Islamic methods of abreviation and symbolism are introduced into algebra, developing new ways to solve complex algebraic equations.
Jan 1, 1440
Johann Gutenberg developes a moveable-type printing press, revolutionizing the process of mass printing, and making books more accesible to everyone.
Jan 1, 1453
Abacists Teach Math to Merchants
Needing to keep track of their money and trades, Italian merchants inspire a new class of mathematicians called abacists, who write the texts from which they teach the necessary mathematics to those wishing to become merchants. These abacists continue teaching for the majority of the fourteenth century.
Jan 1, 1484
French Algebra and Arithmatic
Chuquet, a French physician, wrote, "Triparty en la science des nombres", a work on algebra and arithmetic in three parts, the first detailed French text on the subject. However, it was not printed until 1880 CE.
Jan 1, 1486
"The Birth of Venus"
Sandro Botticelli completes his masterpiece tempera painting entitled, "The Birth of Venus". This painting depicts the Roman godess Venus emerging from the sea.
Jan 1, 1498
"The Last Supper"
Da Vinci finishes his tempera mural entitled,"The Last Supper", depicting Jesus dining with His twelve apostles.
Jan 1, 1500
The First Watch is Created
Peter Henlien of Nuremberg, creates the first watch, a small clock that can be carried around in the pocket, running on a coiled spring wound the same way as modern analog clocks.
Jan 1, 1502
Michaleangelo completes his masterpiece marble sculpture entitled, "David", depicting the Biblical hero David standing nude.
Jan 1, 1508
The Human Body
Da Vinci begins a new notebook investigating parts of the human body and how they work, contributing greatly to the understanding of human anatomy.
Jan 1, 1510
The Sistine Chapel Ceiling
Michelangelo completes the painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling. This work depicts many human figures in many variationns, such as body positions, clothing, and facial expression. Michelangelo's work proved his great skill as an artist, even though he was painting while lying on his back.
Jan 1, 1513
Leonardo da Vinci completes his oil painting of a woman entitled, "Mona Lisa".
Jan 1, 1543
The Solar System
Copernicus writes a work that places the sun at the center of the universe and the planets in semi-correct order around it, creating a semi-correct map of the solar system.
Jan 1, 1543
The Subject of Anatomy
Andreas Vesalius, a Flemish doctor, publishes 'De Humani Corporis Fabrica'. This book is based largely on human dissection, and transformes anatomy into a subject that relies on observations taken directly from human dissections.
Jan 1, 1543
Niccolo Fontana Tartaglia
Niccolo Fontana Tartaglia publishes a Latin translation, the first printed edition, of Euclid's Elements, a mathematical textbook originally printed in 300 BCE.
Jan 1, 1550
World's First Calculus Text
Jyesthadeva, a mathemtician and astronomer, writes the world's first calculus text.
Jan 1, 1581
Galileo discovers the pendulum and invents a clock that uses the pendulum to keep the movement of the hands or bell of the clock at a constant speed. The average error with the pendulum varies only by seconds each day. Before the penduulum, this error varried from 10 to 15 minutes a day.
The First Microscope
Two Dutch spectacle makers, Zaccharias Janssen and his son Hans, while experimenting with several lenses in a tube, discover that nearby objects appear greatly enlarged. This is the birth of the microscope, and later inspires the creation of the telescope.
'De Magnete' is published by William Gilbert and is quickly accepted as the standard work on electrical and magnetic properties throughout Europe. In it, Gilbert distinguishes between magnetism and static, and developes an entire magnetic philosophy.
The First Telescope
The first telescope is invented in the Netherlands, as a way to see objects far away.This telescope consists of a convex and a concave lens inside a tube. In the year 1609, Galileo refines the design of the telescope, inceasing the magnifying power, eventually able to see as far as the stars and planets.
Scientist William Harvey propses a theory about the role of heart in circulating blood through the body and to the vital organs. In order to enhance and support his theory, Harvey studies the functions of the blood and heart in live animals. Harvey publishes his first findings in a book called ‘An Anatomical Study of the Motion of the Heart and of the Blood in Animals’.