1301 timeline project

Timeline created by krisalynn
  • 2,000 BCE

    Mesoamerica

    Mesoamerica
    The Olmecs were the earliest major known civilization Mesoamerica. They practiced bloodletting and built pyramids but declined by 350 BC. The Aztecs, also known as the Tenochtitlan, were the largest populated civilization. They had a materialistic culture and also practiced a massive scale of human sacrifice. The Mayans lasted from 2000 BC to 1500 AD. They as well practiced human sacrifice and bloodletting. They created the calendar that we still use to modern day and used the caste system
  • 1000

    Dark Ages

    Dark Ages
    The Dark Ages asserts that a economic, demographic, and cultural deterioration occurred in the Western Europe which led to the decline of the Roman Empire. People only got up tto third grade education, no higher. The Dark Ages had a weak economy and the Catholic Church had cultural and education denomination.
  • 1095

    The Crusades

    The Crusades
    A crusade is a medieval military expedition to recover holy land. The Crusades of 1095 were relatively unsuccessful, mostly because of religious massacres. Crusades left legacies such as knowledge, military and trade.
  • 1300

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance
    The Renaissance or “rebirth” was a cultural movement, considered to be the bridge between the Middle Ages and Modern history. New imported technology and ideas worldwide. The Printing Press was a huge breakthrough, invented by Johan Gutenberg. It allowed for quick spread in literary and transformed Europe and the world. During this era, science and medicine were advanced. Leonardo DaVinci was a famous Italian renaissance painter who remains known for his incredible art.
  • 1347

    The Black Death

    The Black Death
    The Black Death also known as the Black Plague transformed society, with 40-50% of Europe dying. When 12 ships from the black sea docked at the Sicilian port of Messina arrived in Europe, it resulted in the plague that was caused by an infectious bacterial disease, the bacteria is found in rodents such as rats and fleas. It soon formed merchant societies, which is anyone involved in business or trade
  • 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    Columbian Exchange
    The Exchange was a widespread exchange of plants, animals, disease, culture, technology, and ideas between the Old World and New World. It was named after Christopher Columbus, the so-called founder of the new world. Benefits of the Columbian Exchange mostly go to the Old World, disease wiped out the Indian population and many different/new fruits and animals were brought.
  • 1493

    Exploration

    Exploration
    Henry the Navigator sponsored a great deal of exploration along the African Coast using caravels. Christopher Columbus was a talented navigator, he believed the shortest route to Asia was west.He took 4 voyages, the first being in 1493 when land was spotted thinking it was Asian land.The 2nd being when he returned with 1000 Spaniards and causing diseases to wipe out natives.The 3rd sent people home as criminals and the 4th one is where Columbus believed he reached Asia throughout his whole life.
  • 1517

    Reformation

    Reformation
    The Protestant Reformation initially aimed at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church.Pope Leo X was the Priest of the Catholic Church, they practiced cultural and intellectual control for 1000 years.Also practiced indulgences, which was the act of making people pay to go to heaven.Martin Luther was upset over that and starts the Protestant Reformation.John Calvin also splits from Catholic Church and practices predestination where God sets your destiny before being born.
  • Feb 1, 1519

    Conquest of the New World

    Conquest of the New World
    Hernan Cortez defeated the Aztecs, hearing tales of Gold. He sails from Cuba to Mexico, he had allied with the Aztecs enemies, the indigenous. The Spanish were advanced with weapons, horses and diseases. Francisco Pizarro conquers the Inca Empire seeking riches such as, gold and silver
  • Chesapeake Colonies (Virginia)

    Chesapeake Colonies (Virginia)
    Jamestown Virginia started as a private charter from the English crown in 1606. It consisted o 105 settlers but only 32 survived the first winter. The settlers exaggerated about the gold and wealth to get more people to join the colony. They also brought grew tobacco from the Caribbean, but the Europeans smoked it and used it as a profit maker. Jamestown also needed slavery, which brought over to the new world.
  • Proprietary Colonies (Carolina)

    Proprietary Colonies (Carolina)
    The Carolina Colony was founded by 8 noble men and named after King Charles. The colony was used for 2 things: a buffer between Spanish Florida and to make money. Most of the settlers came from west indies in the Caribbean. Known as a storage colony, in other words a colony set up for another colony. Carolina was later divided into separate royal colonies in 1729 becoming South and North Carolina.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    There were many issues within the English Colonial Societies such as the Rebellion of Indentured Servants. Black and white indentured servants joined the rebellion that was led by Nathaniel Bacon. They united against the rule of Governor of Virginia, William Berkeley because they resented the class separations. It resulted in less dependence on servants and more on imported slaves. Bacon died within that same year from fever.
  • Glorious Revolution (English Bill of Rights)

    Glorious Revolution (English Bill of Rights)
    The English Bill of Rights is an act created by parliament. It created a separation of powers and protected basic rights of the people such as; no excessive bail , no cruel and unusual punishment, right to petition, and right to trial by jury. The English Bill of Rights inspired others such as the creation of the Constitution and the Virginia Declaration of Rights.
  • Salem Witch Trails

    Salem Witch Trails
    The Salem Witch Trails occurred in Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693 before the Glorious Revolution. It was caused when the ministers daughter and a group of young girls n Salem Village alleged to be possessed by the devil started accusing many women in the town of practicing witchcraft. It resulted in dozens dead by the stake or by being hung. Later the colony admitted they were mistaken by accusing those of witchcraft and compensated the families.
  • Caribbeans Colonies

    Caribbeans Colonies
    Barbados and Jamaica were both within the Caribbean Colonies. The island was most known for their sugar, it was the lifeblood of the region. The Europeans loved it and used it for everything. Spain, France, England and Holland all fought in this region for island possession. Most of the island was populated with slaves, they even outnumbered the whites.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    The Act of Union was a Parliamentary act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of England and Parliament of Scotland. It united the both countries and created the United Kingdom of Great Britain. The Parliament is the head of the empire but colonies still had local control. They had a federal system with central authority and local government, it paved way for modern United States system of government.
  • The Atlantic Slave Trade

    The Atlantic Slave Trade
    The Atlantic Slave trade involved the transportation of enslaved African Americans by slave traders to the Americas from Britain. It was the new source of labor for Europeans that increased in the late 1600s into the 1800s because plantations were developed and needed laborers. North and South America let slave trade happen. By the 1700s Britain was the largest slave trader. Slaves kept their African musical and dancing traditions alive throughout all the tough years of being separated.
  • Colonial Economies

    Colonial Economies
    Many Colonial Economies were established within the Americas. New England was a fishing based economy that was connected with the Atlantic Trade. They also were involved with ship buildings and had religious toleration. The Mid-Atlantic economy was remotely different, they were religiously and ethnically diverse but were involved with the European trade. The Lower South were also religiously diverse but had a large number of slaves and rice.
  • Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    The Triangular Trade system involved the import and exports of luxury and manufactured goods, crops, culture, sugar, and mostly slaves. Imports and exports came from Europe to Africa to North America.
  • The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment
    The Enlightenment gets to let people to think of individuals. It was philosophical movement based on reason and science not superstition . It made people question all pre-conceived notions such as the bible. The Enlightenment had many philosophers that were looked up to such as Sir Isaac Newton, Benjamin Franklin, and John Locke. Benjamin Franklin was known as the symbol of American Enlightenment and a philanthropist with many talents.
  • Virtual Representaion

    Virtual Representaion
    Virtual Representation is where members of the Parliament speak for the interest of all British subjects rather than the district. This led to the practice of Salutary Neglect, the avoidance of parliamentary laws and enforcement meant to keep British colonies to obey England.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    The Great Awakening was a movement of Christian revivals that populated Britain and the Thirteen Colonies. It was a reaction to the Enlightenment Secularism. Colonist began pursuing diverse individual religious affiliations and searching for the meaning of the bible. For example George Whitfield, he preached gospel, chose congregations, spiritual needs, he gave ordinary people a voice and ultimately fractured religious order.
  • Seven Year War (French and Indian)

    Seven Year War (French and Indian)
    The Seven Year War involved Britain, France, and Spain desiring more western/south land and resulting in them fighting for territory. The war started when George Washington gets captured when seizing Duquesne. It was a worldwide conflict, Fort William Henry was the turning point that resulted in British colonist winning. Later the Treaty of Paris 1763 was created to end the French and Indian War; ending the French rule in America.
  • Militias

    Militias
    Militias are civilian colonists who independently organized self-trained military's, they were also known as minutemen because they were known to be ready at a minute’s notice. They were used throughout the Revolutionary war, they protected against the frontier raids. Militias were the primary defense throughout and were used as a police force. They were the initial colonial army in this time period.
  • Acts of Parliament (Stamp Act)

    Acts of Parliament (Stamp Act)
    The Stamp Act was a new tax imposed on all American colonists and required them to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used such as; licenses, ship’s paper, legal documents, newspaper, and other publications. This Act mostly impacted lawyers and printers and Britain had the same tax. 9 out of 13 colonies had sent representatives to Congress. Many protests and riots erupted which led to the Declaratory Act which was the action of Parliament repealing the Stamp Act.
  • The Townshend Acts

    The Townshend Acts
    The Townshend Act were a series of British Acts of Parliament taxing imported goods. It was named after Charles Townshend, a Chancellor who proposed the program. This Act put new taxes on paper, glass, paint, and tea. There were colonial boycotts against British goods, women had started to make their own clothes as well.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre also known as the Incident on King Street happened in Boston Massachusetts. It was caused by a crowd of Bostonian's who were harassing British soldiers and the soldiers fired into the crowd killing 5 civilians. Many in the colonies were outraged and was considered the first American Propaganda. Because of this the Parliament repealed the Town shed Acts, which meant no taxation without representation.
  • The Coercive Acts

    The Coercive Acts
    The Coercive Acts were laws passed by British Parliament after the Boston Tea Party. These laws were meant to punish Massachusetts colonist for the Tea Party protest. It closed the port of Boston and Massachusetts colonial charter was revoked, Restricting Massachusetts political institutions. They sent quartering troops to trials for British soldiers outside of the colony.
  • 1st Continental Congress

    1st Continental Congress
    12 of the Thirteen Colonies in Philadelphia to organize colonial resistance to Parliament’s Coercive Acts, also known as Intolerable Acts. It was created to boycott all contacts with British goods, the delegates hoped Britain would repeal its Intolerable Acts. Patrick Henry was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and the first Governor of Virginia. He was known for his 1775 speech to the Virginia legislature where he famously declared “Give me liberty or give me death!”
  • Lexington & Concord

    Lexington & Concord
    In the Battle of Lexington and Concord tensions built between the Thirteen Colonies and Britain authorities because the 13 colonies in Massachusetts were storing military supplies. Militias were used to fight, redcoats met militias in Lexington and all scattered and began the the battle and the saying "shot heard round the world." The previous night Paul Revere and midnight riders rode to warn the colonist of the British plans to take weapons but Paul Revere got captured.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    The Olive Branch Petition was the final attempt by the colonist to avoid going to war with Britain during the American Revolution. It was a document where colonist pledged their loyalty to the British Crown. The Olive Branch Petition was a hope for peace, the continental congress sent the petition King George, but it was rejected. The colonist believed certain colonies were granted more rights than other and said it was unfair they were granted special rights.
  • The Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of independence was mainly written by Thomas Jefferson with the other Founding Fathers. It was written because it was Americas only option and chance. It was actually completed on July 2, 1776 but signed on the fourth. They had grievances against the British and also avoided an anti-monarch sentiment. America was looking for European allies and loyalist.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation was a prototype for the Constitution. The confederation Congress was weak because they couldn’t enforce taxation, they relied on requisitions, had no central government and states just did not want to comply. Congress also was very unorganized and could not get anything done, they were short on funds, required pensions and people participated in many revolts against the US.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    Shay’s Rebellion was an armed uprising in Massachusetts, the farmers were having a hard time paying their debts and wanted the government of Massachusetts to take action and help those in need. The rebellion was named after its leader Daniel Shay, he led four thousand rebels and protested against perceived economic and civil injustices.The rebellion proved that the national government needed to strengthen and it created a sense of urgency and leaders on board with changing.
  • Issues

    Issues
    Slaves were only considered 3/5 of a person and states became separated between pro-slavery and anti-slavery. The North was against slavery while the South was not. The Executive Branch used the electoral college system, didn’t trust the common man and only served a 4-year term with no limits of re-election. The Judiciary Branch overviewed court cases but the judicial review was not defined. It was left purposely incomplete and was not decided until later.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    The Northwest Ordinance was a new system for admission to Union and listed a bill of rights. It laid the basis for the government of the Northwest Territory. It is considered one of the most important legislative acts of the Confederation Congress because it protected civil liberties and outlawed slavery in new territories.
  • The Great Debate

    The Great Debate
    The Anti-federalists believed the Constitution granted too much power to the federal courts, but still wanted state and local courts. They supported less government, states rights.The Federalist supported the Constitution and wanted a strong central government.They also opposed the bill of rights and wanted checks and balances to preserve legislative government. In the end the Federalist won, and the Constitution became the law of the land and a strong central government started to take control.
  • Election of 1788

    Election of 1788
    The election of 1788 was the first ever Presidency election, during the first years under the new Constitution. George Washington was a God like figure and was everyone’s choice. John Adams became the first Vice President with running mates. The Cabinet system was based on Prime Ministers system and it was important for running the government.
  • Capital Site

    Capital Site
    Originally the Capital of the United States was New York City. But later found it to be corrupt so Congress changed the Capital site to Washington, DC (District of Columbia).
  • First Bank of the United States

    First Bank of the United States
    The first Bank of the United States was Hamilton’s baby. The borrowed ideas from the Bank of England such as, depository, private investors, making loans and stabilizing currency and economy. These were all reasons why the bank was created, it had set off constitutional issues, such as, if it were constitutional or if the government has too much authority. Washington ends up siding with Hamilton and the bank was charted.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    The Whiskey Rebellion was a tax protest on Whiskey. 6000 farmers from Pennsylvania and Kentucky threaten to attack Pittsburgh. President Washington at the time, personally leads the United States militia to put out the rebellion and this became the fist major domestic test of the Constitution. The federal government was able to perform its power for the first time.
  • International Conflicts

    International Conflicts
    Britain and the United States had a love/hate relationship. Britain controlled forts in the West and traded and gave guns to natives, they were our largest trading partner. Spain controlled the Mississippi River. Barbary Pirates harass Americans on open oceans.
  • Election of 1796

    Election of 1796
    The Election of 1796 was between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, Washington did not want to run a 3rd term, and so Washington gave a farewell address stating that 2 terms was it for him to avoid conflicts and said not to create permanent alliances, but temporary ones were okay. John Adams was a Federalist and Jefferson was a Republican, Adams won and Jefferson became the VP.
  • Adam's Presidency

    Adam's Presidency
    The XYZ Affair limited French trade and French seize ships. We give a $10 million loan to France and John Adams gave a personal apology for problems. The word gets out and there is an undeclared naval war with France and the army triples. The Alien & Sedition Acts is a series of laws passed by the Federalists Congress, they include new powers to deport foreigners as well as making it harder for immigrants to vote.
  • Kentucky Resolutions

    Kentucky Resolutions
    The Kentucky Resolutions was an idea of Thomas Jefferson’s that which states could nullify unconstitutional laws. Kentucky and Virginia legislatures realized the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The Constitution was a compact among states which was the foundation of states rights. Slavery and Civil War fought over the Kentucky Resolutions.
  • Election of 1800

    Election of 1800
    During the Election of 1800, the naval war ended, a treaty was negotiated, gained Napoleons support against Britain which created a division among Federalists. Republicans were starting to take over and Jefferson won this time. Marbury vs Madison was the most important supreme court case which set up the judicial review. The Chief of Justice, John Marshall ruled Marbury entitled to position. The supreme court lacked jurisdiction but this set up modern supreme court.
  • Jefferson Administration

    Jefferson Administration
    The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition from France.The U.S. paid 50 million francs and a cancellation of debts worth eighteen million francs, Jefferson wanted a nation of farmers.Napoleon threatens to close New Orleans but Jefferson buys Louisiana.This led to the Lewis and Clark expedition they sail up the Missouri River where they negotiated treaties with natives.They informed settlers of U.S. acquisition and along the way they found Sacagawea, a translator who showed peaceful intention.
  • Hamilton vs Burr

    Hamilton vs Burr
    Hamilton and Burr dueled because Hamilton slept with Burr’s wife. Even though duels were illegal, out of honor they were still done. Jefferson kills Hamilton with a wogdon pistol and after he has an agenda for the country. He wanted to reduce government size, eradicate the national bank because he thought it wasn’t constitutional and wanted to cut connection with the US Bank. He also wanted to sell western land and slash the military to rely on militias.
  • Madison Presidency

    Madison Presidency
    The Embargo Act of 1807 was the US reaction where we deprived Britain and France of American goods. When Jefferson Presidency Ends, James Madison inherits the Embargo Act. It hurts the economy, mostly affected the North & Southeast. The British was upset so they gave the Natives guns and supplies. Tecumseh was a Native American warrior and chief, he gave the British supplies to raid American settlements.
  • The Embargo Act of 1807

    The Embargo Act of 1807
    The Embargo Act of 1807 was the US reaction to their problems with Great Britain and France during the Napoleonic Wars. Because the British fired on USS Chesapeake, we deprived them and France of American goods. Making them unpopular in seaports. Jefferson’s presidency ends, and James Madison inherits the Embargo Act.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    The war of 1812 was when it successfully defended themselves from an attack by the Britain navy from the Chesapeake Bay. Witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry and the sight of the American flag inspired Francis Scott Key to write the Star-Spangled Banner. During the battle of New Orleans, Andrew Jackson defeated British army with bi-racial ragtog army. When the battle was fought the war was technically over but did not hear about it in time
  • Changes in Agriculture

    Changes in Agriculture
    During the American Industrial Revolution agriculture went through revolutionary changes. The invention of the iron plow, used to turn and break soil which made it more easier to plant. The Cotton Gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from its seeds, which enabled greater productivity than manual cotton separation. This invention was a HUGE revolutionary change during this time period, just when slavery was tending to be less common, this invention increased slave use.
  • Changes in Transportation

    Changes in Transportation
    The Industrial Revolution relied heavily on the ability to transport raw and finished goods. People made new inventions like roads, steamboats, railroads, and canals. Turnpikes were made on roads, they were like toll ways to maintain the roads. The steamboat is a boat propelled by a steam engine that is used widely on rivers to get a big load from one place to another efficiently.
  • Changes in Communication

    Changes in Communication
    Communication changed worldwide during the American Industrial Revolution. A telegraph was a system of transmitting messages from a distance along a wire, this creation allowed important messages to get from one place to another much quicker. Printing was also a breakthrough in the advertisement and news industry. Printing allowed people to receive and read the news much faster and gave people an understanding of what was going on.
  • Southern Society

    Southern Society
    The majority of Southern planters did not have slaves, if they did the most they owned was 1-9 and very had more than that. Yeoman farmers participated in communal effort, 75% of Yeoman farmers did not own slaves and had a love hate relationship with planters. Tenant farmers encouraged white supremacy, there motto was to divide and conquer. All Southerners valued honor and reputation and dueled often to defend their honor.
  • Growing Cities

    Growing Cities
    Cities began to grow and populate areas like the slums (ghetto) and working-class neighborhoods. Because population in the cities started to explode, mass transportation was crucial for people to get to their jobs. The first modern police forces were formed to keep the racial tensions, political discourse, religious conflicts, temperance, and overcrowding's under control.
  • Immigration

    Immigration
    Immigrants started to move to the country in rural areas for better opportunities. The Irish came because of potato famine, the Germans came because of the poor harvests and political turmoil, Scandinavians and British came for economic opportunity. Because of the population skyrocketing inner city slums were formed, mostly Irish lived there. The cities became very diverse because of all the different ethnicity's entering the country.
  • Free-Black Communities

    Free-Black Communities
    Free-Black Communities were common more in the North and Midwest, yet many African Americans still faced segregation, discrimination, and prejudice. African Americans had to compete for jobs against immigrants from coming from all around the world. They came over for a better opportunity in life and free black communities wanted the same things. Free-black communities in the South were under ore scrutiny but had better economic opportunities.
  • McCulloch vs Maryland

    McCulloch vs Maryland
    This was a US Supreme Court decision that established that the proper Clause of the US Constitution. McCulloch v. Maryland was the landmark of the SCOTUS case. SCOTUS standing for, Supreme Court of the United States. Government is supreme over states, they couldn’t take place of federal government, but this implied the federal US government powers. This led to the South to more radical views over states’ rights.
  • Panic of 1819

    Panic of 1819
    The Panic of 1819 was the first major financial crisis in the United states that caused the Agriculture and manufacturing prices to collapse, unemployment, and widespread foreclosures. The banks failed and went into a tailspin. The Panic of 1819 was considered one of the worst depressions in US history.
  • The Second Great Awakening

    The Second Great Awakening
    The Second Great Awakening began around the 1800's but picked up 1820's. Education in the 1800's is much like modern day education, they used textbooks and instruction. Penitentiary's were created to isolate those who have committed crimes and to reflect on their actions. Prisoners were constantly watched, they were housed at night and worked during the day. Soon the mentally ill were confined with the general populations at first but realized it was a bad idea and created Mental Institutions.
  • Missouri Crisis

    Missouri Crisis
    The Missouri Crisis was an effort by Congress preserve balance of power between slave and free states. During late 1819 the United States was evenly divided between slave and free states. Missouri applies to the Union to become a slave state, this played a significant role in the relationship between Southern and Northern states which led to the Missouri Compromise. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 was a compromise primarily focused on how slavery would be dealt with in the US.
  • Slavery in Upper & Lower South

    Slavery in Upper & Lower South
    Cotton was half of the worlds export and was divided into two regions; Upper and Lower South. The Lower South was ideal for cotton, having rich, dark soil. Cotton cultivation spread West and made a lot of money but the cotton exhausted soil of nutrients. The Upper South was not as fertile and had a shorter growing season. The crops were diversified, and slavery was dying in this part of the region, most slaves were sold to the lower South.
  • Slavery

    Slavery
    Abolitionist practiced Gradualism, which was the act of freeing slaves gradually to Africa. Taking them to Liberia to liberate them, it was never populated with African Americans. They also practiced Immediatism, which was the immediate end of slavery. Anti-abolitionist held rallies to denounce abolitionist. They also did bonfires to burn abolitionist literature.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine was a US policy of opposing European colonialism in the Americas. President James Monroe first states the policy during his seventh annual state of the Union Address to Congress. The US wanted influence over new areas, declared Europe to no intervention in Latin America or Western Hemisphere.
  • Age of the Common Man

    Age of the Common Man
    The Age of Jackson is a 19-century political philosophy in the United States that created a greater democracy for the common man. Common man means the majority, or most people in the society. Jackson did many things to help the common man such as create the spoils system. The spoils system is a practice in which the winning political party gives government civil jobs to their supporters as a reward for his victory.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    In the election of 1824 there were 4 candidates: John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, William Crawford, and Henry Clay. There was a tie between Adams and Jackson, and there was no picked successor. Jackson won the popular vote but not the electoral, the House of Representatives had to decide. They chose Adams as the next President of the US and Jackson became bitter. This led to the Corrupt Bargain, it was believed that Clay convinced the House to pick Adams, so he could be his Secretary of State.
  • Texas

    Texas
    Texas practiced land grants which were a grant of public to a particular group of people. If Texas wanted to settle in Mexico they had to follow these had four conditions: Become Catholic, Mexican citizenship, Learn Spanish, get ride of slaves. It was illegal to have slaves in Mexico but eventually the whites outnumbered Hispanics and disobeyed their laws. When Texas separated from Mexico, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna came into dictatorship over Mexico and had many conflicts with Texas.
  • Presidency of John Q. Adams

    Presidency of John Q. Adams
    Adams was the sixth President of the United States and served from 1825 to 1829.When Adams came into Presidency the American system was created. There are 3 reinforcing parts to the American system; a tariff to protect and promote industry, a national bank, and international/domestic improvements for canals and roads.
  • Revivalism

    Revivalism
    Revivalism is the tendency to revive a former custom or practice. The Market Revolution was bad, but they believed in free will. Charles Grandison Finney was a leader in the Second Great Awakening in the United States. Finney is referred to as the Father of Modern Revivalism, his religious views led him to promote social reforms, such as abolition of slavery and equal rights between women and African Americans.
  • Architecture

    Architecture
    Greek Revival is a style of architecture inspired by features of Greek temples from the 5th century BC.
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    The election of 1828 was a brutal election involving John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson. Both candidates threw personal attacks at each other’s womanizers, it was a very nasty election. Jackson develops a new strategy; humble origins, military career, and his democratic values. The old party changed, to the modern democracy.
  • Millennialism

    Millennialism
    Shakers were celibate and very communistic, they also believed equality among sexes. Shakers did not believe in marriage or procreation and rejected domesticity. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a Mormon Church that is considered by its members to be restoration of the original Jesus Christ. Joseph Smith found Golden Tablets in 1823 which was in ancient language. Smith appealed to farmers and traders.
  • Temperance Movement

    Temperance Movement
    The Temperance Movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcohol beverages. Alcohol consumption was really bad, and people began to drink all day. The idea of the Temperance Movement was to encourage fellow Americans to reduce the amount alcohol consumed and some states banned alcohol all together.
  • Jackson Administration

    Jackson Administration
    During the election of 1832 the bank of the US had much controversy. Jackson hated the bank, and Henry Clay thinks it is an issue to win the election. Nicholas Biddle was the Father of the 2nd Bank of the US, but congress petitioned him and hoped for Jackson veto. Jackson gave a speech explaining why he vetoed the bank, it was called the Bank Veto Speech. He laid out his vision of American Democracy and it appealed to the common man. Because of this speech Jackson destroyed Clay in the election.
  • Election of 1836

    Election of 1836
    In the election of 1840 Martin Van Buren runs for re-election, General William Henry Harrison runs for the Whigs. The Whigs spread rumors about Van Buren and get woman to influence their husbands votes. Harrison wins by a landslide, but shorty dies after a month in office. John Tyler, Vice President, becomes President.
  • Slavery

    Slavery
    Wilmot Proviso was an act named after Democratic Congressman David Wilmot in 1846 after the Mexican-American war. It prohibited the expansion of slavery in states conquered from Mexico by the United states. Popular sovereignty allowed states to choose if they wanted to be a slave state or not. It gives people the choice to vote and have their opinion heard by the government. These things were important factors in the Election of 1848.
  • Western Frontier

    Western Frontier
    Fur Trade was the American Domination by the 1820’s. It largely profited but had a decline, beavers were almost hunted to extinction, fashion changed, and trappers disappeared by the 1840’s. The trappers expeditions brought information about western lands.
  • Slavery

    Slavery
    Bleeding Kansas took place in a series of violet confrontations during the years 1854-1861. It started over the debate of Kansas being a slave state or not. Kansas later became an anti-slavery, free state that admitted to the union. Established in 1856, the Kansas-Nebraska Act had the purpose to create easy mid-western railroads and make thousands of farms. Popular sovereignty led slavery arguments into Kansas and caused much controversy.
  • Republican Party

    Republican Party
    Zach Taylor was a Whig, they opposed President Jackson and the Democrats. Martin Van Buren was apart of the Free-soil Party; its main purpose was to oppose expansion of slavery into western territories.
  • Industrialization vs. Agriculture

    Industrialization vs. Agriculture
    The North had increased their industrialization such as investing in steam engines and immigrants were paid to work cheap labor. Railroads and Agriculture were very important for Norths survival, the railroads allowed food to come in and out and it brought agriculture to the north. The south had small industries but had larger cities. Cotton was what kept the South alive, 4 million slaves worked in the South to pick cotton. The South tried to industrialize but could not keep up.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    The California Gold Rush was the largest mass migration in American history, which brought 300,000 people to California. Gold was was easy to find and mining began in 1852 supporting industries. The Chinese migrated to California for opportunity but worked in horrible condition's and faced harsh racism.
  • Sufferage

    Sufferage
    The Seneca Falls Convention was held in New York 1848, by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Stanton. It was organized by a handful of women who were abolitionist and active in the temperance movement. 300 men and women attended, including 40 men. Women declared sentiments and resolutions. There main goal was to secure women’s rights in economics and voting, the media of course covered the negative.
  • Nature

    Nature
    New parks were created and as a new idea to getaway from fast-paced life, the city. Cemeteries followed this design.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    Abraham Lincoln was a republican who had few political enemies and had a moderate approach to slavery. Candidates appeal to different sections of the country, Lincoln wins because of democrat’s division, Southerners feared that his election would lead to demise, and vowed to leave Union if he was elected. Secessionist rallies were held across the South, South Carolina is the first state to leave Union and the rest of the south join.
  • The North

    The North
    The North had many more advantages than the South. The North had a much larger population of 22 million people. The North was also considered the industrialization states having, 110,000 factories, 97% of weapon manufacturing, 94% of clothing and 90% of clothing. The North also had 30,000 miles of track for railroads. During the Civil war the North was also an anti-slavery nation that believed in upholding the Union, Constitution.
  • The South

    The South
    The South had many disadvantages compared to the North. But the one advantage the South had over the North was there exceptional military leadership. Generals like Robert E. Lee were the reason for their competent military. The South also considered themselves patriots and compared themselves to the 13 colonies. They were also a pro-slavery nation that contained most of the slave population. Southerners were very inhumane towards African Americans and always resulted to violence.
  • Confederate States of America

    Confederate States of America
    The Confederate States of America had the same government as the US except they protected slavery,favored constitutional amendment protecting slavery.President Buchannan did nothing, while the CSA decided on independence. The CSA captured all federal property except 2 forts.The South needed to show force and decided they needed to attack Fort Sumter before ships arrived, the PGT Beauregard assaulted Garrison, resulting in him having to surrender.Lincoln declared South in a state of insurrection.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    Slaves during the 1800's were not treated equally, Whites treated African Americans very inhumane such as brutally killing them. The Emancipation Proclamation was an order by Lincoln on January 1, 1863 that declared slaves free in confederate states that were rebelling during the civil war and returning to the union. This did n ot free the slaves within the border states, it basically allowed border states to keep their slaves. This order freed about 3 million slaves, giving them hope.
  • Gettysburg

    Gettysburg
    The battle of Gettysburg lasted 3 days and was considered the turning point of the war that favored the union. Robert Lee headed north to invade and converged on Pennsylvania. It is known as the most important and bloodiest battle of the war. After the battle, President Abraham Lincoln delivered a speech in tribute of those fallen at the Battle of Gettysburg, it became one of the most famous speech in history. He gave tribute to those who lost their lives and actions to become a better nation.
  • Robert E. Lee

    Robert E. Lee
    Robert E. Lee was a confederate soldier and commander of the Southern states in many battles during the civil war. Lee became a general of the Army of Northern Virginia during the Battle of Antietam, Lee won against McClellan. He later went on to lead the Confederate Army against General Grant during Appomattox Courthouse. Lee's Army was forced to retreat. He went on to win and lose battles within the civil war but later died of pneumonia in 1870.
  • Clara Barton

    Clara Barton
    The war gave women new roles in traditionally male positions. Many women both on sides were given the opportunity to work as nurses, store managers, teachers and many more. The reason women were given these jobs was because all the men were off fighting in the war, women had to take charge at home to provide for the family. Women such as Clara Barton were nurses, she helped heal wounded soldiers on both sides and also started the American Red Cross, which is still a ongoing organization today.
  • Plans

    Plans
    The South had 2 plans; Lincolns 10% Plan and the Wade-Davis Bill. Lincolns Plan pardoned all southerners but not officials and officers. He allowed southerners to take an oath of loyalty to the Union and they had to apply for federal recognition because of new state governments. The Wade-Davis Bill was against slavery and his bill suggested that confederate leaders be punished. He wanted the slave society to be destroyed and wanted them to take an oath saying they never aided the confederacy.
  • Former Slaves

    Former Slaves
    The 13th Amendment abolished slavery and Lincoln and the radical republicans passed before the end of the war. The 14th Amendment took freemen’s rights away. The 15th Amendment allowed universal suffrage for African Americans which was necessary to protect black votes.
  • Lincoln's Assassination

    Lincoln's Assassination
    President Abraham Lincoln died on April 15, 1865, a day after he was attacked by John Wilkes Booth; a well known actor. On April 14, 1865, Lincoln attends a play at Fords Theater and while sitting on the balcony John Booth shots Lincoln in the head for the revenge of the confederacy. Lincoln was not the only union member to be killed that night but Lincoln dies the next morning. Lincolns body was so embalmed that many years after his death people checked on it his body was completely intact.
  • Life for whites Reconstruction South

    Life for whites Reconstruction South
    Carpet baggers were northerners who moved South economic support. Scalawags were from poor regions of the South and considered white traitors from the South. They also got wealthy by manipulating blacks’ votes which was the quickest way to economic improvement. Some wanted to steal from southerners, others wanted opportunities, or the rest were relief workers.
  • Andrew Johnson Administration

    Andrew Johnson Administration
    Andrew Johnson was Abraham Lincoln’s Vice President but became the President after Lincoln’s assassination. Johnson opposed secession, was a blatant racist, promoted lenient readmission for Southern states and pardoned high-ranking confederate officers. Johnson was impeached by Congress in 1869, he was the first president to ever be impeached. In less than a year he left the office.
  • Grant Administration

    Grant Administration
    During the Election of 1868 Republican Ulysses S. Grant ran against Democrat Horatio Seymour. This election showed that there were racist in both the south and the north. Black votes became very important, but they faced great danger. Whites terrorized blacks with violence and intimidation to get them to stop voting and eventually whites started to manipulate with the ballots.
  • Election of 1876

    Election of 1876
    The Election of 1876 put an end to the reconstruction movement and led to 2 evils running for office: Samuel Tilden which was a democrat and Rutherford Hayes who was a republican. There were many issues with corruption, reconstruction, and economy. This led to the Compromise of 1877, Hayes was given all the electoral votes and he officially agreed to end reconstruction. In a result it was the beginning of a total suppression for southern blacks and the Jim Crow laws began.
  • The New South

    The New South
    The New South built around oppression and segregation, African Americans representation in gov plummets. The Lost Cause was an excuse for the Southerners losing the war, they believed they were brave. They claimed the Union had unfair advantages because of their advanced weapons, industries. They engaged in propaganda that still exist today, they also wrote songs and poems about brave confederate soldiers. Southerners basically tried to re-write history and paint themselves as the victims.
  • Constitutional Convention

    Constitutional Convention
    The movement for a new constitution created 2 plans for reform, the Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan. The Vir.Plan applied to large states, based their representation on population and it created 2 house legislatures: lower and upper house with a single executive, getting rid of the AOC and administering equal power. The New Jer.Plan was for small states, was a modified version of the AOC. Proposed a single legislature making it the supreme law of land.
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    English Colonial Societies

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    Colonial America

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    The Revolutionary War

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    The Constitution

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    New Republic

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    The Age of Jefferson

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    The American Industrial Revolution

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    Cultural Changes

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    Age of Jackson

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    Westward Expansion

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    Sectionalism

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    The Civil War

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    Reconstruction