19th century spain

19th Century Spain

  • The absolutist phase (1814-1820)

    The absolutist phase (1814-1820)
    Spain returned to absolutism when Ferdinand VII repealed the Constitution of 1812 and the reforms proposed by the Cádiz Cortes.
    Liberals were persecuted, many of them were forced into exile and others were executed.
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    The French troops withdrew and Ferdinand VII returned to Spain. His aim was to re-establish an absolutist monarchy.
  • The liberal phase (1820-1823)

    The liberal phase (1820-1823)
    In 1820, a pronunciamiento led by Coronel Rafael del Riego was successful and the king was forced to reinstate the Constitution of 1812. The National Militia was created to defend the Constitution.
    In 1823, the Holy Alliance sent troops that restored absolutism.
  • The ominous decade (1823-1833)

    The ominous decade (1823-1833)
    The political and economic problems in Spain led to the final crisis of the absolute monarchy.
    The crisis intensified in 1830 with the birth of Ferdinand VII's daughter, Isabella. In order to ensure his daughter's reign, Ferdinand VII issued the Pragmatic Sanction of 1830, which repealed Salic Law.
  • 1st Carlist war (1833-1839)

    1st Carlist war (1833-1839)
    It began in the Basque Country and the Carlists were defeated by the Liberal army of General Espartero. Peace was signed at the Convention of Vergara.
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    Popular revolts forced Maria Cristina to hand power over to the progressive lberals. Juan Álvarez Mendizábal began the abolishment of the Ancient Régime. A new progressive Constitution was drafted in 1837.
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    Moderate liberals took control of the government. Maria Cristina was forced to step down and the progressive General Espartero was appointed regent. Isabella II was declared of age in 1843 and she was proclaimed queen.
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    Absolutism ended in Spain with the reign of Isabel II. She established a liberal constitutional monarchy, although it had its own special features.
  • Alternation of power between moderates and progressists

    Alternation of power between moderates and progressists
    These governments were usually led by a military figure.
  • 2nd Carlist war (1846-1849)

    2nd Carlist war (1846-1849)
    The war was caused by Isabel II's refusal to marry Carlos Luis Bourbon, the Carlist claimant. The war ended with the defeat of the Carlists.
  • Social instability

    Social instability
    Peasants were working in poor conditions. This caused discontent.
  • Expropiations

    Expropiations that aimed to solve Spain's economic problems. The crown hoped this policy would create a new class of lamdowners that would support the liberal regime.
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    The crisis of the monarchy led to the "Glorious Revolution", and Isabel II was forced to exile.
    However, the governments that emerged from the revolution could not establish a democratic system.
  • Provisional government (1868-1870)

    Provisional government (1868-1870)
    General Serrano and General Prim, looked for a new king who was not a Bourbon. They also called the Constituent Cortes in order to write a new constitution.
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    In 1868, a military revolt began in Cádiz, led by Admiral Topete and Generals Prim and Serrano.
  • Amadeo I of Savoy (1871-1873)

    Amadeo I of Savoy (1871-1873)
    Amadeo I of Savoy was named king of Spain. During his reign, the third Carlist War began.
    Finally Amadeo abdicated because he faced opposition from both the Republicans and the supporters of Alfonso.
  • The First Republic (1873-1874)

    The First Republic (1873-1874)
    When Amadeo I abdicated, the Cortes proclaimed Spain a republic. The First Republic faced many problems such as the divisions among the Republicans. They disagreed on the type of republic they wanted. This caused a lot of political instability. In the end, another military revolt aimed to bring back the Bourbons, and the First Republic ended.