HoD Timeline-Jean Urbieta

  • Apr 1, 1200

    Congo (Kongo)

    Congo (Kongo)
    Rise of Kongo empire, centred in modern northern Angola and including extreme western Congo and territories round lakes Kisale and Upemba in central Katanga (now Shaba).
  • Period: Apr 1, 1200 to

    The Congo

  • Apr 1, 1482

    European Discovery

    European Discovery
    Captain Diego Cao sailed south along the African coast and landed at the mouth of the Congo River. He was the first European to sight the Congo river., He left four crew members and took four africans home to his king.
  • Apr 1, 1483

    European Relations

    European Relations
    Captain Diogo Cao visited the capital, Mbanza, and persuaded the king to open his country to the Portuguese. The capital Ambezi was the first to accept the Portuguese protectorate.
  • Jul 6, 1526

    King Afonso

    King Afonso
    King Afonso of Congo sent a letter of complaint to Portugal regarding the impact of slave trade in his country.
  • Period: to

    Joseph Conrad

  • Birth Of Joseph Conrad

    Birth Of Joseph Conrad
    Jozef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski born of Polish aristocratic parents in the Russian occupied Ukraine
  • Hard Times

    Hard Times
    1862 Conrad's parents exiled by Russian authorities to Vologda, Siberia
    1865 Conrad's mother dies in bleak climate.
  • Bobrowski

    Upon the death of Count Apollo Korzeniowski in Krakow, Poland, Conrad is taken under the protection his maternal uncle, the indulgent Tadeusz Bobrowski.
  • Context

    Sponsored by London Daily Telegraph and New York Herald, British explorer Henry Morton Stanley embarks on a 999-day journey, returning to Europe with reports of vast untapped wealth. .
  • Attempted suicide

    Attempted suicide
    March: Conrad attempts suicide, shooting himself in the chest, but recovers. As a result, his uncle clears Conrad's gambling debts. April: Conrad, having lost his French mariner's ticket, joins his first British-registered ship, the ‘ Mavis', and transfers afterwards to ‘The Skimmer of the Sea'. He would have become liable for Russian military service had he remained in the French merchant service.
  • Leopold

    Belgian King Leopold II sets up a private venture to colonize the Congo.
  • Colonization

    King Leopold II of Belgium forms consortium of bankers to finance exploration and colonisation of region. Stanley employed to travel up Congo and sign favourable treaties with local rulers. Stays in Africa until 1887, obtaining 450 treaties.
  • Catholicism

    Catholicism became established in Congo.
  • Beginning Downfall

    Beginning Downfall
    1880-1920 The population of Congo was halved due to murder, starvation, exhaustion, exposure, disease, and a lowered birth rate due to the exploitation by King Leopold II
  • Claims of Congo

    Claims of Congo
    1884-85 - European powers at the Conference of Berlin recognise Leopold's claim to the Congo basin.
  • MINE!!!

    Leopold announces the establishment of the Congo Free State, headed by himself.
  • Congo Trip

    Congo Trip
    Conrad, desperate for command, takes a mate's position on a river steamer for the Societe Anonyme pour le Commerce du Haut-Congo , the experience so vividly reflected in Conrad's Congo Journal and eventually in Heart of Darkness .
  • Jessie George

    Jessie George
    While officer of the clipper ‘Torrens' Conrad meets John Galsworthy. In England, Conrad meets Jessie George, his future wife.
  • Cannibalism

    Congo cannibals killed 1000s of Arabs.
  • Eastern Congo Gained

    Eastern Congo Gained
    Eastern Congo wrested from the control of East African Arab and Swahili-speaking traders.
  • Heart Of Darkness

    Heart Of Darkness
    Heart of Darkness runs serially in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine , which Conrad calls simply “ Maga .”
  • Jessie Disabled

    Jessie Disabled
    Jessie Conrad, injuring her knees, is disabled for life. Nostromo published
  • Annexation

    Belgian state annexes Congo amid protests over killings and atrocities carried out on a mass scale by Leopold's agents. Millions of Congolese are said to have been killed or worked to death during Leopold's control of the territory.
  • Chance

    Conrad's Chance leads to recognition for his other work and has excellent sales in America. Visiting Poland, the Conrads are nearly trapped there when World War One breaks out in August.
  • Death

    Conrad declines an offered knighthood. On the 3rd of August, Conrad dies of a heart attack.
  • Riots

    Belgium begins to lose control over events in the Congo following serious nationalist riots in Leopoldville (now Kinshasa).
  • Independence

    Congo becomes independent with Patrice Lumumba as prime minister and Joseph Kasavubu as president.
  • Coup

    September - Kasavubu dismisses Lumumba as prime minister.
    December - Lumumba arrested.
    1961 February - Lumumba murdered, reportedly with US and Belgian complicity.
  • Coup d'etat

    Coup d'etat
    Kasavubu and Tshombe ousted in a coup led by Joseph Mobutu.
  • Mobutu Regime

    Mobutu Regime
    Mobutu agrees to end the ban on multiparty politics and appoints a transitional government, but retains substantial powers.
    1991 - Following riots in Kinshasa by unpaid soldiers, Mobutu agrees to a coalition government with opposition leaders, but retains control of the security apparatus and important ministries.
    1993 - Rival pro- and anti-Mobutu governments created.
    1994 - Mobutu agrees to the appointment of Kengo Wa Dondo, an advocate of austerity and free-market reforms, as prime m