Advances in Genetics

  • Mendells Paper is Published

    units of inheritance in pairs; dominance and recessiveness; equal segregation; independent assortment.
  • Study of Heredity in England

    Mendel's experiments from 1866 are "rediscovered" and confirmed by three separate researchers (one Dutch, one German, one Austrian). A British man (William Bateson) soon translates Mendel's paper into English and champions the study of heredity in England
  • Some genes are linked

    Some genes are linked and do not show independent assortment, as seen by Bateson and Punnett.
  • First Experiments on Quantitative Traits

    First experiments on quantitative traits in broad beans by Wilhelm Johanssen and in wheat by Herman Nilsson-Ehle
  • Chromosome Theory

    The chromosome theory of heredity is confirmed in studies of fly eye color inheritance by T.H. Morgan and colleagues.
  • Genetic Recombination

    Genetic recombination is caused by a physical exchange of chromosomal pieces, as shown in corn by Harriet Creighton and Barbara McClintock.
  • Gene encodes protein

    One gene encodes one protein, as described by Beadle and Tatum.
  • DNA Transfer

    Genetic material can be transferred laterally between bacterial cells, as shown by Lederberg and Tatum
  • Erwin Chargaff

    In DNA, there are equal amounts of A and T, and equal amounts of C and G, as shown by Erwin Chargaff. However, the A+T to C+G ratio can differ between organisms.
  • Double Helix

    DNA is in the shape of a double helix with antiparallel nucleotide chains and specific base pairing. This was deduced by Watson and Crick, who used Rosalind Franklin's data provided by Maurice Wilkins
  • RNA

    Discovery that messenger RNA is the intermediate between DNA and protein.
  • Advancements in DNA

    DNA fingerprinting, gene therapy, and genetically modified foods come onto the scene
  • First Clone

    The first cloning of a mammal (Dolly the sheep) is performed by Ian Wilmut and colleagues, from the Roslin institute in Scotland.
  • Post-Genomic Era

    The sequence of the human genome is released, and the "post-genomic era" officially begins
  • Cloning

    Controversies continue over human and animal cloning, research on stem cells, and genetic modification of crops.