Cortes de cadiz

19th century Spain

  • The absolutist phase

    The absolutist phase
    After reclaiming the throne with the support of absolutists, Ferdinand VII repealed the Constitution of 1812 and the reforms proposed by the Cádiz Cortes. Spain returned to absolutism and liberals were persecuted.
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    The Reign of Fernando VII

    As a consequence of the defeat of Napoleon in the Spanish War of Independence, Joseph I was forced to leave Spain. That's why Fernando VII returned. The reign was divided into three phases.
  • The liberal phase

    The liberal phase
    In 1820, the king was forced to reinstate the Constitution of 1812. To defend the Constitution the National Milita was created. In 1823 a coalition of European monarchs called the Holy Alliance sent troops that restored absolutism under the command of the Duke of Angouleme.
  • The ominous decade

    The ominous decade
    A lot of political and economic problems led to the final crisis of the absolute monarchy.
    The war against the French had main Spain bankrupt, and the independence of the colonies in the Americas caused a major loss of revenue.
    The crisis intensified in 1830 with the birth of Ferdinand VII's daughter Isabella. Ferdinand VII issued the Pragmatic Sanction,which repealed Salic Law.
  • 1st Carlist War

    1st Carlist War
    It began in the Basque Country and the Carlists were defeated by the liberal army of Genereal Espartero.
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    The regency of Maria Cristina

    The moderate liberals makes small reforms and Maria Cristina supported them.
    A series of military uprisings and popular revolts forced her to hand power over the progressive liberals.A new progressive Constitution was drafted in 1837 that it recognised national sovereignity with census suffrage, separation of powers and it granted many rights and individual liberties.
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    The regency of Espartero

    In 1837, moderate liberals increasingly conservative policies took control of the government. Maria Cristina was forced to step down the progressive General Espartero was appointed regent. Espartero's authoritian ideas and his introduction of free trade measures that were damaging to the emerging Spanish industry created strong opposition. Isabel II was then declared of age in 1843, at 13 years of age, and she was proclaimed queen.
  • The moderate decade

    The moderate decade
    During almost the entire reign of Isabella II', Spain's Moderate Liberal Party remained in power. The new Cortes adopted a moderate constitution, in which suffrage was highly restricted, civil liberties were limited, sovereignty was shared between the Cortes and the Crown.The moderate liberals also adopted measures to centralise taxes, the authoritarian tendencies of political leaders, the influence of the political cliques and lectoral fraud caused another progressive military revolt.
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    The reign of Isabel II

  • The progressive biennium

    The progressive biennium
    in 1854, the Vicálvaro pronunciamiento brought the progressive liberals to power.The National Militia fought in the Vicalvarada and revolutionary Juntas were formed.
    Isabella II was pressured to give power to the progressive.The Cortes drafted a new Constitutio,which was not approved and the government made three fundamental laws:
    -The confiscation of municipal commons and municipalities
    -The General Railway Law and the Minning Act to boost the railway system and the minning industry.
  • Social decline

    Isabella's Reign deteriorated as an economic crisis led to further social unrest and a new military revolt.
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    Six years of democracy

    In September 1868, the crisis of the monarchy led to the 'Glorious Revolution' , an insurrection to overthrow Isabella II and establish a democratic political system.
    However, the governments that emerged from the revolution could not established a democratic system.
  • Provisional government

    Provisional government
    A provisional government was formed to establish a democratic political system.
    The Constitution established national sovereignty and universal male suffrage,recognised the individual's rights and decreed the separations of Church and State. The Constitution also established a parliamentary monarchy, for which thet had to choose a new king.
  • Amadeo I of Savoy

    Amadeo I of Savoy
    Amadeo I of Savoy who was from a liberal monarchy that had contributed to the unification of Italy, was choosen to take the throne.He was supported by progressive,unionists and democrats.A new war began when the Carlists declared Charles VII as king and the republicans aspired to establish a republic.Many problems, which culminated in a war on the island of Cuba, forced Amadeo I to abdicate and leave the country.
  • 2nd Carlist war

    2nd Carlist war
    It began during the six years of democracy.The carlists rebelled in many territories and even formed a parallel government in Estella until their final defeat.
  • The First Republic

    The First Republic
    The 1873 elections were won by the federal republicans.
    The republic had four presidents, but a series of problems made its proper establishment impossible:
    -The divisions between the unitary and federal republicans
    -Dealing with the Cuban insurrection and the beggining of a new Carlist War.
    -As social unrest increased, Cartagena proclaimed itself an independent canton of the state.
    in January 1874, a coup dissolved the Cortes and made General Serrano head of the State.