1301 Timeline Project

Timeline created by aaliyahtimms
In History
  • 2,000 BCE

    Mayans

    Mayans
    The Mayans were a civilization of people who started in 2000 B.C and ended in 1500 A.D in Mesoamerica. They were divided by their social class which was nobles, commoners, serfs, and slaves. The nobles served as rulers and government officials. They were literate and wealthy. Commoners worked as farmers, laborers and servants. They believed in human sacrifices because they believed it was an offering of nourishment to the gods. The Mayans written language was called Maya Script or Maya glyphs.
  • 1095

    The Crusades

    The Crusades
    The Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims to take control of the holy cities. They all occurred between 1095-1291. Their legacy was trade, military, and knowledge. The Knights Templar were a Catholic military and their purpose was to protect the pilgrims but they became the defenders of the Crusader states. The Catholic Church indulgences were reducing the punishment for sin. The Crusades advanced many technologies some of these were creating more accurate maps.
  • 1345

    Aztecs

    Aztecs
    The Aztecs originated in Northern Mexico and migrated to Mesoamerica around the beginning of the 13th century. They were highly accomplished in agriculture. They believed in human sacrifice on a massive scale. Aztecs had a strict social structure which the people were identified as nobles, commoners, serf, or slaves. the noble class consisted of government and military leaders, high-level priest, and lords. the commoner class consisted of farmers and merchant, while serfs worked for nobles.
  • 1350

    The Black Death

    The Black Death
    The black death is a plague that spread across Europe and Asia killing many people. They were unaware of this disease until a ship pulled into a Sicilian port at Messina and they were met with many of the sailors aboard dead or severely ill. Many people fled the city. The black death killed more than 20 million people. The disease started with certain swellings either on the groin or under the armpits. No one knew how the black death was transmitted and didn't know how to prevent it or treat it.
  • 1492

    Colombian Exchange

    Colombian Exchange
    The Columbian Exchange was a widespread exchange of goods around the world but not only were goods exchanged diseases, animals and plants too. The exchange was named after Christopher Columbus. The goods being passed around spread diseases around and the native populations were wiped out because they had never come in contact with any of them and it spread quickly through their populations. This mostly benefited the old world because they got things they didn't have on their side of the world.
  • 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    Treaty of Tordesillas
    The Treaty of Tordesillas was an agreement between Spain and Portugal to settle conflicts over the newly discovered lands. The Spanish-born Pope Alexander VI divided the land. Spain was given rights to all the discovered lands in the region west of the line drawn. Portuguese were to stay east of the line so they had Brazil. Neither of them could claim land already claimed by the Christian ruler so they couldn't colonize the land. This treaty ignored all the people already living in the Americas.
  • 1521

    Conquest of the Aztecs

    Conquest of the Aztecs
    The conquest of the Aztecs started in 1519 and ended in 1521. Hernan Cortez led Spanish forces to the capital of the Aztecs Tenochtitlan and the city was conquered. Cortez set out and when he arrived he was welcomed by the Aztec emperor Montezuma. Cortez had heard that there was gold on their land and wanted to take it. Montezuma was killed by his own people during their war. The Spanish had an advantage of horses, weapons, and diseases. The Spanish were more advanced and immune to the diseases.
  • Plymouth Colony

    Plymouth Colony
    The Puritans came to the Plymouth colony on the Mayflower. They left because they felt the reformation wasn't done They began building on their land and their first winter was harsh and many people died from diseases. They met a Native American man named Squanto who acted as an interpreter and mediator between Plymouth leaders and local Native American. The Mayflower Compact was the foundation of the Plymouth colony. It was a document stating they would live in a civil society on their own laws.
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony

    Massachusetts Bay Colony
    The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded by John Winthrop and most of their towns were built around a church or town center. Roger Williams beliefs had created a rift in their colony. He believed church and state should remain separate. He was banished from the colony and he and his followers made the colony Rhode Island. After this quieted down a woman named Anne Hutchinson found it offensive and insulting to her sex that women were not allowed to go to meetings men did and she soon left also.
  • The Colony of Maryland

    The Colony of Maryland
    The Maryland Colony was founded in 1633 by George Calvert, Lord Baltimore. Maryland was named by King Charles I in honor of his wife Henrietta Maria. Maryland was a religiously free colony for Catholics. Cecil Calvert inherited the Maryland colony after his father died and became the proprietor. He required settlers to have provisions. In Maryland, their main cash crop was tobacco which made most of their money amoung other crops. They had indentured servants who helped them with their crops.
  • The Atlantic Slave Trade

    The Atlantic Slave Trade
    The Atlantic Slave Trade was a trade of enslaved people across the Atlantic ocean to the Americas. When they went to the Africas they mainly targeted women who could have children and young men who would usually be starting families at there age. The black men and women were forcibly taken from their homes. The slave trade happened for almost 4 centuries and increased in the late 1600s. Spain and Portugal led the slave trade in the 1700s while Britain was the largest slave trader in the 1700s.
  • Navigation Acts

    Navigation Acts
    The navigation act was a series of acts to add restrictions on colonial trade. The main act in 1651 was when the Commonwealth government limited Dutch trade with the English colonies and all goods transported on English or colonial American ships. The navigation act of 1651 was mainly aimed at the Dutch but was effective in preventing colonies in trading with other countries. The colonial manufacturers and merchants were the most negatively impacted by these acts and their response was hostility
  • The Colony of Pennsylvania

    The Colony of Pennsylvania
    Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn as a safe place for Quakers to live. King Charles II gave William Penn a large land grant to pay off a debt owed to his family. The Quakers lived on this land so they could have religious and political freedom. They were abolitionist and by the 1780s Quakers weren't allowed to own slaves. They believed men and women are equal and many were executed for their thinking by other colonies. They believed that everyone had the Light of Christ within them.
  • Salem With Trial

    Salem With Trial
    The Salem Witch Trials happened in Salem Village, Massachusetts when the minister's daughter and other girls started acting strangely. They began having fits and were diagnosed with being bewitched. They started accusing people of being witches and they were tried. Some denied the accusation while others confessed and name others who helped. They were tried and hanged or put in jail. The trials were later deemed unlawful by the court and the people were released from their witchcraft charges.
  • The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment
    The Enlightenment was a time period when people decided to start thinking as individuals and was called the age of reason. The people started questioning traditional authority and thought things should be more rational. Many people started writing works. Sir Isaac Newton published his Principia Mathematica and John Locke published his Essay Concerning Human Understanding. These works changed the way people thought. John Locke argues people learned more from experience than outside appearance.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    In 1707 Scotland and England were united and became the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Great Britain was an empire and colonies still had their local control. Their government was a federal system with central authority and local governments. The Scots law and courts were preserved. They negotiated many things before uniting such as the flag, taxes, church. Scots couldn't pay taxes at the English level so they made a deal. When uniting they shared the responsibility of England's national debt.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    The Great Awakening was a time when people were becoming religious, many were scared into becoming religious. John Edwards, a minister, explained his message he based his ideas on that humans are sinners and God is the angry judge. He said that humans need to ask for forgiveness. He was known for his passion and energy. George Whitfield was also a minister from Britain who also went around the colonies preaching his message. He was known for his expressive, charismatic and theatrical sermons.
  • Fort Duquesne

    Fort Duquesne
    Fort Duquesne is a small French trading fort. France was expanding its fur trading empire and Britain was trying to colonize the Americas. They started claiming land but eventually claimed the same territory as the other. This began the French and Indian War. Fort Duquesne was crucial to Britain because they saw it as a way to gain control of the Ohio River Valley. The French won the battle at this fort because Britain tried to trap them but had fallen into a trap themselves and lost many men.
  • Siege of Fort William Henry

    Siege of Fort William Henry
    The Siege of Fort William Henry between the Britain and French. French blockaded the road linking Edward and William Henry. They began firing at the other and the British called for back up but the letter was intercepted and never received the message. The Indian were being very brutal and scalping the British soldiers even when they were at their own camps. British soldiers began running away from the Indians because they wouldn't stop. The soldiers went back to Fort Edward trying to get away.
  • Salutary Neglect

    Salutary Neglect
    Salutary Neglect is a policy of the British government concerning the colonies that they never paid attention to. The British government didn't strictly enforce taxes or help solve colonial problems. The American colonies did their own things and ran their own government. The colonies were used to making their own decisions and letting their colonial legislatures run free. The British government didn't acknowledge the colonies until they needed money after the war and neglected them for so long.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris 1763 ended the French and Indian War or The 7 years war. This treaty was signed in Paris, France by the British and French government. Britain took Canada, Quebec and Ohio Valley from the French and France lost all their territory on the North America mainland. After the victory for Britain, they gave the port of New Orleans and Louisiana territory west of the Mississippi to Spain for being an ally. France regained the Caribbean Islands captured by the British during the war.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre was a riot between the Bostonians and British soldiers. The colonist were not happy because the British had put taxes on the goods. Colonist were rioting outside of stores and British soldiers were trying to stop them. The soldiers were threatened by the colonist and called for back up. Nobody knows which soldier shot first but after the first shot was fired many others fired into the crowd too. Some colonist were hit and killed which caused the tensions to continue to rise.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was a protest against the tax the British government put on their tea. The colonist were very angry about the tax on tea. Tea was dumped into the Boston harbor by drunk "Indians" but in actualality it was drunk Bostonians dressed up as Indians. They dumped 342 chests of British tea into the Boston harbor. The tea was sent by the East India Company and then dumped. The British were very angry after and decided to close the ports so the colonist were not going to have any tea.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    The Olive Petition is the last attempt by the colonist to stop from going to war with Britain. This petition was their hope for peace and was sent to the king by the continental congress. The king rejected the petition and support for the revolution rises. The king had already made his decision about the colonist before they sent the petition which is why he refused to read it. The petition confused congress because they were still rebelling against the government while trying to avoid the war.
  • Common Sense

    Common Sense
    Common sense was a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine. This pamphlet was telling the colonist about his arguments in favor of American independence. His pamphlet was very cheap and widely popular among the colonies and many people read it. The pamphlet attacked monarchy and changed the American colonial views of monarchy to disgust. He distinguishes between government and society. Common Sense challenged the British Government's authority and was an important influence on the American Revolution.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga was the turning point for the American Revolution. It was a major American victory. Since America won this battle French decided to join the war as an American ally. They acknowledged America wanting independence and committed their troops and navy to help America win the war. The British generals were devising a plan to make the war end quickly but it didn't turn out how it was supposed to. One general had a different idea and the plan failed which lead to the victory.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    The Battle of Yorktown also known as the Seige of Yorktown was the last battle of the revolutionary war. In this war, the French played a huge role and the American and French armies combined. This battle took place in Yorktown, Virginia and happened near the ocean. The British made many blunders during this war and had many problems because they were outnumbered in the battle. At the end of this war, the British surrendered and the British government negotiated and gave colonist their freedom.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris in 1783 is the treaty that ended the American revolutionary war when the colonist won their freedom in the battle of yorktown, virginia. It was officially signed on September 3, 1783. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay negotiated the treaty with Great Britain. In this treaty, Great Britain formally recognizes American Independence. This treaty established the northern border with British North America and Canada and both nations had access to the Mississippi River.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    The Northwest Ordinance was a new method in admitting new states to the union. In order to enter the union, the states had to reject slavery forever but they had freedom of religion, have 60,000 people and 5,000 to get a legislature. Each state would have a governor and judges appointed by congress when they enter until the state had 5,000 free males to vote and make their own legislature. In this new system of admitting states, newer states being equal to older states was firmly established.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    Shay's rebellion was a sequence of attacks on the government. This rebellion was led by Daniel Shays. This happened in Massachusetts and after the Revolutionary War, farmers were struggling to make ends meet. The farmers were expected to pay higher taxes than usual and they weren't making enough money for their family. The government began to take their farms since they couldn't pay. Washington came to stop their rebellion and this is important because it was the first test of the constitution.
  • New Jersey Plan

    New Jersey Plan
    The New Jersey Plan was a plan made for smaller states and was a modified version of the Articles of Confederation. These resolutions were drafted by William Patterson and other delegates. This plan included one legislature which gave each state one vote. The legislature was the supreme law of the land while the executive was elected by congress and it had a less powerful judiciary. The small states like this plan because they felt that they would be equally represented to the larger states.
  • The Great Compromise

    The Great Compromise
    The Great Compromise or the Connecticut Compromise was an agreement between the smaller states and the larger states. They were trying to decide how each state was going to be represented. This compromise is still used today for modern-day Congress. The Great Compromise is a bi-cameral legislature which is a two-house legislature with a house of representatives and senate. This compromise made the smaller states and larger states satisfied because they both feel that they are equally represented
  • Anti-Federalist

    Anti-Federalist
    The Anti-federalists were people who supported a weak central government and wanted states' rights. They wanted the Bill of Rights which would guarantee the people's individual rights and liberties. They believed powers not given to the federal government were given to the states. The Anti-Federalist had a strict interpretation of the Constitution. A leader of the Anti-Federalist was Patrick Henry. Anti-Federalist were afraid that a strong central government would have too much power over states
  • Judicial Branch

    Judicial Branch
    The judicial branch was established in 1787 and the most important part is the supreme court which interprets the constitution and limits the powers of the government. The judicial branch decides whether a law is unconstitutional or not. This branch is appointed by the President and there are 9 justices. The number is odd so there will never be a tie when they're deciding the law. The judicial branch can overturn rulings by other judges. This branch resolves disputes between the other branches.
  • Election of 1788

    Election of 1788
    This was the first presidential election and like everyone expected George Washington won. The government used the electoral college system like they still use today. This presidential election was conducted under the U. S. Constitution. George Washington was president for the first 2 terms and John Adams was Vice President because he was second place. Washington in everyone's eyes was a god-like figure and everyone's choice. He didn't have any running mates and second place got vice president.
  • Executive Branch

    Executive Branch
    The Executive Branch was a 3 man executive and 1 single man was elected by the people. They have the electoral college system which is a system for electors to vote who will be President and Vice President. The college is chosen by the legislature and meant for the elite because they didn't trust the common man. A 4-year term with no limits on being re-elected. The cabinet system is an advisory body and help advise the president and consist of the vice president and the heads of departments.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    The Bill of rights is the first 10 amendments of the constitution. These 10 amendments reinforced individual rights, federal and state government limitations. James Madison wrote these 10 amendments because the anti-federalist requested them and wanted to secure their individual rights and make sure they cannot be taken away. The Bill of Rights was ratified in 1791 and when first ratified didn't apply to every citizen. Blacks were not included and didn't have equal protection like whites did.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    The Cotton Gin was created by Eli Whitney in 1793. Eli Whitney was born on December 8, 1765, in Westborough, Massachusetts. The Cotton Gin was a great contribution for the South because slavery was slowing down. This machine allowed the seeds in the cotton to be easily removed and revolutionalized the cotton industry. After the cotton gin was invented cotton production exploded and during this time slavery was on a downfall but started making a comeback. This machine shaped the southern economy.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    The Whiskey Rebellion took place in Pennslyvania. The Pennslyvania and Kentucky farmers were upset about a tax that was put on whiskey. Whiskey was economically important to the farmers and made most of their profit. The Farmers decide to revolt against this and George Washington comes and puts it down. 6,000 people threaten to attack Pittsburg but Washington leads the army to stop them from attacking. This rebellion is important because it was the first major domestic test of the constitution
  • Pinckney's Treaty

    Pinckney's Treaty
    Pinckney's Treaty was an agreement between the United States and Spain and established intentions of friendship. This treaty established that the United States were free to navigate the Mississippi River through their territory. The U.S. was granted a duty-free transport at the New Orleans Port. Spain and the United States agreed to help each other out with Indian attacks within their borders. Thomas Pinckney negotiated this treaty with Spain and happened in San Lorenzo de El Escorial in Madrid.
  • Washington's Farewell Address

    Washington's Farewell Address
    Washington's Farewell Address was after Washington had served 2 terms and decided he was done. In his speech, he spent most of his time warning the nation to avoid conflicts, political parties, and no permanent alliances only temporary. Washington stepped down after his second term because he knew if he were to die in the 3rd term the people would view the job as a lifetime appointment. In his address he spoke about the union being weak and vulnerable to attacks from enemies and foreign nations.
  • Kentucky Resolutions

    Kentucky Resolutions
    The Kentuck Resolutions were written by Thomas Jefferson. These resolutions said the states had the power to nullify unconstitutional federal laws and wanted to give the states more power. Kentucky felt that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional and their response to this was the resolutions. The Alien and Sedition acts violated the 1st amendment. The Constitution was a compact among the states. These resolutions were the foundation of states' rights and showed why they needed them.
  • Marbury v. Madison

    Marbury v. Madison
    Marbury v. Madison was an important supreme court case. In this case, Marbury an angry appointee sued James Madison because the judge nominations were withheld from the judges appointed by President John Adams. This court case set up the judicial review and the modern court today. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Marbury was entitled to his position and that the supreme court lacked jurisdiction. Judicial Review is an important addition to checks and balances and keeps the branches equal.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Lewis and Clark Expedition
    The Lewis and Clark Expedition was to explore the new land the U.S had acquired in the Lousiana Purchase. This expedition lasted 3 years and was assigned by Thomas Jefferson to Meriwether Lewis. Lewis chose William Clark as his co-leader and before they began Lewis studied many things because exploring the area wouldn't be easy. Along the way, they met Native Americans who gave them goods and at Fort Mandan, a Shoshone Indian women name Sacagawea who left with them to help and be a translator.
  • Hamilton vs Burr Duel

    Hamilton vs Burr Duel
    The illegal duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr happened in Weehawken, New Jersey. Aaron Burr is the Vice President at this time and Alexander Hamilton is a big federalist leader. Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr are political and personal enemies. Hamilton and Burr face off and takes aim. Hamilton ends up wounded and later dies and the federalist lose one of their biggest leaders this day. Burr's political career after killing Hamilton is ruined forever because of their society.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    The Battle of New Orleans happened after the War of 1812 was over and the treaty was signed. Andrew Jackson defeated the British army with a bi-racial ragtag army. Jackson's ragtag army consisted of civilians soldiers, pirates, free blacks, Choctaw tribesmen, New Orleans aristocrats, frontier militiamen, and farmers. Jackson won despite them being outnumbered they wounded almost 2,000 British soldiers and they suffered less than 65 deaths. Andrew Jackson became a household name after this battle
  • Fredrick Douglass

    Fredrick Douglass
    Fredrick Douglass was born in 1818 and nobody knows his exact date of his birth. He was born in Talbot County, Maryland who later was taken from his mom. He was an escaped slave who became an activist and abolitionist. He was a major leader in the abolitionist movement and wanted to end slavery. His original name was Fredrick Bailey but switched to Douglass after he escaped from slavery. Fredrick Douglass escaped in 1838 and he got on a train that went through Delaware before going to New York.
  • Adams-Onis Treaty

    Adams-Onis Treaty
    The Adams-Onis Treaty also knows as the Transcontinental Treaty was a document created in 1819 when the United States acquired Florida. John Quincy Adams, the Secretary of State signed this treaty. Spain colonized Florida and had a brief period of stability but then Florida began getting attacked by Native Americans. Andrew Jackson defended Florida from the Native American attacks which led Spain to decide to cede Florida to the U.S and Andrew Jackson was appointed the governor of Florida.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri Compromise purpose was to keep the balance of slave and free states and happened because Missouri wanted to join the union. An imaginary line was drawn at 36 30. Any states above this line would be free and any states below this line would be slave. This was a temporary solution to keep the peace and the balance between slave and free states. Conflict in the future about slavery was guarenteed. This was an effort by Congress to decrease tensions between pro-slavery and free states.
  • Second Great Awakening

    Second Great Awakening
    The Second Great Awakening began around 1800 but picked up around 1820. This Great Awakening was mainly emotional religious revival in the U.S. Membership in the churches grew rapidly among Baptist and Methodist churches. The Second Great Awakening was important because people started recognizing injustices and suffering and would start a reform to fix it. Many people during this time converted to Protestant and more women converted than men. This sought to awaken the consciences of the people.
  • Ulysses S. Grant

    Ulysses S. Grant
    Ulysses S. Grant was born on April 27, 1822, in Point Pleasant, Ohio. He was a General during the Civil War for the Union and was the 18th president of the United States. During Grant's presidency, he didn't have control over his cabinet and didn't control the people. He didn't like being criticized by the people and reduced his efforts and policing the south. He was afraid of more political losses because of how the people viewed him after he interfered with state affairs using the military.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine was a document created in 1823 in which President James Monroe declared to Europe no intervention in colonizing Latin America or the western hemisphere. James Monroe said anywho who disobeys this will have to face the U.S military. The reason James Monroe to declared this was because the Spanish empire was crumbling and the U.S wanted influence over the new areas. James Monroe proclaimed the U.S as a protector of the western hemisphere by stopping Europe from colonization.
  • The Corrupt Bargain

    The Corrupt Bargain
    During the Election of 1824 between Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams wasn't completely fair. After the people saw the results from the election, it was given to the House of Representatives. Jackson won the popular vote but not the electoral vote. Henry Clay who at the time was the speaker of the House of Representatives and John Quincy Adams struck a deal. Henry Clay would use his power in the house so the Adams won the election. Since Adams won the Election Jackson was bitter and angry.
  • Free Black Communities

    Free Black Communities
    The largest Free Black Communities were in the North and the Midwest. They were segregated between whites and blacks and whites discriminated against blacks. Free blacks competed with immigrants for jobs because immigrants and blacks were both at the bottom of the social ladder. In these communities, it was hard for blacks because they couldn't be fully free like whites but weren't enslaved like the slaves still in slavery. Free blacks often moved for better opportunity and to find some safety.
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    The election of 1828 was between Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams. During this election, Jackson had a new strategy to appeal to the people. Jackson had humble origins, talk about his military career, and have democratic values. Both Jackson and Adams personally attacked the other to make people have a bad view of the other. They called each other womanizers and Adams attacks Jackson's wife, they were very nasty towards each other. In the end, Andrew Jackson's name was everywhere and he won.
  • Jackson's Inauguration Party

    Jackson's Inauguration Party
    Jackson's Inauguration Party was right after his wife Rachael died and was very rowdy. Jackson's party seemed fine at first but began to look like a mob scene after a while. Guest were standing on furniture with muddy shoes, breaking dishes, and smashing food into the carpet as they moved around. The people who worked at the White House eventually tried to make the guest go outside and stay so they wouldn't ruin the house anymore. They started serving drinks and food outside and on the lawn.
  • Indian Removal Act of 1830

    Indian Removal Act of 1830
    The Indian Removal Act of 1830 granted the president permission to exchange the Indian land with unsettled lands to take their land if they wanted it. The people did not tolerate the presence of Indians even if they were peaceful. President Andrew Jackson during this time promoted this policy because he didn't like Indians. Many Indian tribes such as the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Seminole, and Cherokee refused to give up their land for some strange land. Some tribes went legal and tried to stop them.
  • Temperance Movement

    Temperance Movement
    The temperance movement is a movement against drinking alcoholic beverages This movement started because they wanted people to stop drinking. People were drinking alcohol all day if the alcohol consumption went down they would have a improved society. Some states decide to ban alcohol to lower alcohol consumption. Mainly women were starting this movement because they were tired of their drunken husbands. Alcohol was said to be one of the most harmful things in life and said to be was successful.
  • Railroads

    Railroads
    Railroads were a key thing in the industrial revolution. Railroads were invented by a man in Great Britain and improved transportation greatly. Railroads were cheaper and faster transportation for the people. The farmers used railroads to transport their goods which was faster. People could ride trains into town and get good or move into towns for jobs. Railroads created jobs for people because they were growing in society. Railroads were important because transportation was cheaper and faster.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Nat Turner was a slave who preached to other slaves which made their view of rebellion as heroic. His slave rebellion lasted two days and he led more than fifty of his followers in a bloody revolt in Southampton, Virginia. They killed many whites, mostly women and children. The results of the rebellion were they outlawed slaves preaching, limited their access to firearms, and assaults on whites became a capital offense. All the Southern states strengthened their militia to prevent another revolt
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    The Trail of Tears was a trail Indians had to take after they were forced to leave their territory. The Cherokee Indians were divided on what to do because some wanted to state and fight for their land but others felt that this would cause more problems between them and the whites. When the Cherokees left for their walk to the new Indian Territory it was horrible for them and many suffered. The Cherokees were going to Oklahoma and during their walk, many of them die and struggle to survive.
  • Telegraph

    Telegraph
    The Telegraph was created by Samuel Morse which revolutionalized long-distance communication. The telegraph was a machine used for sending and receiving messages and worked by transmitting electronic signals over a wire that was between stations. Morse made sketches that showed the three major parts of the telegraph which were a sender, a reviever and a code to translate the messages that were sent. The first ever message sent was on May 24, 1844, saying "What hath God wrought!" from the bible.
  • Election of 1832: Bank Veto Speech

    Election of 1832: Bank Veto Speech
    In the Election of 1832 between Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay. During this Clay is trying to find a way for him to win the election and decided to use the 2nd bank of United States because Jackson hated the bank. Congress did an early renewal of the bank and Jackson vetoed. Jackson gave a speech on why he vetoed the bank because the people didn't understand. His speech appealed to the common man and laid out the vision for an American Democracy. Jackson won and destroyed Clay in the election.
  • American Anti-Slavery Society

    American Anti-Slavery Society
    The American Anti-Slavery Society was an abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison. Abolitionist had meetings to discuss slavery being abolished. A key person who mainly spoke at these meetings was Fredrick Douglass an escaped slave. In these meetings, they adopted resolutions and signed anti-slavery petitions. In order for them to spread their word they had people go out and carry the anti-slavery message to the citizens. The meetings were more effective when a former slave spoke.
  • Steel Plow

    Steel Plow
    The Steel plow was created by John Deere. This tool helped farmers on their farms and was part of the industrial changes that came during the industrial revolution. This tool was used to tough soil and the soil wouldn't get stuck in the tool. When creating this tool John Deere used an old broken steel saw blade and his picture in his mind was soil sliding easily off a steel moldboard. As Deere expanded and used suggestions from people, he began creating different kinds of plows to help farmers.
  • Tenant Farmers

    Tenant Farmers
    Tenant Farmers were people who settled on other people's land and worked on the farm of people who owned the land. Tenant farmers lived in poor conditions and lived in poverty. The land they rented was either from Planters or Yeomen Farmers because they couldn't afford land themselves. Most people were worried that Tenant Farmers and slaves would work together because they are in the same conditions and both want to get out of poverty. In order to keep them apart, white supremacy was encouraged.
  • Shakers

    Shakers
    The Shakers were religious people who believed in the second return of Christ on judgment day and behaved very ecstatically during their worship services. They were celibate people and had a communistic society. They believed that both sexes were equal to each other and they couldn't have private property. Shakers don't believe in marriage or protection and negotiated their domesticity. The Shakers maintains a utopian society in the U.S. for over two hundred years and had a distinctive style.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    Manifest Destiny was the belief that America was supposed to expand from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. This belief became real when America made purchases to expand to the Pacific. Some purchases America made to expand west were the Louisiana Purchase, Texas gaining its independence and joining the Union, and Oregon Territory. While America was expanding west they were brutal and mistreated Native Americans and others who occupied territories they needed to expand to the Pacific Ocean
  • Election of 1844

    Election of 1844
    The Election of 1844 was between James K. Polk and Henry Clay. Polk won this election but it was very close between the two. Polk promised to only do 1 term and to do 3 things during his presidency. He said he would annex Texas, settle the Oregon and Mexico border. Polk was able to get Texas annexed before his inauguration. In his one term, Polk completed the 3 things he said he would. Polk settled the border dispute between Mexico and Texas after the United States won the Mexican-American War.
  • Bear Flag Revolt

    Bear Flag Revolt
    The Bear Flag revolt is when California declared independence from Mexico. On June 14, 1846, a group of more than 30 Americans lead by William Ide invaded Sonoma, a defenseless outpost in Mexico. They captured Mexican General Mariano Vallejo as a prisoner of war who actually supported American annexation. The victory at Sonoma was bloodless which lead to California declaring themselves as an independent republic. California joined the union after and the bear flag is now California's state flag.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    Wilmot Proviso was the banning of slavery in the territories acquired from Mexico at the end of the Mexican-American War. This plan was proposed by Congressman David Wilmot. The Wilmot Proviso was denied by Congress but tensions over slavery were rising. If the new territory would be slave or free the other would be too powerful. Pro-slavery people and free soilers split into different factions. Many people began making plans on what to do with the new territory the U.S. acquired from Mexico.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The Seneca Falls Convention was in Seneca Falls, New York and was primarily for women. This Convention was for women to have the right to vote. A leader in this who gave a speech about the convention's goals and purpose was Elizabeth Cady. Presented to the people for women's rights were 11 resolutions and mostly all were passed without opposition except the ninth resolution which was the right for women to vote. Fredrick Douglass gave a speech and the resolution eventually and barely passed.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican-American War and was signed on February 2, 1848. The U.S. won and after the war was over the border dispute between Mexico and Texas was settled and Texas seized over half of Mexico's territory. Mexico acknowledged the Rio Grande as the southern boundary. Since Texas acquired new territory which is now Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, and other states. The issues over slavery came back and tensions between the North and South were rising.
  • Yeomen Farmers

    Yeomen Farmers
    Yeomen Farmers were in the middle on the social ladder of farmers. They owned farms and worked primarily with family and community efforts. Some Yeomen Farmers mainly relied on the Planted to sell their crops because Planters had many connections around but others resented the Yeomen Farmers. 75% of Yeomen Farmers did not own slaves and they formed Southern militias for safety. They caught slaves who ran away from their owner and guarded their communities and themselves against slave rebellions.
  • Popular Sovereignty

    Popular Sovereignty
    Popular Sovereignty can be described as people power or people rule. Popular Sovereignty is the principle that people decide things instead of the government. After the Mexican-American War, the people were able to decide whether their state was slave or free but an issue with this was would slavery be decided as a state or territory. Zachary Taylor promoted this and the decisions people had to make were mainly about slavery because they were trying to keep the balance of slave and free states.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The Compromise of 1850 was 5 separate bills. The five bills were California would be able to enter the Union as a free state. New Mexico and Utah would decide on being a slave or free state later. Texas relinquished their disputed western lands by the federal government absorbed Texas debt to settle the border. Slave trade was banned in Washington D.C. and the fugitive slave act. The fugitive slave act was that the police had to help return runaway slaves and would be punished if they didn't.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    The Underground Railroad was a series of people who helped slaves escape by offering them shelter and food. The Underground Railroad was a way the abolitionist could ignore the Confederacy in secret. A person who was a big part of the Underground Railroad was Harriet Tubman who did many trips to Canada. She helped free 100,000 slaves between the years of 1830 and 1860. Slaves fled to Canada because of the Fugitive Slave Acts which were if police saw escaped slaves they would have to return them.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Uncle Tom's Cabin was an abolitionist novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. This novel was very popular in the North where white read the story. This novel vividly talked about what it was like to be a slave. The story was made into a play and played many times in the theater. In her book, she made her case by recording the horrible experience of people who were enslaved and said their owners were morally broken. The South was outraged about the book and tried to counter it with another book.
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas
    Kansas got the name Bleeding Kansas because people were fighting over this territory on whether it should be slave or free. Kansas had 2 different governments trying to run which were a pro-slavery government and an anti-slavery government. John Brown attacked Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas, and people who were pro-slavery attacked Lawerence, Kansas. These attacks continued for a while and 200 people die. Kansas' fate can't be decided and is declared a territory until the slavery issue is resolved.
  • Dred Scott vs. Sanford

    Dred Scott vs. Sanford
    This court case was between a slave Dred Scott and his owner John Emerson. Scott worked up North with Emerson until Emerson died. After John Emerson died Scott belonged to his wife and was taken back down South. In this court case, Scott argued that after being in the North for some time he should be given his freedom. The court ruled that no black, free or slave, was able to claim U.S. citizenship and blacks had no right to petition for their freedom in court which caused tensions to rise more.
  • John Brown's Raid

    John Brown's Raid
    John Brown was an abolitionist and believed he was chosen by God to destroy slavery. Brown decided he wanted to invade the South and start an armed slave revolt to fulfill his destiny. He leads raiders to Harper's Ferry in Virginia and takes control of the town and United States arsenal. Brown planned to spread the slave revolt across the south and expected slaves to join him as he continued. John Brown was quickly defeated because nobody joined. Brown and the raiders went to trial and got hung.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    The Election of 1860 was between Abraham Lincoln and John Breckenridge. During this election, the Democrats were divided which wasn't good. The official candidate was John Breckenridge but the unofficial candidate was John Bell. Since they were divided the political party was weak. Lincoln was a Republican and had few political enemies and a moderate approach to slavery. The candidates had appealed to different sections of the country. Lincoln won the election because Republicans were divided.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    The Battle of Antietam was a Union victory and split the south in half. Robert E. Lee lead and was the commander of the Army of Northern Virginia while George McClellan was the commander of the Army of Potomac. The Battle of Antietam was the single bloodiest 1-day battle in history. McClellan won the battle and had the chance to destroy the Army of Northern Virginia when Lee decided to move them back but decided to let them retreat back to Virginia. McClellan felt it was enough that they lost.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    The Emancipation Proclamation was issued after the Battle of Antietam. This document stated that all states still rebelling by January 1, 1863, their slaves are free. Border states which were Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri were allowed to keep their slaves till the war was over. The proclamation stopped Britain from entering the war because they would enter on the side of the South and the purpose of the war now was to abolish slavery which Britain already did in their territories.
  • Lincoln's 10% Plan

    Lincoln's 10% Plan
    In Lincoln's 10% Plan he pardoned are southerners except for the officers and officials. He made them take an oath of loyalty to the Union and re-apply for federal recognition. All the states had to get new state governments. States could only form a new government if 10% of their voters took an oath to be loyal to the Union. Radical Republicans thought his plan was too easy but others accepted the plan. After Lincoln's death, the disagreements about the reconstruction became a big conflict.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    The Gettysburg Address was Lincoln's most famous speech during his presidency. This speech was less than 2 minutes long and only 272 words total. In this speech, he expressed that the Civil War was the ultimate test if the Union would be saved and keep surviving or would it die. He redefined the Civil War in this address which was that the war was about the struggle of human equality and the Declaration of Independence was the true expression of the founding fathers and not the constitution.
  • Election of 1864

    Election of 1864
    The Election of 1864 was between Abraham Lincoln and George McClellan. This election was during the war and Lincoln was afraid he would lose. No president had been re-elected since Andrew Jackson. The Northerners were tired of war and the northern Democrats attacked Lincoln's wartime setbacks. Democrats nominated George McClellan to run against Lincoln but Sherman's capture gave Lincoln a huge boost so he wins fairly easy. McClellan was a former Union army commander and was suppose to be better.
  • Wade-Davis Bill

    Wade-Davis Bill
    The Wade-Davis Bill was created by the radical Republicans to punish the Confederate Army leaders. The Radical Republicans made the leaders promise to destroy the slave society and take an oath declaring they never aided the Confederacy. The officers were stripped of their citizenship and the states were readmitted after a long punishment. The states and leaders had to show clear commitment to the Union before coming back. They didn't want the South to be able to start a slave society again.
  • Appomattox Courthouse

    Appomattox Courthouse
    At Appomattox Courthouse General Robert E. Lee surrendered his Army of Northern Virginia to Union General Ulysses S. Grant to end the Civil War. Lee's goal was to collect his remaining troops and meet back in North Carolina To resume the war but that didn't happen. The siege of Petersburg/Richmond starved Lee's army and forced him to retreat. On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant. By late June all the Confederate forces had surrendered. Many people died during this war mostly to diseases.
  • Freedmen's Bureau

    Freedmen's Bureau
    The Freedmen's Bureau was a relief agency in the war-torn south. They helped the schools, people who need food, and emergency services. The Freedmen's Bureau was the majority of the civil war soldiers helping out freed African Americans and providing aid during their transition. The Freedmen's Bureau took land from the south for agriculture and was the main institution for reconstruction. The Union troops occupied the south during this time to make sure they didn't try to stop reconstruction.
  • Black Codes

    Black Codes
    Black codes were laws created to limit civil rights and economic opportunity for African Americans. These laws were spread across the South and exploited their work. They outlawed interracial marriage and African Americans serving on juries. The South were angry they couldn't keep the blacks at the bottom of the social ladder because slavery was abolished and created these laws to keep them at the bottom. They arrested blacks for little things and most blacks were homeless because of the laws.
  • Freedom Amendments

    Freedom Amendments
    The 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments also known as the Freedom Amendments. The 13th amendment freed slaves and was passed by Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. The 14th amendment made the free blacks into citizens of the United States and citizen became defined as born in the United States. A citizen was entitled to equal protection of the law. The 15th amendment gave male African Americans the right to suffrage. After this was passed the women wanted the right to suffrage like men have.
  • Abraham Lincoln Assassination

    Abraham Lincoln Assassination
    Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. He went to see the play "Our American Cousin" and was murdered 5 days after Appomattox Courthouse where Lee surrendered. John Wilkes Booth jumped into Lincoln's private box and shot him in the back of his head with a .44-caliber single-shot pistol. The general doctor rushed to the president and then the president was taken to a house across the street. The people were told Lincoln couldn't be helped and would die.
  • White Resistance

    White Resistance
    Whites resented black rights and started white brotherhoods, leagues and the Ku Klux Klan. Since they started resenting blacks the poor whites felt they weren't at the bottom of the social ladder anymore. Whites punished blacks and whites who supported black rights for trying to change the social ladder. Grant tried to stop whites from suppressing blacks by making the enforcement acts. The Ku Klux Klan and other groups suppressing blacks were stopped while these acts were enforced in the south.
  • Mississippi Plan

    Mississippi Plan
    The Mississippi Plan was whites trying to prevent the blacks from participating in political things. The Democratic Party made this plan to overthrow the Republican Party. They used violence and the whites in Mississippi ally for the Election of 1874. The black and white Republicans were terrified in Mississippi because they were hurting them if they tried to vote. President Ulysses S. Grant rejected sending troops to help them because he was scared of being criticized. The democrats won easily.
  • Compromise of 1877

    Compromise of 1877
    The Compromise of 1877 was caused by the election of 1876 between Samuel Tilden and Rutherford Hayes. When people voted for the two, Tilden won the popular vote but the electoral votes were unclear. In exchange of Hayes having all the electoral votes he had to agree to end reconstruction and remove federal troops from the south. After Hayes released the federal troops from the south, they took over and total suppression for southern black began. Their new society was built around segregation.
  • American Red Cross

    American Red Cross
    The American Red Cross was founded by Clara Barton in Washington, D.C. During the Civil War, Clara Barton helped with the sick and wounded soldiers. The red cross was an organization who aided wounded soldiers during the civil war. Clara Barton created the Red Cross once she realized that the War Department was not prepared to deal with human trauma. Clara helped with many battles but a big accomplishment that people remember today is the Battle of Antietam where she was at hospitals all day.
  • Spoils System

    Spoils System
    The Spoils System is a system where the political party who won gives their campaign members and people who supported them government post. If the person is from a different party they would be taken from their position with the government and replaced. The spoils system is also known as the patronage system could be abused too if the person didn't do their job. This system was advocated by Andrew Jackson and he wanted the positions in office to be rotated and to reward the loyal supporters.
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    30,000 BCE
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    Beginnings to Exploration

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    English Colonial Societies

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    Colonial America to 1763

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    The Revolutionary War

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    Constitution

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    New Republic

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    The Age of Jefferson

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    The American Industrial Revolution

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    Cultural Changes

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    Age of Jackson

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    Westward Expansion

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    Sectionalism

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    The Civil War