1301 Timeline Project

Timeline created by yelhsa13
In History
  • 9,600 BCE

    Bering Land Bridge

    Bering Land Bridge
    The Bering Land Bridge, now the Bering Strait, was a route used by the earliest Americans. It connected Asia and North America, more specifically Siberia and Alaska, back when sea levels were lower and it was frozen. That allowed people to pass through by walking on it and such. It was a route for human migration around twenty thousand years ago. People came in three separate, distinct waves, not one. They eventually inhabited South America as well.
  • 1,900 BCE

    Olmec Chocolate

    Olmec Chocolate
    Chocolate was popular in Mesoamerica. Many people like the Olmec, Maya, and Aztecs would eat it. However, the Olmecs are the earliest ones known to have used it. They used it to create a ceremonial drink, drunk from jars known as tecomates. This was around 1900 BCE. Chocolate back then was bitter, not sweet like today's. It's not really certain who invented it, but there are some Olmec pots from around 1500 BC with traces of a compound found in chocolate, according to some guy.
  • 1300

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance
    The Renaissance is a movement that began around 1300, and lasted roughly between the 14th and 17th centuries. It started off as a cultural movement, and there was a focus on things like art and literature, or just classical ideas and artworks. There were many different changes, and it was just a time of rebirth, and ideas were revived. Many things were invented around this time, including the printing press. There were some prominent people from this period, including Leonardo da Vinci.
  • 1347

    The Black Plague

    The Black Plague
    The Black Plague was a pandemic that occurred a long time ago. It killed many people, and was one of the most devastating epidemics. It killed around 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia. Europe alone had about half of its population die from it. The plague was spread by fleas that would usually travel on rats, but would then jump off to other animals once the rat died. The plague's spread was aided by trade. The bubonic plague is caused by the Yersinia pestis bacterium.
  • Apr 15, 1452

    Leonardo da Vinci

    Leonardo da Vinci
    He was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance period. He's most known for his art and science works, though. Some of his notable works include: the Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, and the Vitruvian Man. His most famous invention is probably the flying machine. He also sketched the first parachute, first helicopter, first aeroplane, first tank, first repeating rifle, swinging bridge, paddle boat, and first motor car. He was apprenticed to Andrea del Verrocchio.
  • Mar 9, 1454

    Amerigo Vespucci

    Amerigo Vespucci
    Amerigo was an Italian explorer, financier, navigator, and cartographer. On one of his voyages, the third and most successful voyage, he discovered Rio de Janeiro and Rio de la Plata. North and South America were named after him in 1507, which is probably the most famous thing he is known for. He was also known as the pickle dealer, though. He's also known for making improvements to celestial navigation techniques.
  • 1469

    Ferdinand and Isabella Trastamara

    Ferdinand and Isabella Trastamara
    Their marriage was the "cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy". Isabella was queen of Castile and Leon, and Ferdinand was king of Aragon (and eventually Castile). They sponsored Christopher Columbus's trip to the Americas. They were the ones responsible for the Reconquista, which converted or exiled Jewish & Muslim subjects. They reduced the nobility's power, increased the crown's power, reorganized the government & administration system, and reduced debt. It lead to Spain.
  • 1502

    Atlantic Slave Trade

    Atlantic Slave Trade
    The Atlantic Slave Trade was a part of the global slave trade across the Atlantic, where around 10-12 million slaves were shipped around. It was one of the legs of the triangular trade. This occurred around the 16th to 19th centuries. Things like weapons, textiles, and wine were exchanged for slaves, sugar, and coffee. The need for slaves increased as sugar and tobacco plantations grew. The conditions of the journey slaves were forced on were often bad, and many would die, or some would revolt.
  • 1580

    Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    The system went on from the late 16th-early 19th centuries. It was a trading network with three main legs, hence the triangle. Slaves from Africa were transported to America, raw materials were transported from the Americas to Europe, and finished goods were transported from Europe to Africa. The trade was one of the most important factors regarding the wealth and power European countries had. 12.5 million Africans were shipped to the New World, but only 10.7 million survived the Middle Passage.
  • Roanoke

    Roanoke
    This was the first attempted permanent colony by the British. It was on Roanoke Island, which was off the coast of present day North Carolina. However, it's known as the Lost Colony because it pretty much just disappeared, and is still a mystery. Sir Walter Raleigh had sponsored it, although never went to it, and John White was governor. John White left to get supplies, and came back three years later to it being empty. "Croatoan" was a word found carved into some wood.
  • Anne Hutchinson

    Anne Hutchinson
    Anne Hutchinson was born in July, 1591. She was a Puritan spiritual leader in the colony of Massachusetts. She defied gender roles and challenged male authority. Men in power feared she was promoting dissension and could be encouraging people to go against the church and colonial rules. She was proclaimed a heretic, put on trial, and was banished from Massachusetts. She later went to Rhode Island, helping found Portsmouth.
  • Mayflower Compact

    Mayflower Compact
    The Mayflower Compact was a social contract written by English settlers that were on the Mayflower. It was intended to create laws for the pilgrims in Plymouth. William Brewster is given credit for writing it. It's the first document that had established self governance in the new world. It was an attempt at democracy, and was successful. It remained in effect until 1691, when Plymouth became a part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
  • Quakers

    Quakers
    Residing in Pennsylvania, which was founded by William Penn for Quakers to have a safe place, Quakers were people in The Religious Society of Friends, which was founded by George Fox.They believed God exists in every person, and were persecuted for it. They also believe in spiritual equality for both men and women. They were pacifists who played a role in the abolition movement, and supported equal rights.
  • Navigation Acts

    Navigation Acts
    The Navigation Acts were enacted in order to protect and encourage English shipping. They wanted to be able to profit from the colonies. There were two acts. The provisions for this were that goods should be transported to Britain in English ships. This was kind of intended to go against Dutch maritime trade. One of the things the second act did was forbid certain goods to be shipped from the colonies to other countries except Britain or its territories. However, they weren't strictly enforced.
  • Salem Witch Trials

    Salem Witch Trials
    In 1692 during February, the Salem Witch Trials began in the Massachusetts colony. It was a series of trials held for people suspected of witchcraft. Over 200 people were accused. Six young girls were supposedly afflicted by witchcraft. They'd go on accusing people of witchcraft, and those people would be put on trial. Quite a few people were executed. Some pleaded guilty to live, though. Eventually, even some men were accused. The girls were "afflicted" in 1691, with the trials from 1962-1963.
  • Voltaire

    Voltaire
    Voltaire, which wasn't his actual name, was a famous French writer born on November 21, 1694. Not only was he a writer, but he was a philosopher, Enlightenment thinker, and historian, as well. He had views against tyranny, bigotry, and cruelty. He is a famous figure during the Enlightenment period, and influenced European civilization. One of his philosophies centered around reason. He believe that anything could be challenged by reason, and emphasized religious tolerance.
  • Benjamin Franklin

    Benjamin Franklin
    Benjamin Franklin was one of the founding fathers of the US, an inventor, diplomat, and many other things. Some of the things he invented are bifocals and the lightning rod. He had a printing press shop in Philadelphia, too. He also served in the Second Continental Congress, and helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris in 1783. He signed the Constitution, Treaty of Alliance with France, the Treaty of Paris (1783), and the Declaration of Independence. He was also awarded the Copley Medal in 1731.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    The Acts of Union in 1707 led to the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain by uniting the kingdoms of England and Scotland. It was passed by both parliaments. The Acts of Union allowed them to continue as separate entities despite being united. The Scottish gained access to English colonial markets, which helped helped improve their economy. In addition, there were some exemptions on taxes.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    The First Great Awakening was a religious revival that had a great impact and began around the 1730's. Essentially, it was a series of Christian revivals. This movement caused people to renew individual piety and religious devotion. The Christian revival spread around Great Britain and the thirteen colonies between the 1730's and 1740's. People's attitude towards religion changed, and was kind of a reaction to Enlightenment.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    The Stamp Act was one of the many taxed Britain tried to impose on the colonies. It was a tax imposed by Great Britain onto the colonies in North America. This imposed a stamp duty on papers and such. This includes things like playing cards, newspaper, and legal documents. It was the first tax directly on the people, affected many, and was one of factors in encouraging independence from Britain. It was later repealed in 1766, although the Declaratory Acts were passed that very same day.
  • Shakers

    Shakers
    The Shakers were a group of people that was founded in 18th century England. At first they were known as the "shaking Quakers", though. Ann Lee was the founder, who later became the leader of the American Shakers. Shakers focus on certain core beliefs and values. They believe in the second coming of Christ, simplicity, celibacy, and work. They were persecuted for their pacifism and beliefs (but people made some of them up). It ended up declining because for various reasons, one being celibacy.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was an event that occurred in response to the Tea Act. Patriots were trying to protest taxation, and this event is a demonstration of that. People weren't happy that they were being taxed without representation. A group of patriots called the Sons of Liberty dressed up as Native Americans, then throwing a bunch of British tea into the Boston Harbor. It was over 300 chests thrown in. This event caused the Intolerable Acts to be put into place.
  • Patriots vs Loyalists

    Patriots vs Loyalists
    Colonists started to divide into two groups as things led up to the revolution. Patriots were colonists who opposed Britain and its rule. They wanted independence. Loyalists were those who did not wish to break away, and were loyal to Britain. Loyalists were often ostracized by Patriots. Many fled north into Canada, but the majority stayed in America. Around 15-20% of the colonists were Loyalists, 40-45% were Patriots, and the rest were pretty much neutral.
  • Salutary Neglect

    Salutary Neglect
    Salutary neglect was present with the colonies by Britain. Britain would avoid enforcing strict laws. They essentially governed themselves. The term originated from a speech given by Edmund Burke on March 22, 1775. Because of the salutary neglect, the colonies had an increasing autonomy, ultimately leading to their independence. When Britain started enforcing policies, this angered colonists. This policy made regulations and supervision lenient as long as the colonies remained loyal to Britain.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    The Olive Branch Petition was the last attempt to reconcile and avoid the war between Great Britain and the colonies. It was written on July 5, 1775 by the Second Continental Congress. It wasn't until July 8 that it was signed, though. This document was sent to King George III, who rejected it. The document basically declared their loyalty to Britain, and asserted their rights as citizens. That was kind of an indirect jab. The rejection of the petition added fuel to the fire, angering colonists.
  • Common Sense by Thomas Paine

    Common Sense by Thomas Paine
    Common Sense was a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine. It was published in the beginning of the revolution. It became mass published. The purpose of it was to advocate independence from Great Britain. It encouraged people to fight for independence. It was successful in influencing the opinions of some colonists. It was aimed towards common people. Thomas Paine's vision was one of a radical democracy, though. It did appeal to some people, but others denounced him as violent and such.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence was a document declaring the independence of the colonies from Great Britain. It was sent to Great Britain. The US was now established as its own independent country. It was created by the Second Continental Congress. There was a group of authors, who later become widely known as the founding fathers. Thomas Jefferson was the main writer. It was written on July 2, 1776, and approved on July 4th, but it wasn't until August 2, 1776 that it was signed.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    On September 19, 1777, the first Battle of Saratoga began. There were actually two battles in Saratoga. The second one was on October 7, 1777. It ended up marking the turning point of the American Revolution. It was a victory for the American colonists against Great Britain. The victory in Saratoga was what helped show the French that the colonies did stand a chance in defeating Britain, which in turn encouraged them to aid them in the war. It led to the creation of the Treaty of Alliance.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation was the first and original constitution for the US. It was later replaced by the US Constitution. People didn't want to be governed by a second Britain, so its powers were very limited. Too limited, however. The Articles were weak and lacked power. It couldn't tax people therefore couldn't pay debts, it was difficult to amend things, and couldn't enforce laws. There wasn't really a strong central government put into place with this document.
  • Yeoman Farmers

    Yeoman Farmers
    Yeoman farmers were small landowners, and made up the majority of white families in the south. They were the middle class in society. Very few of them actually owned slaves, and even if they did, it wasn't many. They were pretty self sufficient, producing most of what they needed themselves. They traded stuff they grew for services, too. Most supported slavery, though, as it elevated their status, and didn't want to have anyone to compete with. They were common in the 18th and 19th centuries.
  • Massachusetts Constitution

    Massachusetts Constitution
    The Massachusetts Constitution was written for the state of Massachusetts. It was approved and ratified on June 15, 1780. It was written in the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1779. It was the first constitution created by a convention, rather than by a legislative body. The constitution was organized into a structure of chapters, sections, and articles, and has four parts. The Massachusetts Constitution was a model for the US Constitution.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    Shay's Rebellion was an uprising from August 31, 1786 to June 1787. It was led by Daniel Shay. They attacked courthouses and other government buildings. The rebellion was a protest by angry farmers because of the perceived economic injustices. They couldn't pay higher taxes or debts. Because of this, farmers were arrested and/or had their farms foreclosed. They attempted to solve this peacefully, but it didn't work and escalated. It was eventually shut down, though.
  • Connecticut Plan

    Connecticut Plan
    Also known as the Great Compromise, it was an agreement that combined the Virginia and New Jersey plans. It helped define the legislative structure and representation. Larger states wanted representation based on population, while smaller states wanted equal representation regardless of population. It created a bicameral congress, with the creation of the House of Representative and the Senate. The Senate has two representatives, and the House of Representatives is based on population.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    The Northwest Ordinance provided a method for the admission of states into the US. It divided the Northwest Territory into self governing districts, and set up a charter for the governments. Once the states met the qualifications, they could send a representative and become eligible to become a state. This allowed states to enter with equal statuses, rather than inferior statuses.
  • Sacagawea

    Sacagawea
    Sacagawea was a woman from the Shoshone tribe who helped in the Lewis and Clark Expedition, which explored the newly acquired land from the Louisiana Purchase. She was a skilled translator, was able to identify plants and such, had knowledge of the terrain and trails, and helped navigate. She also helped save various documents and supplies when the boat they were on tipped over. Not only that, but her presence helped lessen hostility with strangers they encountered on their journeys.
  • The Federalist Papers

    The Federalist Papers
    The Federalist Papers was written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under a pseudonym. They argued in favor of ratifying the constitution and promoted it. Some arguments they made was that it would create a strong central government and preserve the union. It was a collection of articles and essays that they began to write in October, 1787, and was then published into a book with the goal of refuting any opposition, while also describing what the constitution would do.
  • Three Tier System

    Three Tier System
    The court system has three levels, or tiers. The district courts are the first level, followed by the circuit courts, and finally the supreme court. The Supreme Court is the highest level you can appeal to, and they have the final say. Court system fall into the category of the judiciary branch. The court system was set up by the Judiciary Act of 1789. It established the Supreme Court, and left Congress power to create the lower courts.
  • Deism

    Deism
    Deism believed in the existence of God, but thought that after creating the universe, he left humans to themselves. At the time, less than 10% of white Americans belonged to a formal church. When people started rejecting the idea of predestination, it helped lead to the Second Great Awakening. Deism ended up leading to a time where it was common for families to not attend church, which contradicted the fundamental beliefs of many religious groups.
  • Bank of the United States

    Bank of the United States
    The First Bank of the US opened in 1791. Alexander Hamilton was in favor of it, as he saw it as necessary to handle war debt and create a standard currency form. Some people were against the bank, however, and didn't see it as constitutional. This would include Thomas Jefferson, who believed the power to establish a national bank wasn't given in the constitution. The charter was settled for twenty years. Later on it got replaced by the Second Bank, which was later closed, too.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    The Bill of Rights consists of the first ten amendments of the constitution. The Bill of Rights is something Anti-Federalists argue to be included in the constitution, while Federalists did not see it as necessary. People wanted to make sure their rights would be protected in the new constitution. The amendments were written by James Madison, and the document was ratified on December 15, 1791. They were inspired by the Virginia Declaration of Rights, and other documents as well.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney that separated the seeds from cotton. It was way more efficient than manually separating them. The invention of the cotton gin increased cotton production, and revived slavery, which had been declining. The labor required by the workers to remove it themselves was reduced, though. Cotton became very profitable. The invention of the cotton gin also practically increased the yields of cotton, doubling every ten years after 1800.
  • Runaways

    Runaways
    They were slaves who ran away from their owners. The Fugitive Slave Law, however, allowed slave owners a way to get their slaves back. It was stated that everyone had to cooperate and could be fined if they tried to hide them. Runaway slaves also used the Underground Railroad, which was a secret network of routes and safe houses in order to escape into free states, or even Canada, with the help of abolitionists and those who were sympathetic. There isn't an exact date or definite year.
  • Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

    Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
    Santa Anna was a military captain and president of Mexico in 1833. He helped in the war for Mexican independence, and later established it as a centralized state. Once Texas tried to gain independence, he helped defeat the people at the Alamo and at Goliad. He was later defeated in San Jacinto, by Sam Houston. He signed a treaty ending the war. He commanded the Mexican forces in the Texas Rebellion and the Mexican-American War. He was later exiled from Mexico in 1845.
  • Pinckney's Treaty

    Pinckney's Treaty
    Pinckney's Treaty was signed on October 27, 1795. It allowed tensions over border disputes to end, by recognizing the 31st parallel as the boundary. It also allowed US ships to have free navigation in the Mississippi River, allowing access to trade and commercial markets. It also gave the US the privilege of tax-free deposit in New Orleans. This treaty was negotiated by Thomas Pinckney and Manuel de Godoy. It established a friendly relation between the US and Spain.
  • James K. Polk

    James K. Polk
    Born November 2, 1795, James Polk was the 11th president of the US. He only served one term, as promised, and completed everything he hoped to. His four goals were to reduce tariffs, reform the national banking system, settle issues over the Oregon Territory, and gain California. During his presidency, he led the nation to the Mexican-American War. The US also grew over 1/3, and extended across the continent. This achieved the vision of the US reaching from coast to coast in North America.
  • Washington's Farewell Address

    Washington's Farewell Address
    Washington's Farewell Address was by George Washington at the end of his presidency. He said he wasn't seeking a third term, which kind of set the example of two term presidencies later on. In this address, he spoke about remaining neutral. He didn't advocate political parties, as it kind of divided people. He also warned against alliances, unless temporary, as to not meddle in foreign affairs. It basically shared his views on foreign and domestic policy.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    Alien and Sedition Acts
    After the XYZ Affair, President John Adams passed the Alien Acts in June, 1798. On July 14, 1798 he passed the Sedition Acts. The Alien and Sedition Acts were the work of Federalists that made it harder for immigrants to become citizens, could deport them, etc. If one were to criticize them, they were deemed as disloyal and could be jailed. They feared they could sympathize with the French. The four laws essentially violate the first amendment, not allowing freedom of speech and the press.
  • Kentucky Resolutions

    Kentucky Resolutions
    The Kentucky Resolutions were passed by Kentucky's state legislature on November 16, 1798. The Kentucky Resolutions were written by Thomas Jefferson. At the time, people didn't know he wrote it, though. The resolutions were protesting the Alien and Sedition Acts. It was said that they infringed on the rights of the people, and the states should exercise their own power. It advocated state rights and said they could nullify it.
  • Midnight Judges

    Midnight Judges
    The night before Thomas Jefferson was to be inaugurated as president, John Adams quickly appointed new judges late at night, around midnight probably, hence the term it was given. He didn't want the Federalist's influence to go away, and appointed his own people. One of the individuals who was appointed was William Marbury, who sued because James Madison, who was the new secretary of state, didn't deliver the appointments.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    The Louisiana Purchase was during Jefferson's presidency. It was a hypocritical move because it wasn't explicitly stated he could do so in the constitution, which was something he always complained about (doing stuff not in the constitution - ex: the national bank). The Louisiana Territory was in the possession of France. Napoleon sold it for around 3 cents per acre, totaling 15 million dollars. It gave the US control of the Mississippi River and New Orleans, and doubled the size of the nation.
  • Embargo Act

    Embargo Act
    The Embargo Act was passed by the US Congress during Jefferson's presidency. American sailors were being impressed, and the US wanted to remain neutral during Britain and France's war with each other. The act was a punishment for them by prohibiting US ships from trading in foreign ports. The US had to manufacture their own goods, agricultural prices fell, and so did the earnings, and shipping industries were negatively impacted, too.
  • Jefferson Davis

    Jefferson Davis
    Formerly a representative of Mississippi in the Senate, he went on to become the president of the Confederate States of America. He was the first and only president of the Confederacy, from 1861 to 1865. He also served as the secretary of war in 1853. He was a supporter and advocate for the Gadsden Purchase. While he didn't support secession, he did believe that the Constitution gave states the right to withdraw. He was also one of those who saw Lincoln's election as disastrous.
  • Edgar Allan Poe

    Edgar Allan Poe
    Edgar Allan Poe was born on January 19, 1809. He is a famous writer, editor, and literary critic who is best known for his poetry and short stories. He is considered to have been part of the American Romantic Movement. After failing at suicide, he became an alcoholic. The American Romantic Movement was part of the Romanticism era, which was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that had originated in Europe, and spread.
  • Abraham Lincoln

    Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president of the US. One of his main goals was to preserve the Union. His election was the breaking point for southerners, who started to secede from the Union. At first he wasn't aiming to abolish slavery, only contain it, so that the south could remain in the Union. Eventually, his goal shifted to abolishing it completely, and passed the Emancipation Proclamation. He had a plan for Reconstruction, but was assassinated soon after the Union won the Civil War.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    The concept of manifest destiny was that it was God's will for the US to reach from coast to coast. People thought the US was supposed to expand across the continent, and spread its influence. It spread democracy and capitalism across North America. It was aided by the Louisiana Purchase, Texas Independence, and Oregon Territory along the 49th parallel. The idea of Manifest Destiny led to conflict, like the war with Mexico, for example.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    The Battle of New Orleans wasn't really needed. It occurred after the treaty that ended the American Revolution was signed. However, communication was slow, so news hadn't spread yet. The battle ended in a major American victory, which people thought was what ended the war. Little did they know, the Treaty of Ghent had ended it on Christmas, December 24, 1814, to be exact. The battle also helped Andrew Jackson become a prominent figure, where he become known as a war hero.
  • Second Bank of the United States

    Second Bank of the United States
    The Second Bank of the US was chartered for pretty much the same reasons as the first one. The war of 1812 left a big debt, so the second bank was authorized. The Bank War occurred because of the second bank and its rechartering, while Andrew Jackson was president. This lead to the end of the second bank, being replaced by various state banks. It opened in 1816, and closed in 1836. Congress had failed to override Jackson's veto of the re-authorization of the second bank. It had gotten corrupted.
  • Adams-Onis Treaty

    Adams-Onis Treaty
    The Adams-Onis Treaty was signed on February 22, 1819 by John Quincy Adams and Luis de Onis, which is where the name for the treaty came from. Adams was the US secretary of state, and Onis was the Spanish minister. It wasn't until February 22, 1821 that it was approved, though. Spain was trying to stall, but gave up on that. The treaty ceded Florida to the US, which was previously in Spanish hands. This helped define the boundaries between US and Spanish territory in mainland North America.
  • Lowell Mills

    Lowell Mills
    Lowell mills became common in the industrializing north, developed during the Industrial Revolution. They were invented by Francis Cabot Lowell in Massachusetts around the 19th century, in the early 1820's. It was common for young girls and single women to work in these mills. They operated the looms and other machinery. In return, they were offered supervision and lodging, in order so that they could remain near their work. They became quite popular, employing over 8000 by 1840.
  • Greek Revival

    Greek Revival
    The Greek Revival was a revival of Greek architecture in America. The architecture incorporated the features of Greek temples, and became popular in the US the first half of the 19th century. It was inspired by the contemporary Greek independence movement. The building style was popular around 1820 to 1850. An example of this would be the type of columns found in many buildings. Another one would be the White House, which has details that resemble classic Greek ionic architecture.
  • Harriet Tubman

    Harriet Tubman
    Born around the 1820's, Harriet Tubman was an escaped slave who is known for helping in the Underground Railroad. She became a conductor in the Underground Railroad and helped lead slaves to freedom, even though it was made harder by the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. She later served as a Union spy, and provided information about Confederate army supply routes and troops to the Union. She also helped free slaves in order to form black Union regiments. She was a supporter of women's suffrage.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri Compromise of 1820 was a temporary solution to the imbalance of free and slave states, and the tensions brought by it. Missouri wanted to enter the Union as a slave state, but that would have upset the balance in the number of free and slave states. In order to deal with this, Congress had Maine admitted as a free state, too, in order to preserve the balance in the number of free and slave states. Slavery was also prohibited above the 36°30° parallel line.
  • Clara Barton

    Clara Barton
    Clara Barton was the founder of the American Red Cross, and the president of it until 1904. She was a nurse in the Civil War who traveled with the Union, helping soldiers of both sides on the battlefield. She was also a teacher, patent clerk, and also cooked. She provided self-taught nursing care, since there wasn't formalized nursing education at the time. She became known as the "angel of the battlefield." She also formed the Bureau of Records of Missing Men of the Armies of the United States.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine was a foreign policy statement stating Europeans shouldn't interfere with the Americas. It set up different spheres of influence. It contained contained four points: the US won't interfere with wars or internal affairs of European powers, the US won't interfere with existing colonies in the hemisphere, no further colonization should be attempted in the hemisphere, and if Europeans tried to control any nations that were in the western hemisphere, it would be viewed as hostile.
  • Corrupt Bargain

    Corrupt Bargain
    The Corrupt Bargain was the term given to a deal between Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams in the election of 1824. No one won the majority of the Electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide who the winner was. Adams was selected. Clay had helped him win, to which in return, he'd be made his secretary of state. Andrew Jackson, who was also a candidate, felt cheated an d was outraged. This became known as the corrupt bargain by Jackson's supporters.
  • Sing Sing

    Sing Sing
    Sing Sing is a maximum security prison in Ossining, New York. It opened in 1826. Under Robert Wiltse, the prison was harsh and there were profit making workshops. Prisoners would be held in isolation. It became a part of the prison reform movement. When Wiltse was fired, and there was an emphasis on rehab, religious instruction, and improved conditions. The goal was to reform prisons so that they may be treated humanely.
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    The election of 1828 was basically a rematch of the one in 1824. Andrew Jackson ran against John Quincy Adams. Jackson's supporters established supportive newspapers, and both sides attacked each other. It was the first election where a majority of the states held conventions to endorse a candidate. Both candidates campaigned by having rallies, parades, etc. Jackson ended up winning, and was the first one to get into office by appealing to the voters as a common man. It began on Halloween.
  • Spoils System

    Spoils System
    The spoil system was prominent during Andrew Jackson's presidency. He gave his supporters jobs in the public office. This wasn't so great because some of the people weren't even qualified. He got rid of existing employees who may have been qualified. The system ended around 1881 when Charles Guiteau killed President James Garfield, and a civil service reform was passed in 1883. That put a focus on job security, and awarding jobs and promotions based on their actual merit.
  • Railroads

    Railroads
    Railroads were an important innovation. They were a new means of transport, which was more efficient. Railroad corporations were created, towns were created, and they also linked cities together. The Union Pacific and the Central Pacific railroads reached from coast to coast, and was the first transcontinental railroad in North America. The creation of railroads also expanded foreign trade and helped the internal domestic market grow. Railroads also became an asset during the Civil War.
  • Temperance Movement

    Temperance Movement
    The Temperance Movement was one of the reform movements in the 1800's. It was a movement aimed against the consumption of alcohol. People put a focus on the negative effects alcohol had on people's health, family life, personality, etc. The movement began around the 1830's, when people would go around asking people to sign pledges abstaining from it. The movement had been supported by the 18th amendment, which banned the sale and drinking of alcohol in the US. However, that was later repealed.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Also called the Southampton Insurrection, the slave rebellion was led by Nat Turner in 1831. It started on August 21, and continued until August 23. It was one of the largest slave rebellions. Many white people were killed, at least 51 of them. Men, women, and children were killed, and slaves were freed. Nat Turner had seen a solar eclipse and believed it was a sign from God. He was betrayed and outed by someone, and eventually Nat was captured and hung. This caused many to fear slave revolts.
  • Nullification Crisis

    Nullification Crisis
    South Carolina decided to nullify the tariffs they didn't like, deeming them unconstitutional. They said they had the right to nullify, according to the 10th amendment - power to the states. This was supported by people like Jefferson, Madison, and Calhoun. They threatened to secede if the government kept trying to enforce it. The Force Bill was passed in 1833, allowing force to be used to collect the taxes, if necessary. It was resolved by the Compromise Tariff of 1833, though.
  • Whig Party

    Whig Party
    The Whig Party was founded in 1833 by Henry Clay. It brought together people who opposed Andrew Jackson, who they saw as a tyrannical king. They name came from the British party opposed to royal prerogatives. The party emerged as an opponent to the Jacksonians. They supported protective taxes, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements. Groups that were included in the Whig Party were the National Republicans and the Anti-Masonic Party.
  • American Anti-Slavery Society

    American Anti-Slavery Society
    The American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS) was an organization that was a part of the abolitionist movement. It was founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan. Frederick Douglass was a prominent figure, too. The organization promoted and spread antislavery messages to the north. There was some internal conflict, though, some disagreeing on how to handle abolition (radical vs less radical approach). The American Anti-Slavery Society dissolved dissolved in 1870.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    The Trail of Tears was a series of forced removals of native Americans from their land to Oklahoma. The most notable ones are probably the Cherokee, because of the Cherokee Nation, but the removal included other tribes as well. The first were the Choctaw in 1831. 1836 was the main trail, though. This was put into place by Andrew Jackson and the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Over 4000 natives died along the way, including children. They weren't allowed to get their stuff, being put into stockades.
  • Telegraph

    Telegraph
    The telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse.Morse code was used with telegraphs. The telegraph had a huge impact on communication. This invention also had a role in the Civil War. It helped send messages and communicate over long distances throughout the north. On.May 24, 1844, the first message was sent on the telegraph. The telegraph spread across the US, and eventually even to the rest of the world. Transcontinental telegraph lines were set up around in order to facilitate it.
  • Bear Flag Revolt

    Bear Flag Revolt
    A small group of American settlers in California invaded the Mexican outpost of Sonoma, in Mexico-controlled California. Mexico had been concerned that they wouldn't become true Mexican citizens, and would join the US. On the other hand, settlers were wary because they thought Mexico may attack. Here they won a bloodless victory, and California was declared an independent republic. The Bear Flag went on to become the official state flag of California in 1911, a while after it became a US state.
  • Oregon Border

    Oregon Border
    The Oregon Territory was a disputed area by Britain and the US. In order to settle this, they signed a treaty which established the border as the 49th parallel. The land from the Oregon Territory that was below the 49th parallel would go to the US, while the land above was Britain's, while later on became Canada. The land that was established for the US became the states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and parts of Wyoming and Montana.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    Wilmot Proviso was a proposal to ban slavery in the territory that was acquired by the US after the Mexican War, in 1846 by David Wilmot. The proposal aided in escalating the conflict between the north, south, and the issue of slavery. The proposal led to the creation of the Republican Party in 1854, which was based on an antislavery platform that endorsed the proposal. Wilmot Proviso had managed to pass the House of Representatives, but was shot down in Senate, though.
  • Chinese Migration

    Chinese Migration
    Chinese migration occurred around 1848 and 1880. There was poverty in China, so they went mainly to California. They worked various labor jobs. They worked on the Transcontinental Railroad, and helped mine gold. They were soon viewed as a threat by some Americans though, fearing they were taking job opportunities from them. This led to anti-Chinese sentiment, and led to things like the Chinese Exclusion Act and the creation of Anti-Coolie parties.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican-American War. It established the boundary at the Rio Grande and Gila River, and the US received a bunch of land after paying Mexico $15000000. The land became present day Arizona, California, western Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Texas. Slavery came into question, as people wondered whether to allow it into these new areas. The treaty was actually negotiated by an unofficial agent.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The Seneca Falls Convention was the first women's rights convention in the US, and was held in Seneca Falls, New York. It was a part of the women's suffrage movement. It focused on the rights women had and should have. The Declaration of Sentiments was a result of this convention, along with the 11 Resolutions. Prominent figures in the convention include Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Frederick Douglass. It was a bit controversial at first, but they achieved their goal, at least.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Uncle Tom's Cabin was a novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It was published on March 20, 1852. The novel influenced views on African Americans and slavery in the United States. The novel promoted abolition, and intensified sectional conflict, being described as having "helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War." Harriet was inspired by the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, and slave narratives by former slaves. As support for abolition increased, southerners worked harder to defend it.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed by Congress on May 30, 1854. The act allowed people in Kansas and Nebraska to choose whether the wanted to allow slavery in their area or not. This act of popular sovereignty went against the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which set up the 36°30° line for slavery. This made many people upset, and the issue over slavery was intensified once again. This ended up leading to the event of Bleeding Kansas.
  • Confederate States of America

    Confederate States of America
    The Confederate States of America was formed after many southern states seceded from the Union after Abraham Lincoln's election. South Carolina had been the first to secede, and was followed by other states. They wanted to keep slavery, and fought in order to do so. They viewed slavery as an important part of southern society. The president was Jefferson Davis, and the capital city was changed quite a few times, but ended on Richmond.
  • Trent Affair

    Trent Affair
    The Trent Affair was a diplomatic incident occurring in 1861. Two Confederate diplomats were illegally captured from a British ship by the US Navy. This caused Britain to be upset, claiming the United States was violating British neutrality. The incident threatened a war between Britain and the United States, while the Civil War was still going on. Eventually, Abraham Lincoln admitted that it was wrong and not supposed to have happened, and had them released.
  • Twenty Negro Law

    Twenty Negro Law
    The Twenty Negro Law was passed October 11, 1862 in the south, during the Civil War. It addressed fears of a slave rebellion occurring because so many men would be gone. The Twenty Negro Law allowed men to be exempted, on the terms that they had 20 slaves. One white male was eligible to be exempted for every 20 slaves. This meant only the rich were able to exempt, pretty much. While slavery was existent in the Confederacy, not everyone actually owned slaves, much less that many.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    The Emancipation Proclamation, signed by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, stated that it would grant freedom to slaves in the Confederacy if they didn't return to the Union by January 1, 1863. They were only going to be freed in states not under Union control, if the Union won. They did not return to the Union, so it ended up becoming effective on January 1, 1863. The slaves in the south were free. This also ended up tying the issue of slavery directly to the war.
  • Conscription Act

    Conscription Act
    Passed on March 3, 1863 by Congress, the Conscription Act was the first wartime draft of US citizens. It was in order to provide the Union with fresh soldiers. Males between the ages of 20 and 45 were to be drafted. The draft even included immigrants who were trying to become citizens. The conscription could be avoided if they either paid 300, or managed to get someone to take their place. This made poor workers angry, as they did not have the funds to pay that much.
  • Sherman's March to the Sea

    Sherman's March to the Sea
    Sherman's March to the Sea was a military campaign during the Civil War. William Sherman led around 60000 soldiers on a march from Atlanta to Savannah. This lasted from November 15, 1864 to December 21, 1864. This was a major Union victory, since they managed to capture Atlanta, which was important for the Confederacy. On his march, Sherman used the scorched earth policy, which destroyed everything behind him. Things were burned and destroyed so that it couldn't be used by the other side.
  • Carpetbaggers

    Carpetbaggers
    Carpetbaggers was the term that was given to northerners who moved to the south during the Reconstruction period, which was around 1865 to 1877, in order to make profit. They had their own financial and political gains, wanting to see if they could make money, or gain political power. Southerns resented them very deeply for the profits they made around this time. They basically took advantage of the plight the southerners were facing, and were dubbed carpetbaggers.
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    Following the official end of the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln decided to watch a play no less than a week later. He went to go see Our American Cousin at Ford's Theatre, in Washington, D.C. However, John Wilkes Booth, a well-known stage actor killed him. This occurred on April 14, 1865. However, Abraham Lincoln did not die until the next morning, on April 15, 1865. John Wilkes Booth had killed him as revenge for the Confederacy. Lincoln's body was very well preserved, and transported on a train.
  • Andrew Johnson Administration

    Andrew Johnson Administration
    Andrew Johnson became the 17th President of the US once Lincoln died, as he was the vice president. His presidency lasted from 1865 to 1869. Under his presidency, the Reconstruction plan was altered to be very lenient on the former Confederacy. The Black Codes were passed under his presidency. He was racist, and later had many of his vetoes rejected. He ended up being the first president to be impeached, but was saved by one vote, although he ended up leaving soon after.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in the United States. Slavery was no longer allowed in any of the states. Slavery and involuntary servitude was outlawed, unless it was as a punishment for a crime. The Thirteenth Amendment was passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, the Senate on April 8, 1864, and later on passed by the House of Representative on January 31, 1865. It was not until December 6, 1865 that it was ratified, though.
  • Vagrancy

    Vagrancy
    The Vagrancy Act of 1866 was passed on January 15, 1866 by the General Assembly. It was included in the black codes, making it possible to arrest, fail, or fine blacks who weren't "lawfully employed." It could even force them into employment. It was really just trying to pick on them and provided a way to have something similar to slavery. If anyone appeared to be unemployed or homeless, they could have been subject to this law.
  • Election of 1868

    Election of 1868
    In the election of 1868, Ulysses S. Grant was against Horatio Seymour, who was the Democratic candidate. After the Civil War, Ulysses S. Grant (Union side) was called a war hero. He was nominated as the Republican candidate for presidency. Ulysses S. Grant ended up winning, and became the 18th president of the United States. He had to work to implement Congressional Reconstruction and get rid of the last traces of slavery that lingered. Some states didn't vote, being busy with Reconstruction.
  • Panic of 1873

    Panic of 1873
    The Panic of 1873 lasted from around 1873 to 1879. It was a depression that began in Europe and spread to the US. Jay Cooke and Company failed, and it was the main backer of the Northern Pacific Railroad. It had handled most of the government's war loans. It ended up weakening the Republican Party, allowing the Democrats to regain the House in 1874. The panic also helped bring Reconstruction to an end, while some took the chance to blame Ulysses Grant and Congress for mishandling the economy.
  • Election of 1876

    Election of 1876
    The election of 1876 led to the end of Reconstruction. Rutherford Hayes ultimately won, as southern Democrats agreed to support him if he ended Reconstruction and increased funding for the south. The south was able to take control of the south again and establish white rule, reversing what blacks had accomplished during that time. The election was controversial, and the electoral votes were disputed for quite a while. Hayes ended up being the 19th president of the US.
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    New Republic

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    Reconstruction