqi.
  • Jan 1, 1446

    History of the Florentine People

    History of the Florentine People
    Leonardo Bruni wrote the first book of modern history attempted. A total of twelve books, it divided the time periods into Antiquity, Middle Ages, and Modern times. He began writing in 1415. All twelve books were published together in 1446, two years after his death.
  • Jan 1, 1450

    "Ars Moriendi" or "The Art of Dying"

    "Ars Moriendi" or "The Art of Dying"
    The book was published between 1414 and 1418, and in English in 1450. It is a guide to the practices of dying and the life that followed. The Council of Constance, a meeting of Christian minds, drafted the work meant for lay person and clergy alike. The first version of the book had prayers and rituals to be practiced at the time of death. The second had illustrations and was shorter.
  • Jan 1, 1451

    Mamluk Tile

    Mamluk Tile
    This tile from the Mamluk rule, a realm that covered Syria and Egypt, is characteristic of their preference for white and blue floral designs. The Chinese both in color and style heavily influenced it. The tile was most likely fashioned by Iranian artists who migrated west at the beginning of the 15th century. It dates in the latter half of the century.
  • Jan 1, 1455

    The Gutenberg Bible

    The Gutenberg Bible
    The Bible is the first Western book printed in between 1454 and 1455. Johannes Gutenberg used his printing press with movable type. It had 1286 pages, used 50,000 sheets of paper, and the maximum number of lines on a page were 42.
  • Jan 1, 1469

    Le Mort Darthur

    Le Mort Darthur
    The book was written in 1469-70 by Sir Thomas Malory. It is the first English account made up of 21 books about King Arthur's ascendance, the knights of the roundtable, Guenevere, the quest for the holy grail, and Arthur's death. In 1450 Malory turned to a life of crime and was imprisoned numerous times on several charges. It answered an interest in Britain to seek its history and chivalric code. It was first printed in 1485 by William Caxton.
  • Jan 1, 1470

    Mass "Pro Defunctis"

    Mass "Pro Defunctis"
    Ockeghem Requiem PlaylistJohannes Ockeghem wrote a polyphonic requiem mass. It's one of his best works. It might have been written at the request of King Louis XI of France who was said to be fixated with death. Ockeghem's style was more of the Franco-Netherlandish than of the Italina flavor. Ockeghem is known as one of the fathers of Renaissance music. It's made of five movements: Introitus, Kyrie, Graduale, Tractus, & Offertorium.
  • Jan 1, 1478

    The Adoration of the Magi

    The Adoration of the Magi
    This work by Sandro Botticelli was a take on the Christmas story. It was painted in several versions between 1478 and 1482. The journey to Bethlehem of the Holy family and the Magi was reeacted in the streets of Florence every five years. Hundreds attended. Qualities of piety, pomp, and devotion are expressed in the painting.
  • Jan 1, 1486

    The Birth of Venus

    The Birth of Venus
    The work was painted by Sandro Botticelli in Florence between 1485 and 1486. The artwork was guided by the appreciation of Lorenzo the Great and the poetry of Angelo Poliziano. It commemorates the arrival of the Roman goddess, Venus. Aura and Zephyr, the gods of the winds guide Venus to the shores. As she is landing she is being covered by a member of the Graces with her own cape. Venus is shown modesty and shown as the patron saint and matron of spring and creation.
  • Jan 1, 1490

    Death and the Miser

    Death and the Miser
    This was painted by Hieronymous Bosch, a Netherlandish artist, between 1485 and 1490. His work is known for its moralist and pessimistic view of reality in relation to God and death. The dying man is conflicted, having to choose between the angel's salvation and the demon's moneybag. Much of his painting is in line with Ars Moriendi, or the "Art of Dying".
  • Jan 1, 1490

    Vitruvian Man

    Vitruvian Man
    Leonardo Da Vinci's Vitruvian man was drawn in pencil and ink in 1490. It is an homage to Vitruvius, an architect who stressed balance and proportion. With limbs outstretched, his navel is in the center of the drawing. Of the square and circle outlining the figure, he is within both simultaneously and in two poses. The noted text above and below the figure is Vitruvius's theory, paraphrased by Da Vinci.
  • Jan 1, 1498

    The Last Supper

    The Last Supper
    The Last Supper painted by Leonardo Da Vinci in between 1492 and 1498 can be found in Milan on the prefectory wall of the Santa Maria delle Grazie. The Bible moment depicted is not only of the meal, but what happened at the moment he told his disciples that one among them would be a traitor to him. The picture is well organized with the attention culminating to the Christ figure. Judas's face is symbolically in shadow.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    The Pieta

    The Pieta
    The Pieta was sculpted between 1498 and 1500 by Michelangelo Buonarroti. It portrays Mary holding her dead son after He had been taken down from the cross. It's in the side chapel of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. It's carved and polished out of a Carrera marble. It is special because it is one of the few works he ever signed, in this case inscribed. The proportions are off for dramatic effect. It is said if the Virgin Mary stood up she would be 6' 6".