Absolute Zero

  • Period: to


  • Robert Boyle

    Robert Boyle
    Robert Boyle from Ireland used a barrel of water to prove that water stays the same weight when frozen but the particles move further apart (expansion)
  • Guillaume Amontons

    Guillaume Amontons
    Worked Alone, First to discuss a limit to cold (absolute zero). Worked wiht mercury pressure when air was cooler.
  • Antoine Lavoiser

    Antoine Lavoiser
    Worked with his wife and used a calorimitor to calculate the amount of caloric something produced. Beleived Cold was absence of caloric. Calorimiter = warm something in middle of giant tub, middle layer, outer layor has ice or snow. How ever much water melted is amount of caloric produced.
  • count Rumford

    count Rumford
    Used a cannon borrer to prove Lavoiser wrong. worked with cannon borring assistants. Used water on one end boiled when cannon borrer heated up.
  • Michael Faraday

    Michael Faraday
    English, worked with Humphry Davy, worked with Chloine Hydrate and produced cold.
  • Sadi Carnot

    Sadi Carnot
    Created heat cycle of steam engine creating a thermodynamic cycle theory.
  • James Joule

    James Joule
    English, worked with brewery, conected mechanical devices to heat.
  • William Tomson

    William Tomson
    Confirmed theory of absolute zero, created tempurature scale that reached absolute zero, and continued Sadi's research on heat cycle.
  • James Dewar

    James Dewar
    Scottish, worked with a lab, liquified helium, and raced with Ones to liquify hydrogen.
  • Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

    Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
    Dutch, worked with a lab,tried to collaborate with Dewar. Used apparatus where a liquified gass would become the coolant for the next gas, eventually liquifying helium.
    Discovered superconductivity at extremly low level.
  • Eric Cornell & Carl Wieman

    Eric Cornell & Carl Wieman
    Created a Bose Einstein Condensate using Rubidium. Worked together in Boulder. Used magnetic traps and lazers to dropp the temp low enough to create the condensate.
  • Wolfgang Ketterle

    Wolfgang Ketterle
    Created a bose Einstein condensate with his lab using sodium. Used lazer and magnetic traps.
  • Daniel Kleppner

    Daniel Kleppner
    Last in the race to create a bose einstein condensate.