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ART 623 Virtual Museum: 1500-1600 A.D.

  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to

    ART 623 Virtual Museum: 1500-1600 A.D.

  • Jan 1, 1502

    Donato Bramante, Tempietto, 1502. San Pietro in Mortorio, Rome, Italy.

    Donato Bramante, Tempietto, 1502. San Pietro in Mortorio, Rome, Italy.
    Bramante’s Tempietto or “Little Temple” erected for St. Peter is classified as a martyrium or a religious structure built over the tomb of a martyr. Tempietto’s location is known as the “traditional site” of St. Peter’s suffering. The structure is filled with examples of Renaissance and Classical elements such as a dome, columns executed in the Doric order and a decorative frieze that contains Christian iconography. The merging of the styles creates a pleasing, cohesive whole.
  • Jan 1, 1504

    Michelangelo, David, (1501-1504 A.D.) Marble. Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence, Italy.

    Michelangelo, David, (1501-1504 A.D.) Marble. Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence, Italy.
    A closer perspective The quintessential artwork of the Renaissance and Humanism, Michelangelo’s David stands 14 feet tall and is a symbolic figure of Florence. The intense stare and furrowed brow on David’s face is representative of the moment before the battle with Goliath. Symbolisms reign throughout the work. Michelangelo secretly sculpted the David for 3 years. His knowledge of human anatomy is demonstrated throughout the piece.
  • Jan 1, 1505

    Tilman Riemenschneider, Holy Blood Altarpiece (c. approx 1501-1505 A.D.) Church of St. Jacob, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Germany.

    Tilman Riemenschneider, Holy Blood Altarpiece (c. approx 1501-1505 A.D.) Church of St. Jacob, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Germany.
    A closer look at the centerpiece, click on the pictureRiemenschneider delicately carved this elaborately intricate altarpiece out of lime wood leaving the piece purposely unpainted. His signature figures, feminine bodies with masculine facial features are displayed in elegant drapery long flowing hair. The center of the piece displays the Last Supper. However, Jesus is placed to the left leaving Judas in the center. The altarpiece's side panels display scenes of Christ’s Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem and the Atonement.
  • Jan 1, 1505

    Kangaku Shinso (Soami), Landscape of the Four Seasons, Early 16th Century (no defined date). Pair of six–fold screens, ink on paper. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

    Kangaku Shinso (Soami), Landscape of the Four Seasons, Early 16th Century (no defined date). Pair of six–fold screens, ink on paper. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    Kangaku Shinso (Soami) painted these six screens of a Chinese landscape after being inspired by a hand scroll painted by a 13th century monk. The screens feature tranquil and serene environment with mountains placed in mist atmosphere, waterfalls and rivers. Shinso created this artwork using soft subdued hues.
  • Jan 1, 1507

    Giogione, Old Woman (Col Tempo), Early 16th Century. Oil on canvas. Galleria dell'Accademia, Venice.

    Giogione, Old Woman (Col Tempo), Early 16th Century. Oil on canvas. Galleria dell'Accademia, Venice.
    Giorgione’s honest portrayal of an old woman displays his skill as an artist as he is able to capture not only her physical features but create an emotion around her. The woman’s slouched posture, untidy hair, and aged skin tell a story of their own, allowing the viewer to contemplate the older woman’s life. She holds in her had a paper that says “Col Tempo” meaning “With Time.” The woman’s mouth is slightly opened making it seem as if she has something to say.
  • Jan 1, 1510

    Leonardo da Vinci, Embryo in the Womb, (c. 1510). Pen and Brown Ink. Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, Royal Library.

    Leonardo da Vinci, Embryo in the Womb, (c. 1510). Pen and Brown Ink. Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, Royal Library.
    View more of da Vinci's drawingsLeonardo da Vinci who was artistically and scientifically minded drafted thousands of studies of the human anatomy and artistic concepts. His scientific drawings included studies of the fetus in the womb. This drawing illustrates an opened uterus revealing the fetus and umbilical cord. Another sketch reveals the fetus in the amniotic fluid. Da Vinci’s sketch also displays his peculiar mirror writing which reads left to right and must be viewed in the mirror to read properly.
  • Jan 1, 1511

    Raphael, School of Athens, c. 1509-1511. Fresco. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican, Rome.

    Raphael, School of Athens, c. 1509-1511. Fresco. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican, Rome.
    Enlarged pictureThis large fresco represents the greatest Greek minds of the Classical Era. Plato pointing upward and Aristotle to the right are in the center of the vanishing point. Raphael painted da Vinci’s face to represent Plato. Various other great minds are represented throughout the work, Euclid, Pythagoras, Heraklitos, and Ptolemy. Raphael is inserted into the work. He is located in the right corner next to the column of the arch in between Ptolemy with his back turned and the man in the white cap.
  • Jan 1, 1512

    Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, c. 1508-1512 A.D. Fresco. Vatican, Rome.

    Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, c. 1508-1512 A.D. Fresco. Vatican, Rome.
    7 Interesting facts The center of the ceiling features nine main scenes from the Old Testament. There are four large paintings and five smaller featuring four nudes or “ignudi” on each corner. The triangular corners of the ceiling called “spandrels” are Old Testament scenes. Spandrels above the windows are painted with the ancestors of Christ. Sibyls and prophets fill in the spaces in between.
  • Jan 1, 1514

    Albrecht Dürer, Melencolia I, c. 1514. Engraving. Kupferstichkabinett, Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe, Germany.

    Albrecht Dürer, Melencolia I, c. 1514. Engraving. Kupferstichkabinett, Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Dürer was revolutionary in the skill of etching and engraving. As with most Renaissance artworks Melencolia I is filled with hidden and debated meaning, however most believe the intention of this engraving is due to Dürer’s mothers death on the 5th of May 1514. The “magic square” on the wall reads the date. Melancholy was attributed in the Renaissance era to creativity and intellect.
  • Jan 1, 1515

    Josquin des Prez: "Missa Pange lingua" (c. approx. 1515)

    Josquin des Prez: "Missa Pange lingua" (c. approx. 1515)
    Sample of "Missa Pange lingua"
    Franco-Flemish composer Josquin des Prez was the most significant composer of the Renaissance. Born Josquin Lebloitte, born between 1435-1450 and died in 1521. He became famous after composing "Ave Maria" (approx. 1485) which is now deemed a classic. "Missa Pange lingua" or "Mass Speak My Tongue" was his final work. des Prez's inspiration for the mass is accredited to 13th C. philosopher Thomas Aquinas.
  • Jan 1, 1515

    Hieronymus Bosh, Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1510-1515. Triptych. Oil on Wood. Museo del Prado, Madrid.

    Hieronymus Bosh, Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1510-1515. Triptych. Oil on Wood. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
    See it closer Bosch’s triptych is incredibly complex and has been debated as to its intention over the centuries. The left panel is called Garden of Eden; the center panel, World Before the Flood; and the right panel, Hell. The work has been interpreted as an alchemic vision, a dream, or a parody on morality/carnal lusts filled with religious iconography
  • Jan 1, 1516

    Sir Thomas More's Utopia (c. 1516 A.D.)

    Sir Thomas More's Utopia (c. 1516 A.D.)
    Thomas More’s (1477-1535) philosophical and self-reflective book on all aspects of social condition, and citizenship within ones society discusses the idea of a “perfect” civilization on the island of Utopia, where living is communal and all share in a common culture. The book is separated into two sections, Book I is referred to as “The Dialogue of Council.” Book II regards the laws and customs of Utopian culture.
  • Jan 1, 1520

    Unknown Artist, Queen Mother Pendant Mask, 16th Century. Benin Nigeria. Ivory and Iron. British Museum, London.

    Unknown Artist, Queen Mother Pendant Mask, 16th Century. Benin Nigeria. Ivory and Iron. British Museum, London.
    Ceremonial ivory mask used for the Embodo ritual by the Obo or king to ward off evil powers. The mask was made in honor of The Queen Mother of Obo Esigie in the 16th century. Intricately crafted the headpiece of the mask is representative of Portuguese figures that brought power though commerce as well as protection and cooperation to the Benin people.
  • Jan 1, 1534

    Hans van Amsterdam, Coconut Cup with Cover, ca. 1533-1544. Silver gilt, coconut. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

    Hans van Amsterdam, Coconut Cup with Cover, ca. 1533-1544. Silver gilt, coconut. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    This coconut cup is carefully decorated with scenes from the Old Testament and is inscribed with a Latin verse warning individuals about the superfluous consumption of wine. Referred to as an “Indian nut” the coconut was considered a highly exceptional object to posses in the Renaissance Era. Belief was, the shell of a coconut had a medicinal remedy and by drinking out of the cup it had the ability to offset poisons.
  • Jan 1, 1540

    Popular Musical Instrument- The Spinetta (c. 1540 A.D.) Venice, Italy

    Popular Musical Instrument- The Spinetta (c. 1540 A.D.) Venice, Italy
    Listen to the Spinetta (left side of the page below image) A popular and more economical musical instrument than the harpsichord, the spinetta was shaped in a polygonal or rectangular form and equipped with one set of strings. The instrument was usually elaborately decorated with whimsical motifs.
  • Jan 1, 1543

    Benvenuto Cellini, saltcellar of Fracis I, (finished 1543 A.D.) Gold and Enamel. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

    Benvenuto Cellini, saltcellar of Fracis I, (finished 1543 A.D.) Gold and Enamel. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
    Mannerist artist Benvenuto Cellini created this elaborate saltcellar for Francis I of France. It features mythological Gods Neptune and the Earth Goddess. There are several embellishments on the piece such as figures surrounding the bottom of the cellar posed in elaborate twists of the body, which is classic Mannerist stylization. The flamboyancies of Cellini’s creation is said to be a reflection of the creators personal lifestyle. The highly polished gold adds an ostentatious effect.
  • Jan 1, 1550

    The Great Abu Sa'ud Teaching Law: Folio from the Divan of Mahmud 'Abd al–Baqi, Mid 16th Century. Turkey. Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

    The Great Abu Sa'ud Teaching Law: Folio from the Divan of Mahmud 'Abd al–Baqi, Mid 16th Century. Turkey. Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper. The Metropolitan Museum of Art
    This illustration of an ancient Turkish poet and judge Mahmud 'Abd al-Baqi comes from his book titled Divan. This section features intricate detailing of nature and animals, which flows in a whimsical manner complimenting the main scene. In the center is a depiction of Mahmud ‘Abd al-Baqi and others discussing theological issues with the Shaikh al-Islam, Abu al-Sa‘ud.
  • Jan 1, 1562

    Titian, Rape of Europa, (c. 1559-1562). Oil on canvas. Isabelle Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston.

    Titian, Rape of Europa, (c. 1559-1562). Oil on canvas. Isabelle Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston.
    Titan portrays the mythological scene of Jupiter disguised as a white bull carrying away Europa. The scene displays rich, vivid colors. The reclining nudes create a tense emotional atmosphere that some art historians’ claim is filled with a sensual enthusiasm. The two flying cupids mimic Europa’s excitement as the third swims on a fish who stares at the audience with the same expression. This painting is an example of Titans loose brushwork.
  • Jan 1, 1570

    Humayun's Tomb, Mausoleum. Delhi, India.

    Humayun's Tomb, Mausoleum. Delhi, India.
    Get a More Detailed LookThis mausoleum commissioned for Emperor Humayun by queen Ḥamīdah Bānū Begam is the primary example of the garden tomb in Mughal architecture. A Persian named Mīrak Mīrzā Ghiyās̄ created the architectural design for Humayun’s Tomb. The structure is built on 25 acres and incorporates a grid pattern called a “paradise garden.” The tomb was the inspiration for the future Taj Mahal (1634) in Agra India.
  • Jan 1, 1580

    Longleat House (c. 1580 A.D.) Warminster, Wiltshire, United Kingdom.

    Longleat House (c. 1580 A.D.) Warminster, Wiltshire, United Kingdom.
    Longleat House built by Sir John Thynne in 1580 is an excellent example of High Elizabethan architecture. The exterior features a Tudor style façade- three stories and symmetrical. Throughout the centuries many fashionable updates have taken place within the house however, the Great Hall is still reminiscent of 16th century architecture featuring an original carved fireplace. The stately home has been kept within the Thynne family. The current Marquesses of Bath lives in the home.
  • Matsumoto Castle (c. 1590 A.D.)

    Matsumoto Castle (c. 1590 A.D.)
    Originally a fort built in Nagano, Japan in 1504 known as Fukashi Castle, Matsumoto, nicknamed the “Crow Castle” because of its black exterior was completed by Ishikawa and his son Yasunaga. Matsumoto contains five levels and six stories. The first floor called the main keep or donjon still has its original wood floors and interior. The second has been turned into a gun museum. The castle is classified as a flatland castle.
  • Jacopo Tintoretto, Last Supper, (c. 1592-1594)

    Jacopo Tintoretto, Last Supper, (c. 1592-1594)
    Informative video Venetian painter Tintoretto is an example of a Counter-Reformation painting. The center table is positioned in a diagonal creating an elongated picture drawing the eye upward and into focus with Christ. In this dark painting the two sources of light, the hanging lantern and the halo around Christ create an incredibly dramatic atmosphere.
  • Thomas Morley's "Now is the Month of Maying" (c. 1595 A.D.)

    Thomas Morley's "Now is the Month of Maying" (c. 1595 A.D.)
    ListenAppearing in the The First Booke of Balletts to Five Voyces, Morley’s English madrigal- a lyrical poem put to music and sang a cappella by 4-6 persons, is representative of popular music of the 16th century.
  • William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet (c.1596)

    William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet (c.1596)
    Romeo and Juliet, Act II Scene IIWilliam Shakespeare (1564-1616) the most important and recognized playwrights and poets of all time composed his popular romantic tragedy Romeo and Juliet in 1596. The story is about a pair of star-crossed lovers who sacrificed their lives for their devoted love.
  • Caravaggio, Calling of St. Matthew, (c.1599-1600). Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome.

    Caravaggio, Calling of St. Matthew, (c.1599-1600). Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome.
    This dramatic representation of Christ calling St. Matthew as an apostle provides a sharp contrast between light and dark known as “tenebrism.” The light shines behind Christ representing a divinity while Matthew is hidden in the shadows focusing on counting his money. The postures of the men at the table are mostly questioning and attentive as one points to Matthew as if saying “Him?” Caravaggio was pioneering in his representation of Christian themes.