Spain

19th Century Spain

  • The absolutist phase

    The absolutist phase
    Ferdinand VII re-established absolutism in Spain with the help of the "Manifiesto de los Persas".
    Some liberals organised "pronunciamientos" to reinstate the Constitution of 1812 but, as they were not successful, they were either persecuted, forced into exile or executed.
  • Period: to

    The Reign of Fernando VII

  • The liberal phase

    The liberal phase
    Colonel Rafael del Riego led a "pronunciamiento" that pressured the king, Ferdinand VII, to reinstate the Constitution of 1812.
    The National Militia was originated to protect the Constitution and oppose absolutism.
    In 1823, Louis XVIII of France sent the "Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis" (a contingent of the French army led by the Duke of Angoulême) to Spain in order to restore absolutism because Ferdinand VII felt intimidated by the liberals.
  • The ominous decade

    The ominous decade
    Spain had economic and political issues that ended with a final crisis.
    Spain was bankrupt because of the war against France and the independence of the colonies in the Americas caused a major loss of earnings. A fiscal reform was proposed, but making the privileged pay taxes could cause losing their support on absolutism.
    When Ferdinand VII's daughter was born (Isabel II), he issued the Pragmatic Sanction of 1830, which repealed Salic Law (women hadn't right to the throne).
  • 1st Carlist war

    1st Carlist war
    This war occurred to know who would occupy the throne of Spain, if Isabel II with a liberal monarchy or Charles (Ferdinand VII's brother) with an absolute monarchy.
    In this war the Carlists were defeated by the Liberal army of General Espartero and peace was signed at the Convention of Vergara.
    The Carlists continued existing and between 1846 and 1848 significant Carlists uprisings took place in Catalonia (Revolt of the Matiners).
  • Period: to

    The Regency of Maria Cristina

  • The Regency of Espartero

    The Regency of Espartero
    Moderate liberals with conservative poicies took control of the government and Maria Christina (Ferdinand VII's wife) was forced to step down in order to make the General Espartero regent.
    Espartero's way of government was affecting the Spanish industry and this created strong opposition. Because of this, Isabel II was proclaimed queen at 13 years of age.
  • Period: to

    The Regency of Espartero

  • Alternation of power between Moderates and Progressives

    Alternation of power between Moderates and Progressives
    These governments were usually led by a military figure.
    The Moderates discussed the access to power through elections and royal appointment. Their supporters were the nobility, the church and the wealthy bourgeoisie.
    The Progressives discussed the acces to power through military coups. Their supporters were the middle and petite bourgeoisie.
  • Social inestability

    Social inestability
    It was caused by discontent among the peasants over poor working conditions. In addition, there was tension between workers and factory owners because of the increasing unemployment and low salary.
  • Expropiations

    Expropiations
    The expropiations aimed to solve Spain's economic problems because they were breaking up large estates that were unproductive and didn't pay taxes in order to then sell it at a public auction.
  • Period: to

    The Reign of Isabel II

  • 2nd Carlist war

    2nd Carlist war
    This war began during the 6 years of democracy because Isabel II refused to marry Carlos Luis Bourbon and the Spanish throne was vacant after Isabel II's exile.
    The Carlists rebelled in many territories but they ended up being defeated.
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    The Glorious Revolution was an uprising to overthrow Isabel II and establish a democratic political system. It happened in September of 1868 because of the crisis of the monarchy.
    Nevertheless, the governments that appeared from the revolution couldn't establish a democratic system and all the political solutions that were tried out faced different problems.
  • Provisional government

    Provisional government
    Due to the exile of Isabel II at the "Battle of Alcolea" a provisional government was formed in order to establish a democratic political system.
    The Cortes prepared a new Constitution based on democratic principles. The Constitution established many things, but one of this things was a parliamentary monarchy, for which they had to choose a new king.
  • Period: to

    Six years of Democracy

  • Amadeo I of Savoy

    Amadeo I of Savoy
    Amadeo was from a liberal monarchy and he was chosen to take the throne.
    He was supported by progressives, unionists and democrats. His government introduced new measures to help the economic recovery of Spain. But he also had two opponents: the moderates and some representatives of the Church.
    A new war started as a result of the declaration of Charles VII as king because the republicans were expecting to establish a republic.
    Finally, Amadeo was forced to leave the country due to a war on Cuba
  • The First Republic

    The First Republic
    After Amadeo abdicated, the Cortes voted to form a republic that had the support of the lower classes. So they prepared a programme of social and economic reforms and they won the elections.
    They wanted to divide legislative powers but it never took effect.
    The Republic had 4 presidents but some problems didn't let them establish a Republic.
    In 1874 General Pavía led a coup and he dissolved the Cortes making General Serrano head of state, who wanted to establish a conservative republican regime.