A Decade of Change

  • Warren Court

    Warren Court
    Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Earl Warren begins his term. Throughout his 16 years as Chief Justice he led the United States through a significant Civil Rights advancement as well as many other positive changes. He reformed legislative districts to be equal in population so that citizens' votes were of equal weight. He gave more rights to the accused, like providing a lawyer to the accused and requiring a search warrant for police investigations. http://www.theconstitutionproject.com/word
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  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    In Brown vs. the Board of Education, the Warren Court overturned the 1896 decision of Plessy vs. Ferguson. The unanimous decision by the Court determined that the separate education facilities were not equal, and that segregation in schools needed to end. Google Images
  • Geneva Accords Signed

    Geneva Accords Signed
    The Geneva Conference held in Swizerland in 1954 was attended by representatives of France, the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and China. After several months, the Geneva Accords were signed. It was agreed that Vietnam would be divided into 2 zones, a northern and a southern one. Google Images
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    The Montgomery Bus Boycott began when Rosa Parks, an African American woman, refused to give up her seat to a white man. She was arrested, and Martin Luther King Jr led the Montgomery black community in a boycott of the buses that lasted just over a year, until the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on the buses was unconstitutional. Google Images
  • Little Rock Crisis

    Little Rock Crisis
    After Brown v. Board of Education determined that segregation in schools was unequal, schools were supposed to integrate black students. 9 black students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas. On the first day of school, the governor refused to let them in, and President Eisenhower had to send the National Guard to protect these students from violence and discrimination. Google Images
  • Chicano Movement

    Chicano Movement
    The Chicano Movement was an extension of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement of the 1940s. Chicano was originally used as a derogatory mark towards Mexican Americans. They pushed for their rights in the early 60s, battling in court that children of Latin or Mexican descent were not to be discriminated against with their education, eventally paying off. Google Images
  • Lunch Counter Sit-ins

    Lunch Counter Sit-ins
    In Greensboro, North Carolina, 4 black students sat down at a lunch counter and asked to be served. They were refused, and the store owners let them sit there until the store closed. Though this first sit-in had little effect, the idea of this notion spread like wildfire through the nation. The SNCC was formed in part of these sit-ins, and continued to protest segregation and worked to integrate themselves into other public areas.
  • President Kennedy is elected

    President Kennedy is elected
    The 1960 election between Kennedy and Nixon was one of the closest in American history. Kennedy won by less than 120,000 popular votes. He became the youngest president to ever be elected, and would be one of the most popular of all time.
  • New Frontier Plan

    New Frontier Plan
    Kennedy's reform planned for the early 1960s was called the New Frontier. He sought to help poor Americans and give financial assistance to economically distressed regions by passing the Area Redevelopment Act in 1961.He also raised minimum wage from $1.00 per hour to $1.25 per hour. Another aspect of Kennedy's plan was the beat the Soviets in sending the first man to the moon. http://facultystaff.vwc.edu/~emazur/IMAGES/jfk_anniversary_300.jpg
  • Affirmative Action Programs

    Affirmative Action Programs
    Affirmative Action was first recognized by President Kennedy in 1961, then again by President Johnson in 1965. Affirmative Action refers to discriminatory practices wthin the workplace. Employers could not hire or refuse to hire people on the grounds of their race, religion, or gender. Google Images
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Bay of Pigs Invasion
    In 1959, Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba. His actions, which included making Anti-American speeches and signing a trade agreement with the Soviets, strained relations with the US. The CIA urged Kennedy to invade to inspire people to rise against Castro, and he finally agreed. Unfortunately, the invasion was a disaster. Poor planning, lack of air cover, and an underestimation of Castro's support led to a failed invasion.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    President Kennedy received word from U-2 spy planes that the Soviets had missiles in Cuba. Khrushchev denied that they were offensive missiles, but photos from October 14th proved otherwise. On October 22nd, the US began a blockade of Soviet ships carrying missile parts to Cuba. Finally, Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles if the US promised to never attack Cuba. This was a very tense moment in the Cold War. http://wvcivildefensefreak.webs.com/cuban%20missile%20crisis.gif
  • Pop Art Style

    Pop Art Style
    Though Pop Art had been around since the 1950s, it was not until the early 1960s that it became a major style in the United States. The art was characterized as very modern, and bold. Some defining artists in this time include Jasper Johns and Roy Lichtenstein, both extremely popular artists. Google Images
  • 24th Amendment Ratified

    24th Amendment Ratified
    The 24th Amendment prohibited the use of a poll tax to condition the right to vote in an election. Though by this time most states had left poll taxes behind, 5 states still enforced them, including Virginia, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, and Arkansas. Poll taxes were finally declared unconstitutional. Google Images
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    The March on Washington was a peaceful demonstration by civil rights activists down through Washington DC. At the end of the march, Martin Luther King Jr made his most famous speech, ¨I Have a Dream¨, which impacted many African Americans.
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  • Overthrow of Diem's Government

    Overthrow of Diem's Government
    Diem was "elected" president of South Vietnam after the French lost at Dien Bien Phu and French Indochina dissolved. Diem was not popular as president, and accused of not being religiously tolerant. Buddhist monks set themselves on fire as an attempt to show how they felt about Diem as President. A coup, led by Ho Chi Minh, and various other conspirators, overthrew the government and later assassinated Diem, which was supported by Kennedy. Google Images
  • Kennedy Assasination

    Kennedy Assasination
    With 1964 fast approaching, Kennedy flew down to Texas to win support of Southern Democrats for the next election. As he rode through downtown Dallas in an open motorcade with his wife, Lee Harvey Oswald opened fire and shot the President in the head. Though doctors did their best to revive Kennedy, it was too late. The nation was in a state of shock as their new President, Lyndon B. Johnson, was sworn in on Air Force One, only a few hours after Kennedy's death. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/--Mvw3WC
  • Johnson becomes President

    Johnson becomes President
    After Kennedy was assasinated, his Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson took the stand. Johnson was nothing like Kennedy. He was hardworking and ambitious, but lacked the good looks, charm, and polish of President Kennedy. He began his political career as a Texas Senator, then worked his way up to become the Senate majority leader, and finally became Vice President. LIke Kennedy, he was deeply concerned for the poor, and planned to help them as much as he could. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia
  • Enacting Kennedys Agenda

    Enacting Kennedys Agenda
    President Johnson believed it was his duty to carry on with President Kennedy´s programs. He started a ¨War on Poverty¨, pushed the passage of tax cut bills and civil rights legislation, as well as passing the Tax Reduction Act, which was a huge success, increasing the economy by 10%. Google Images
  • Anti-War Campaigns in Vietnam

    Anti-War Campaigns in Vietnam
    Anti-war campaigns against Vietnam began when the war began and really only grew stronger as the war dragged on. The Vietnam War was during a time of the free speech movement, and many people felt it was their right to speak their feeling about what they believed the government was doing right, or in this case, wrong. Television only influenced these feeling as people did not like to see men fighting for their country dying in their living rooms. Google Images
  • Freedom Summer

    Freedom Summer
    Freedom Summer was a campaign for black voting rights in Mississippi, a state that had historically discriminated against blacks with regards to voting rights. The director of the SNCC, Robert Parris Moses, organized and led this campaign. Though fairly unsuccessful, it redefined the Civil Rights Movement. Google Images
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to outlaw discrimintation of any minorities, including race, ethnicity, gender, or religious minorities. It also officially ended segregation in schools and protected the voting rights of African Americans.
  • Tonkin Gulf Resolution

    Tonkin Gulf Resolution
    The Tonkin Gulf Resolution gave President Johnson the power to use the military to assist or defend any member of the Us in danger without the usual permission of Congress. This was a result of the Tonkin Gulf Incident, which claimed that Vietnamese ships attacked US ships for no reason. In reality, the US ship was in Vietnamese waters, spying.
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  • Free Speech Movement

    Free Speech Movement
    This movement was an unofficial organization that began on the campus of University of California, Berkley, and spread throughout the United States. Students protested that campus staff allow them the right to free speech and academic freedom, and requested that the administrations lift bans from on-campus political activites. Google Images
  • Great Society Program

    Great Society Program
    After Johnson was elected in landslide victory in 1964, he put his own personal improvement plans to the test. He wanted to do more than simply follow in Kennedy´s footsteps. His major priorities included providing education for poor and needy children and enacting federal housing programs. He also created Medicaid and Medicare, health care for the poor or elderly. Google Images
  • Assassination of Malcom X

    Assassination of Malcom X
    Malcolm X was a black muslim preacher who advocated black supremacy over whites, and denounced racism. He disagreed with Martin Luther King Jr. in that he believed violence was necessary to the Civil Rights Movement. He had many followers. He was shot in the chest by a white supremacist. Google Images
  • Operation Rolling Thunder

    Operation Rolling Thunder
    Operation Rolling Thunder was an aerial bombing campaign designed with 4 goals in mind. It was supposed to boost morale of the Saigon regime in South Vietnam, urge North Vietnamese to veer from communist ideals without actually deploying any ground troops, destroy North Vietnamese shipping ports and industry, and finally to stop men and supplies from entering South Vietnam. This was a very intense air/ground bsttle in the Cold War. Google Images
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    President Johnson signed this Act in order to outlaw any discriminatory practices against blacks to deny them their right to vote. Specifically, this meant literacy tests, which succeeded in excluding many blacks from their rights. It was basically a reinforcement of the 15th Amendment. Google Images
  • National Organization for Women

    National Organization for Women
    NOW was founded in 1966 by Betty Friedan, Pauli Murray, and Shirley Chisholm, all forerunners for women's rights movements. NOW helped women become integrated into society, and attempted to bring women up to the same level as men, socially as well as economically and politically. It helped women gain jobs that might otherwise have gone to men, and worked to secure equal pay for equal labor.
  • Creation of the Black Panther Party

    Creation of the Black Panther Party
    Founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, the Black Panther Party became an icon for counterculture in the early 1970s. They advocated fair rights for blacks and denounced segregation and racism, and worked to protect African Americans from police brutality. They also funded many programs to help alleviate poverty and provide help for those living in poor conditions. Google Images
  • Summer of Love

    Summer of Love
    The late 1960s was a time of alternative lifestyles, most prominently, the hippies. The Hippie era hit it's climax in the summer of 1967, where 1000s of people converged in San Francisco to share their ideas about life and live differently than anyone ever had before. This counterculture was a defining moment of the 1960s. Google Images
  • Tet Offensive

    Tet Offensive
    The Tet Offensive was an attack launched on the US and South Vietnam by the Vietcong and North Vietnam. It was a surprise attack, launched during a previously agreed upon time of cease-fire. Though the US was able to successfully counter-attack and push back offensive troops, the attack came as a shock for the US government, who had previously believed the communists were not capable of such a massive attack. Google Images
  • Poor People's Campaign

    Poor People's Campaign
    Campaign started by Martin Luther King Jr in an attempt to help poor African Americans with income and housing. President Johnson's War on Poverty was fairly unsuccessful in helping the black community, so King and several others decided to take matters into their own hands. This campaign was part of the second phase of the Civil Rights Movement. Google Images
  • American Indian Movement

    American Indian Movement
    The American Indian Movement is a Native American Activist organization that remains active even today. It was initially founded in Minneapolis, MN, to help support Native Americans in poverty or in need of housing. They have since led protests to inspire a cultural renewal and make sure that any and all American Indians are safe and not discrimanted against. Google Images
  • Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr

    Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr
    King was in Tennessee helping black workers on strike for better wages and treatment. He was shot by James Earl Ray and died instantly. The nation was in shock, and many race riots began all over the country. However, many civil rights leaders reminded people of King's nonviolent ways, and the riots died down. President Johnson declared April 7th to be a national day to remember the greatest civil rights leader of all time. Google Images
  • Civil Rights Act of 1968

    Civil Rights Act of 1968
    The Civil Rights Act of 1968 was also known as the Fair Housing Act, signed by President Johnson. It outlawed discrimation of any kind in regards to housing. People could not refuse to sell their house to someone on the grounds of religion or race, or refuse to rent a place to a minority people.
  • US Forces Mobilize in Vietnam

    US Forces Mobilize in Vietnam
    President Johnson was very reluctant to mobilize troops in Vietnam, despite his Secretary of Defense's encouragement that it was the best option for the US. He finally agreed to mobilize troops and three years of prodding by his Cabinet. A draft began, and troops were eployed to Vietnam officially.
  • Election of 1968

    Election of 1968
    The presidential elcetion in 1968 was by no means clear-cut. Former President Johnson decided not to run again, leaving Robert Kennedy and Hubert Humphrey to fight for the nomination of the Democratic Party. However, Robert Kennedy was tragically assassinated before the official nominations were determined, so the race was Democratic Hubert Humphrey vs. Republican Richard Nixon.
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  • Nixon becomes President

    Nixon becomes President
    After the chaotic 1968 election, Nixon was inaugurated on January 20th, 1968. He won the election with the campaign promise that he would end the Vietnam War in "peace with honor", though with no real specifications on how he planned to do so. However, the promise to end the war attracted many anti-war supporters, and Nixon became our 37th President.
  • Formation of the La Raza Unida Party

    Formation of the La Raza Unida Party
    La Raza Unida Party was founded in 1970 at a meeting of 300 Mexican-Americans who wanted to gain their rights. They advocated improving the Chicano Community in Texas, including social, economical, and political aspects. The first 2 ever Mexican mayors were elected that year as a result of this party Google Images
  • Pentagon Papers

    Pentagon Papers
    The Pentagon Papers were a series of documents detailing the US involvement in Vietnam since 1945. An inside source, Daniel Ellsberg, a former gorvernment worker who had become dissatisfied with the outcomes of the war, leaked these papers to the New York Times in the summer of 1971. The papers showed that President Johnson and his administration had been lying to the public about the ongoing war. With the publishing of these documents, support for the war hit an all-time low. Google Images
  • Eection of 1972

    Eection of 1972
    Democratic nomination George McGovern ran against Republican candidate Richard Nixon. Though McGovern fought a tough battle, many deemed him too leftist, and Nixon won by a landslide, with over 60% popular vote. He emphasized the thriving economy as well as an end the Vietnam, which ultimately won him another term as President. Google Images
  • Roe v. Wade

    Roe v. Wade
    Roe vs. Wade was a case that eventually made its way up to the Supreme Court. The case was the decision whether or not allow women to legally have abortions. This extremely controversial case was decided in favor of women, that they had the rights to their own body and ultimately legalized abortion. Google Images
  • End to US Involvement in Vietnam

    End to US Involvement in Vietnam
    Finally, after many years spent fighting, the US pulled out all troops from Vietnam grounds and ended our involvement there. The Case-Church agreement stated that the US was prohibited to continue fighting in Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, without the consent of Congress to the President. The US continued to send supplies to South Vietnam until 1975, when the war officially ended. Google Images
  • Boricua Movement

    Boricua Movement
    The Boricua Movement was organized by a group of Puerto Ricans fighting for their independence from the United States. They often used violent tactics in protests, such as bombing or other acts of terrorism to try to achieve their ultimate goal of independence.