The classical period (1200 BCE - 455 CE)I- homeric or heroic period (1200-800 BCE)
Oral tradition (Homer's the iliad and the Odyssey, greek legends)
Chaotic period of warrior-princes, wandering sea-traders, and fierce pirates
II- classical Greek period (800-200 BCE)
Writers, playwrights and philosophers such as Georgia's, Plato, Socrates, etc.
The golden age: era of the polis, individual city state, early democracy, drama, poetry, architecture, etc.
The classical period (1200 BCE - 455 CE)III. Classical Roman period ( 200 BCE- 455 CE)
Greece culture— Roman power( Rome conquers Greece)
Playwrights: Plautus and Terence
Rome change into a dictatorship under Julius caesar and then into a monarchial
Famous writers: Ovide, Horace and Virgil
IV- Patristic period( c.70 CE-455 CE)
Saint Jerome first compiled the bible
Christianity spread across europe, Roman empire suffered it dying convulsions
Barbarians attacked rome and the city fell to them completely
The Medieval Period (455 CE - 1485 CE)The Old English (Anglo-Saxon) period (428-1066 CE)
The Carolingian Renaissance (800- 850 CE) emerged in Europe.
In central Europe, texts include early medieval grammars, encyclopedias, etc.
In northern Europe, this time period marks the setting of Viking sagas
The Medieval Period (455 CE - 1485 CE)THE MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD (c. 1066-1450 CE)
French chivalric romances
Chrétien de Troyes
Marie de France and Jean de Meun, spread in popularity.
Abelard and other humanists produced great scholastic and theological works.
Late or "High" Medieval Period (c. 1200-1485 CE)
Writers include Italian and French authors like Boccaccio, Petrarch, Dante, and Christine de Pisan.
The Renaissance and reformation (1485- 1660 CE)From the 14th to the 17th century
Divided between: Early Tudor Period (1485-1558), Elizabethan Period (1558-1603), Jacobean Period (1603-1625), Caroline Age (1625-1649) and Commonwealth Period/Puritan Interregnum (1649-1660)
Rediscovery of classical philosophy, literature and art.
Some important writers during this period were Edmund Spenser,Shakespeare, Aemilia Lanyer and Sir Thomas Browne.
The enlightenment ( Neoclassical) period (1660- 1790 CE)Period of Classical literature influence, which increased reverence for logic and superstition.
Period marked by intellectual opposition against Puritanism and America’s revolution against England.
1- Restoration Period ( 1660-1700)
Marks the British king’s restoration to the throne. Classical influences on poetry and drama.
Sample writers include John Dryden, John Locke, Sir William Temple, etc. important books: Aureng-zebe, The Country Wife and The Plain Dealer.
The enlightenment ( Neoclassical) period (1660- 1790 CE)2- The Augustan Age ( 1700-1750)
marked by the imitation of Virgil and Horace’s literature in English letters.
Principle writers; Addison, Steele, Swift, etc.
Important books: the major works, Il poeta e il principe, etc
3- The Age of Johnson (1750-1790)
marks transition toward the upcoming Romanticism
Colonial Period in America
Major writers; Dr. Samuel Johnson, Boswell, Edward Gibbon, Robert Burns, etc.
Important books: The decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
The Romantic period (1790- 1830 CE)From 1760 to 1830
Romantic poets, deals with nature, imagination, and individuality. Some important writers were Jane Austen and Blake.
Gothic writers, deals with horror and mystery and suspense. Some important writers were Poe and Hawthorne.
The victorian period and the 19th century (1832-1901 CE)Period of Queen Victoria’s reign
Include sentimental novels
The end of the Victorian Period is marked by the intellectual movements of Aestheticism and "the Decadence" in the writings of Walter Pater and Oscar Wilde.
British writers include Elizabeth Browning, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Matthew Arnold, Robert Browning, Charles Dickens, and the Brontë sisters.
Important books include; Jane Eyre, The Picture of Dorian Grey, Dracula, Clockwork Angel.
The Modern Period( 1914-1945 CE)Modernist writers: W.B. Yeats, Seamus Heaney, Virginia Woolf
War poetry and feminism
Writers of the jazz age such as hemingway, Stein, Fitzgerald, etc.
Harlem renaissance- mark the rise of black writers such as Baldwin and Ellison
The Postmodern Period (1945-onward)Metafiction and fragmented poetry writers:
T. S. Eliot, Morrison, Shaw, Beckett, Stoppard, Fowles, Calvino, Ginsberg, Pynchon
Langston Hughes, Sandra Cisneros, and Zora Neal Hurston.
Magic realists writers:
Gabriel García Márquez, Luis Borges, Alejo Carpentier, Günter Grass, and Salman Rushdie