1800's history

  • States Rights Doctrine

    States Rights Doctrine
    A meeting of representatives wanted to let states become autonomous centers of power. During the 1800s this helped a lot because several states thought different things about slavery leading up to the civil war. This doctrine left people to think that federal and state government powers were allocated in a way which was almost supreme in some cases. Because the delegates were worried that the strong central government over states would be tough, the framers created the 10th amendments to add to
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    Helped separate the North from the South. When the North was becoming more industrial, the south became more agricultural. The southerners thought that factory workers in the north were worked harder and disrespected more than slaves were. This began to start tensions between the north and the south.
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    Because Americans were pleased with foreign powers, they got a great sense of nationalism. Nationalism is feelings of pride and loyalty to a nation. This national unity found Henry Clay as a strong U.S. representative to help support our nationalism. Clay believed if the country had one belief then they would be able to end regional conflicts.
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    Oregon Trail

    A trail made by fur trappers and traders to travel from east to west. Several people starts using it for travel into territories in the west such as Idaho, Oregon, and Wyoming. It started in places such as Kansas and Nebraska. It became a wagon route in the mid 1800’s. The trail spans 2,200 miles from Independence, Missouri to the coast of Oregon.
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    Era of Good Feelings

    The United States enjoyed this era because it was an era of peace, pride, and progress. The phrase called Era of Good Feelings was coined by a Boston editor in 1817 during James Monroes visit to New England early in his presidency. The emphasis of national unity was strengthened by the two Supreme Court case strengthened by the two Supreme Court case decisions that reinforced the power of the federal government.
  • McCullouch vs. Maryland

    McCullouch vs. Maryland
    This was a sectional crisis involving the tariffs of 1828 between South Carolina and the national government. South Carolina found the tariffs unconstitutional. During the 1820’s the us went through and economic drought after the war of 1812. The tariffs severely affected South Carolina’s economy.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    A document created by Henry Clay to make Missouri a slave state. This was confusing because the boundary for slavery was in the middle of Missouri. This document was later repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act. This act gave the slavery boundary an end and white males would be able to decide whether each states was a slave state by popular sovereignty.
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    Sante Fe Trail

    Served as a major commercial highway to Sante Fe. The trail crosses a route that passes through trade to Mexico City. The Comanches forced Americans to pay every time they crossed the Trail. This angered Americans so they started to feud with Mexico. Soon the Comanches fled the area so U.S. gained control of the land.
  • Adams-Onis Treaty

    Adams-Onis Treaty
    Settled border disputes between Spain and the US. Spain gave up East Florida to the US in this treaty. Then the United States gave up claims to what is now Texas. U.S. leaders also agreed to pay up to $5 million of U.S. citizens claims against Spain. Andrew Jackson’s presence scared Spain so they started to negotiate about this treaty.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    President Monroe had to put together a document protecting american interests. The document was an exclusive statement of American policy warning European powers not to interfere with the Americans. It was a document to keep the Americas from interfering with existing colonies, European colonies, westward expansion, and prevent any foreign power from moving West. Many European countries criticized the Doctrine, but few challenged it.
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    Jacksonian Democracy

    This is the political movement during the second party system. It was made to form a better democracy for the us citizens. This democracy strengthened the executive positions and weakened the congress’ decisions. It gave the public more involvement in the government which gave way to tensions between north and south agreements
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs

    Bureau of Indian Affairs
    An agency which is in charge of the Indian reserves and the Native American reserves of the U.S. It provides services to the Native Americans across the U.S. Also provides or their health care. This agency is created in the midst of tension between the north and south so it is hard to control northern and southern reserves at the same time.
  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    A protective tariff made by Congress designed to protect industry in the north. It was called the tariff of abominations by the south because of the affects it had on the antebellum Southern Economy. This raised tensions between factories and slave agriculture because the south would have to pay taxes for the northern industries but the north didn't have to pay taxes for the southern agriculture.
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    Trail of Tears

    A series of forced relocations of Indian territories following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Several Indians died from disease, starvation, and exposure en route and more than 10,000 died. They were traveling to land west of the Mississippi with several tribes of Indians. They were forced to move due to a gold finding in Georgia close to 1828.
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    Whig Party

    Formed in opposition to Andrew Jackson and the democrats. Led by Henry Clay, the Whigs wanted supremacy in Congress not President and favored programs to modernize industry. It appealed to entrepreneurs and planters but unskilled workers and farmers suffered under their ruling. Whigs stood for people against tyranny. This caused tension between the North and South because southerners were often Democrats and northerners were often Whigs.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    A series of laws that set aside land for the Indians and their native homelands. In general they gained land from the Louisiana Purchase. The policy of an outcome was made to remove all Indians but after the Civil War it became a priority of the government. The reserves were generally set aside for Indians but are called unorganized territory. This made the South angry because they thought that they would get that land and not the Indians.
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    Nullification Process

    This was a sectional crisis involving the tariffs of 1828 between South Carolina and the national government. South Carolina found the tariffs unconstitutional. During the 1820’s the us went through and economic drought after the war of 1812. The tariffs severely affected South Carolina’s economy.
  • Alamo

    The battle of the Alamo was between the Us and Mexicans in the fight for Texas. Texas included parts of Mexico today. Texans joined the Americans in the fight for Texas and the U.S. won, giving them the land of Texas. This gave the South even more lad for slavery and it started to heat up tension between the North and the South.
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    Spoils System

    Whichever party wins an election, it is awarded jobs to their friends, relatives, and supporters for their hard work. It gives those people the incentive to keep working for that party. It was coined from Jacksonian democrats, where the word spoils meant goods or benefits taken from the loser in a competition.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    People believe it was Manifest Destiny or obvious fate to settle land all the way to the Pacific Ocean. It was tied with the slavery issue because if America got new territory then they would they make them slave states or free states. A Whig named John Tyler wanted to annex Texas to a slave state which would also help spread to the West. This attitude of wanting to spread West helped them win the Mexican-American war and helped them rid of the Native Americans.
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    Donner Party

    The Donner Party was a group of people who were stranded in the Sierra-Nevada mountains during the Winter of 46-47. The group was trying to find a shortcut to California. Because of hunger, several members converted to cannibalism. Their wagon got stuck near Donner Lake in the Sierra-Nevada mountains. Only 48/87 survived to get to the other side of the mountains.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    Officially ended the Mexican-American war and forced Mexico to give the U.S. their northern territory a.k.a. Utah, California, and Nevada. It gave Mexico’s new boundary the Rio Grande River. Mexicans in the area could have moved back to Mexico or stay and become a U.S. citizen.
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    California Gold Rush

    The California Gold Rush was a period of gold which was found in California. Several miners traveled to California to find and dig for gold to sell for lots of money. This is where the term Wild-West comes in. The Wild-West is when several people fought during the Gold Rush because they wanted money. So they would kill people to get it.
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    Forty Niners

    The gold seeking miners in the mining revolution in the California Gold rush were called 49ers. Approximately 80,000 gold-seekers came to California hoping to strike gold. The forty-niners had “gold fever” which is what the 80,000 of them had. They were hoping to strike gold and get rich.
  • Gadsen Purchase

    Gadsen Purchase
    The Gadsden Purchase was the purchase of a piece of land in the southernmost part of Arizona and part of New Mexico. The U.S. government paid $10 million for this land. This boundary lies today and the Southern border of the U.S. is what it looks like today. THis purchase later allowed a pathway for a southern part of the transcontinental railroad.