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American History 1

  • 1492

    Columbus finds America

    Columbus finds America
    Columbus set Sail and later found America, which was called "the new land"
  • 1519

    Hernando Cortez

    Hernando Cortez
    Claimed new colonies for Spain.
    Conquered the Aztec Empire (Most Aztec died from small pox and measles.)
  • 1532

    Francisco Pizarro

    Francisco Pizarro
    Claimed new colonies for Spain.
    Conquered the Inca Empire in Peru.
  • 1539

    Hernan de Soto

    Hernan de Soto
    Assisted Pizarro with the conquest of the
    Inca.
    First to discover and cross the mississippi River.
  • Founding of Jamestown

    Founding of Jamestown
    1st successful English settlement!
    Primarily settled to make money
  • Roger Williams

    Roger Williams
    Banished from Massachusett, where he left and established Providence, Rhode Island on land he brought from the Native Americans.
  • Pequot War

    Pequot War
    Pequot indians in Connecticut resisted white settlement.In 1637, pequot were virtually wiped put by the English
  • Anne Hutchison

    Anne Hutchison
    Banished from colony and moved to rhode island.
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    King Phillip’s War

    Involved the wampanoag indians in the plymouth colony. They began to attack white settlements. Indians were defeated and marked the end to indian resistance in new england
  • Pittsburgh

    Pittsburgh
    The French built Fort Duquesne at the point where the Ohio River forms
  • Proclamation

    Proclamation
    Proclamation of 1763
    Forbade colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains and put the territory under British military control.
  • Sons of Liberty

    Sons of Liberty
    In response to the Stamp Act, the colonists boycotted British goods.
    Means they refused to buy them.
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    Stamp Act Congress

    Colonists held a meeting called the Stamp Act Congress in response to the Stamp Act
    Declared “no taxation without representation”
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    The British fired into a crowd that was threatening them, killing five civilians and wounding 6 others.
    The soldiers had been sent to help the government maintain order and were resented by colonists.
  • The Boston Tea Party

    The Boston Tea Party
    Colonists dressed as Native Americans and marched to Boston Harbor.
    They raided ships hauling British tea and threw the crates overboard.
    In response to the Townshend Acts
  • Lexington and Concord

    Lexington and Concord
    On April 18, 1775, British General Thomas Gage sent 700 soldiers to destroy guns and ammunition the colonists had stored in the town of Concord, just outside of Boston.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    Listed all of the colonists grievances against the Crown; explained why they were declaring independence
    Proclaimed the United States of America was forevermore a free nation
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Americans won the war
    War was officially ended with the
    Treaty of Paris
    Great Britain acknowledged the US as a free nation
  • End of the American Revolution

    End of the American Revolution
    Americans won the war
    War was officially ended with the Treaty of Paris
    Great Britain acknowledged the US as a free nation
  • Land Ordinance of 1785

    Land Ordinance of 1785
    Congress sold tracts of land to raise money
    Divided land into 36-square-mile units with Unit 16 set aside for schools. Divided the Ohio Territory
  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787

    Northwest Ordinance of 1787
    Created guidelines for admission as states in the US
    At 5,000 settlers, the territory could send a non-voting representative to Congress
    At 60,000 settlers, the territory could apply for statehood
    Outlawed slavery in the area
  • The United States Constitution

    The United States Constitution
    Delegates met to revise the Articles of Confederation but decided to create a new constitution
    Of course, everyone had different ideas about how it should work
  • Judiciary Act

    Judiciary Act
    No details for a court system in the Constitution
    Federal law remained the “Supreme Law of the Land”
    Washington wanted to set up a federal court system headed by a Supreme Court
  • Textile Mills

    Textile Mills
    First textile mills in America were opened by Samuel Slater in Pawtucket, Rhode Island
  • Eli Whitney - Cotton Gin

    Eli Whitney - Cotton Gin
    Cleaned the seeds out of cotton
    Sped up the cleaning of seeds
    Revolutionized the cotton crop
    Demand for cotton from Great Britain for textile manufacturing
    South becomes “The Cotton Kingdom” & financially dependent on cash crops & slavery
  • Jay’s Treaty - Great Britain

    Jay’s Treaty - Great Britain
    British began stopping US ships bound for France and impressing seamen (taking US sailors captive and forcing them to serve the British)
    Intended to hurt the French, but hurt US trade
  • Pinckney’s Treaty - Spain

    Pinckney’s Treaty - Spain
    Spain afraid of the alliance between Great Britain and the US
    Spain barred the US from the lower part of the Mississippi River and the Port of New Orleans
    The US needed Mississippi River to transport goods
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    Amendments 11-27

    Amendments added to the Constitution to protect the rights of citizens in the United States
  • Election of 1796

    Election of 1796
    Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) v. John Adams (Federalist)
    John Adams elected as the 2nd president
    Thomas Jefferson - his political rival, becomes Vice President
    Federalist Era
  • Eli Whitney - Interchangeable Parts

    Eli Whitney - Interchangeable Parts
    Introduced with muskets in 1798
    Henry Ford - Assembly Line
    Parts of one musket could be used as parts for another musket
    The basis for industrial development in the US
  • Convention of 1800

    Convention of 1800
    Meeting between the United States and France over the Quasi-Wars - conflict in the Caribbean over shipping and trade
    Hostility between the US and France following the XYZ Affair
    Convention of 1800 resolved the conflict between the US and France - delicate balance with no alliance to avoid war with Great Britain
    End of any US foreign alliance for another 100 years
    US Neutrality
  • Election of 1800

    Election of 1800
    The battle between the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
    Federalist Candidate: Incumbent John Adams
    Running mate: Charles Pinckney
    Democratic-Republican candidate: Thomas Jefferson
    Running mate: Aaron Burr
    Electoral college voted - Jefferson and his running mate, Aaron Burr tied
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    Lewis and Clark Expedition

    The Corps of Discovery left St. Louis, Missouri on May 14, 1804
    Along the way, a Native American woman was enlisted to serve as a guide and interpreter - Sacajawea
    The expedition led to a large migration of settlers to the Pacific Northwest - traveled via the Oregon Trail

    Two years and four months later on September 23, 1806, the Corps of Discovery returned to St. Louis
  • Embargo Act

    Embargo Act
    British impressments of US sailors continued, in spite of Jay’s Treaty
    British blockading US ships bound for France
    The US did not want to get involved with problems between Britain and France
    President Jefferson declared an embargo(no trade) with Britain and France
    Jefferson’s alternative to war
    Believed it would hurt Britain and other European countries and force them to accept American Neutrality
  • Robert Fulton - Steam Boat

    Robert Fulton - Steam Boat
    Launched the first successful steamboat service in 1807
    Steamboats decreased travel time - made trips shorter
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    Causes:

    British military aid to Native Americans on the frontier
    British impressments of American sailors - Jay’s Treaty
    Embargo Act - Jefferson’s alternative to war
    War Hawks - Pushed for war with Great Britain
  • Election of 1812

    Election of 1812
    James Madison reelected in 1812
  • Election of 1816

    James Monroe Elected President
    1816 - 5th President of the United States
    “Era of Good Feelings”
  • Panic of 1819

    The US faced widespread economic problems
    Foreclosures
    Bank failures
    Unemployment
    A slump in agriculture and manufacturing
  • McCulloch v. Maryland

    Supreme Court (John Marshall) ruled that Congress had the right to establish a national bank under the Necessary and Proper (Elastic) Clause of the Constitution
    Power of federal government over state government
  • Adams Onis Treaty

    Secretary of State - John Quincy Adams
    Negotiated a treaty with Spain
    US acquired Florida and established a firm boundary between the Louisiana Territory (US territory through the Louisiana Purchase) and Spanish territory in the west
  • Missouri Compromise

    1820 - The extension of slavery into new territories divides the North and South - conflict over state’s rights
    Needed a balance of slave and free states to maintain the sectional balance
    Maine admitted as a free state
    Missouri admitted as a slave state
    Remaining Louisiana Territory split into - one part for slaveholders, one part for free settlers - 36°30’ line
    North of the line (except Missouri), slavery was banned
    South of the line, slavery was legal
  • Election of 1820

    James Monroe reelected
  • Texas

    Texas
    Mexico gained independence from Spain - Texas part of Mexico
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    Doctrine issued by President Monroe
    Stated the US would not tolerate European intervention in the affairs of an independent nation in the Americas
    1823 - Stated American continents were no longer open to colonization - the US would view any attempt as an act of aggression
    Stated that the US would not interfere in the affairs of other nations
    Europe should stay out of the western hemisphere
  • Gibbons v. Ogden

    Gibbons v. Ogden
    Supreme Court (John Marshall) ruled that only Congress had the power to regulate interstate commerce and foreign trade
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    Evidence of sectional differences within the US
    John Quincy Adams v. Andrew Jackson - both were Democratic-Republicans
    Neither candidate received a majority of electoral votes in the Electoral College
    The House of Representatives decided the election
    Henry Clay, Speaker of the House, threw his support to John Quincy Adams, and Adams was elected president
    Adams named Henry Clay his Secretary of State - Jackson called the election a “corrupt bargain”
  • Erie Canal

    Erie Canal
    Opened in 1825
    Increase in trade, decrease in shipping rates and shipping time
    Connected the Great Lakes with the Hudson River and the Atlantic Ocean
  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    1828 - Protective tariff designed to protect northern manufacturing from competition from cheaper British imports
    Upset the south - detrimental to the southern cotton economy
    British threatened to seek cotton in other markets due to the high cost of the tariff
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    Andrew Jackson elected president
    Jackson defeated Adams in part as a result of the Tariff of Abominations
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    Congress passed the Indian Removal Act - authorized the removal of Native Americans from the SE United States
  • Nat Turner’s Rebellion

    Nat Turner’s Rebellion
    Virginia
    Led by a slave - Nat Turner - rebellion was a failure
    Caused the south to strengthen slave codes (laws restricting activities and conduct of slaves)
  • William Lloyd Garrison

    William Lloyd Garrison
    Founded The Liberator, an anti-slavery newspaper
    Used the freedom of press to get his message out.
  • Election of 1832

    Election of 1832
    Pet banks a key issue of this election
    Jackson won re-election
    Portrayed the national banks as institutions for the wealthy, rich, and powerful - “pet banks”
  • Worcester v. Georgia

    Worcester v. Georgia
    The Cherokee appealed to the US Supreme Court
    The court ruled that the Cherokee had a right to remain on their land and could not be forcibly removed
  • The Whig Party

    The Whig Party
    Jackson enemies felt he acted like a king - “King Andrew”
    National Republicans changed their name to the Whig Party in 1833
  • Cyrus McCormick - Mechanical Reaper

    Cyrus McCormick - Mechanical Reaper
    Increased productivity
    Made harvesting wheat easier
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    President Jackson ignored the court’s decision
    Troops sent to round up Cherokee and move them to Oklahoma
    800-mile march in 1835
    Over a quarter of the Cherokee died from disease, starvation, and weather exposure.
  • Election of 1836

    Election of 1836
    Martin Van Buren (Democrat) elected president over William Henry Harrison (Anti-Masonic)
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    The Alamo/ Annexation

    Gen. Santa Anna responded with military force - Texans took a stand at The Alamo
    Every Texan perished - “Remember the Alamo”
    Texans took Santa Anna hostage - agreed to recognize the Republic of Texas - 1836
    Texas requested annexation to become part of the United States
    Texas becomes a slave state in 1845
  • John Deere - Steel Plow

    John Deere - Steel Plow
    Allowed farmers to plow and grow crops in areas out west that’s land was too dry or hard
  • Election of 1840

    Election of 1840
    William Henry Harrison elected
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    The National Road

    Stretched 800 miles west
    A network of roads connected most of the cities and towns in the US
    Promoted travel and trade—AND SETTLEMENT OF THE WEST!
  • Webster-Ashburton Treaty

    Webster-Ashburton Treaty
    Signed in 1842 by Daniel Webster of US and Lord Ashburton of Great Britain
    Established the United States’ northern border with Canada in Maine and Minnesota
  • Samuel F.B. Morse - Telegraph

    Samuel F.B. Morse - Telegraph
    Telegraph - device that sends messages using electricity through wires-Instant communication
    Communication is a revolutionized-whole different way of sending msgs
  • Election of 1844- Polk Elected

    Election of 1844- Polk Elected
    Won by Democrat James K. Polk - first “dark horse” winner in US history
    Election of 1844
    Won due to Whig opponent Henry Clay’s avoidance of the issue of annexation of Texas and Oregon
    Called for the annexation of both Texas and Oregon
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    Oregon

    US owned the Oregon territory jointly with Great Britain
    Thousands of US settlers began moving to Oregon
    President Polk approached Britain proclaiming “”54-40, or fight!” - claimed US had rightful claims to Oregon territory - 1844
    British accepted, fearing loss of trade with US – 49th parallel used as official boundary
    Oregon became a state in 1846
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    Pennsylvania Congressman David Wilmot came up with a proviso, or condition
    1846 - Proposed banning slavery from any land purchased from Mexico
    Upset the Southern states
    Not approved
  • Sewing Machine

    Sewing Machine
    Elias Howe had the first patent on a sewing machine in the United States in 1846
    Helped to increase speed of manufacturing of textiles
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    Mexican War

    Mexico upset over US annexation of Texas
    Polk sent troops to Texas border to settle US-Mexico border dispute and to negotiate the purchase of California and New Mexico
    Mexican president refused to talk, and war soon followed
    Congress declared war on May 12, 1846 - Mexico eventually surrendered
    War was ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
    Called for the Mexican Cession
  • Women’s Rights Movement

    Women’s Rights Movement
    Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Sojourner Truth
    Stanton called for women to be given the right to vote
    Seneca Falls Convention
    first women’s rights convention
    Sojourner Truth was a former slave who became known for her charismatic speaking
    Also had an impact on the abolitionist movement
  • Mexican Cession

    Mexican Cession
    Result of Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, ended Mexican War
    1848 - Mexico gave up New Mexico and California territories to the United States in exchange for payment
  • Election of 1848

    Election of 1848
    Zachary Taylor (Whig) elected President over Lewis Cass (Democrat) and Martin Van Buren (Free-Soil)
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    California Gold Rush

    California enters the union as a free state due to the Compromise of 1850
    Gold was discovered in California in 1848
    People rushed to California to “get rich quick” - they became known as “49’ers”
    Huge population increase
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    With the acquisition of the Mexican territory, the extension of slavery once again becomes an issue
    Henry Clay offers a compromise to maintain balance between the free and slave states
    California admitted as a free state
    Unorganized territories declared free
    Utah and New Mexico territories were to decide the issue of slavery through popular sovereignty
    People in these areas could decide on the issue of slavery for themselves
  • Death of President Taylor

    Death of President Taylor
    President Zachary Taylor died of cholera
    VP Millard Fillmore became President
  • Election of 1852

    Election of 1852
    Franklin Pierce (Democrat) elected president over Winfield Scott (Whig) and John P. Hale (Free-Soil)
  • Gadsden Purchase

    Gadsden Purchase
    Gave the United States parts of New Mexico and Arizona for $10 million from Mexico
    Land purchased to run a transcontinental railroad
    Manifest Destiny complete!
  • Know-Nothings

    Know-Nothings
    Also known as the American Party
    Wanted to rid the country of immigrants and alcohol
    Became part of the Republican Party
  • Election of 1856

    Election of 1856
    James Buchanan (Democrat) elected president over John C. Fremont (Republicans) and Millard Fillmore (Whig & American {Know-Nothings}
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    Douglas, Lincoln, Breckinridge run
    Lincoln wins election with no southern electoral votes
    Pledges to stop the spread of slavery but to not interfere in the south
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    Secession

    As a result of Lincoln’s victory in the Election of 1860, southern states begin to secede from the union.
    Secede = withdrawal
    South Carolina was the first state to secede on December 20, 1860
    By February 1861, six other states joined them: Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Texas
  • Fort Sumter – First Shots Fired

    Fort Sumter – First Shots Fired
    1861
    Union soldiers had one month of supplies remaining at Ft. Sumter, SC
    Lincoln sent food for the troops, but before it arrived, Confederate soldiers opened fire
    Union troops surrendered the following day
    Civil War begins!!!!!!!!!
  • First Battle of Bull Run

    First Battle of Bull Run
    AKA – Manassas
    First battle between the Union and Confederate army
    Watched by citizens
    CONFEDERATE VICTORY
  • Homestead Act

    Homestead Act
    Settlers moving west for land
    Purpose: Encourage settlement of the Plains
    1862 - Anyone who would agree to cultivate 160 acres of land for 5 years would receive title to that land from the federal government
  • Morrill Land Grant Act

    Morrill Land Grant Act
    Distributed millions of acres of western territory to state governments
    1862 - States used money from sale of land to finance agricultural colleges
  • Antietam

    Antietam
    September 1862
    Antietam Creek, Maryland
    Bloodiest single day of the war
    23,000 killed in one day
    UNION VICTORY for McClellan
  • Vicksburg

    Vicksburg
    November 1862
    Vicksburg, Mississippi
    Union wanted control of the Mississippi River
    UNION VICTORY
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    Fredericksburg / Chancellorsville

    Fredericksburg, Virginia
    Dec. 1862
    Large number of Union casualties
    CONFEDERATE VICTORY
    Chancellorsville, Virginia
    May 1863
    Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson killed
    CONFEDERATE VICTORY
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    Issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863
    Freed the slaves in the confederate states while preserving slavery in the border states that were still loyal to the union
    Encouraged free African Americans to serve in the army
    Lincoln hoped to give the war a moral purpose – “preserve the Union”
    Hoped to undermine the South’s reliance on slave labor
    Ensure the support of England and France
  • Election of 1864

    Election of 1864
    Lincoln in danger of not being reelected
    Some northerners upset over the war
    Democrats nominated George McClellan – former Union general to run for president
    Sherman’s capture of Atlanta showed non believers the war was close to being over
    Lincoln elected to a second term
  • Appomattox – End of the War

    Appomattox – End of the War
    April 1865
    Grant surrounds Lee outside of Richmond, Virginia
    Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House – Virginia
    End of the Civil War!!!
  • Civil Rights Act of 1866

    Civil Rights Act of 1866
    Congress passed with the intention of giving citizenship rights to African Americans
    Johnson vetoed it
    Congress gave an override
    Instead passed the 14th Amendment
    Guaranteed no person, regardless of race, would be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law
    Guaranteed citizenship for all people in the United States
  • Grant Elected President

    Grant Elected President
    Put this in the 10th Amendment block on the bottom
    Republican party refused to support Johnson
    Ulysses S. Grant elected in 1868
    Administration known for corruption
  • Election of 1872

    Election of 1872
    Ulysses S. Grant (Republican) reelected president over Horace Greeley (Democratic)
  • Election of 1876

    Election of 1876
    Grant’s administration surrounded by corruption (Whiskey Ring, Credit Mobilier)
    Samuel Tilden (Democrat) v. Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican)
    Election contested – results in some states disputed – results unclear
    Compromise of 1877 settled the issue of the winner
  • Compromise of 1877

    Compromise of 1877
    Democrats agreed to give Hayes the presidency
    Hayes elected as President
    Republicans agreed to end Reconstruction in the South
  • Oklahoma Land Rush

    Oklahoma Land Rush
    People given land in Oklahoma to encourage settlement
    Settlers came rushing from all around to claim land
    Native Americans forced off the land
    1889
  • Birthday

    Birthday
    Date of birth