1301 timeline project

Timeline created by Horselegs
  • 13,000 BCE

    Bering Land Bridge

    Bering Land Bridge
    Back then, there used to be a land bridge stretching from Russia to the Americas or new world. This land bridge was called, "Beringia". Native americans and animals like mammoth has crossed this bring into the new world in 3 different waves. People hunted and gathered to survive in the wilderness. This had led to overhunting of the animals and the extinction. Clovis points were used by natives to hunt animals and used as a projectile.
  • 1000


    These people settled in southwestern part of the United States near the modern day 4 corner states, Arizona/New Mexico/Colorado/Utah. They were well known for there adobe house. Adobe was made of sand, clay, and sometimes straws. Mixed with water and let it outside to dry. Their culture includes of pottery, animal clothing, adobe buildings and, corn as a staple crop. They follow gods that appears as visionary human beings who bring blessings and receives love along with sacred ceremonies
  • 1095


    The crusades were military campaigns against the muslim world to take their land back and spread christianity. Templars were knights for the catholic military and was established in 1119 to protect christian pilgrims. Indulgences were a way to pay for your forgiveness of a sin you committed in exchange a way to heaven. Effects of the crusades help spread old tradition and culture along with new technology. This also help establish trade with each other with Europe and muslim countries.
  • 1325

    Mesoamerica - Aztec

    Mesoamerica - Aztec
    Aztecs were one of the most prominent civilizations of Mesoamerica. They were hunters and gatherers until they settled on Lake Texcoco and built Tenochtitlan. Thanks to remarkable irrigation systems with agriculture, they were able to grow. Human sacrifice is were a victim's heart is offered to their sun god,Tonatiuh. A vast caste system was also in the civilization. Priest and beauracrates were involved in government while serfs, indentured servants, and slaves were at the bottom.
  • 1347

    Black Death

    Black Death
    The Black death was one of the deadliest pandemics in world history. Thanks to the rise of trade and merchants, the disease was rapid to spread. The disease started from fleas biting rats. Then had spreaded on to humans. The rats had traveled by ships and would bite other people. This particularly hurt economies because there wasn't enough people to work or spend money on goods leading to an economic decline. The Black Death had killed 50 million people across Europe.
  • 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    Columbian Exchange
    The columbian exchange happened after columbus had discovered the americas. It was an exchange of animals, plants, microbes, ideas, and people between the old and new world. Diseases was particularly bad in the Americas. The native americans who had settled there had no immunity to european diseases. So when native had come in contact with europeans, they would later became sick and died. Some of the disease that were brought over was smallpox and the flu. 90% of the native population had died.
  • Jun 7, 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    Treaty of Tordesillas
    Treaty of Tordesillas was an agreement Spain and Portugal settling in the newly discovered, New World, after Columbus discovered it. At the time, Spain and Portugal were 2 big superpowers. They had agree on the putting the line of demarcation 1,185 miles from Cape Verde islands. This had spilt a small part of the americas which is modern day Brazil, to Portugal. Anything west of the line, Spain can have. Anything east of the line, Brazil can have. Pope Julius II had finalized the treaty.
  • Virginia colony

    Virginia colony
    Virginia colony was founded by John Smith along with other people like John Rolfe in 1607. It was founded along the Atlantic ocean and was classified as a southern colony in the 13 colonies. Jamestown was the first settlement settled by pilgrims. During the winter of 1609/1610 had killed many settlers due to the harsh winter conditions leaving only with 60 survivors left. John Rolfe started to plant tobacco and the colony started being profitable thanks to the climate in the region.
  • Plymouth colony

    Plymouth colony
    Plymouth colony was founded by Puritans in 1620. Puritans were separatists from the Church of England. They believed the church needed to be "purify" and its practices. The puritans came over using the ship named, "Mayflower". On the ship, they made the Mayflower compact and had established a self-governing colony, which was the first of their kind in the World. They had settled in modern day Plymouth, Mass. Squanto, a Wampanoag, help guide, give advice, and give translations to the settlers.
  • Rhode Island

    Rhode Island
    Rhode Island was founded by Roger WIlliams and other colonist like Anne Hutchinson, who had founded Providence. King Charles II of England granted a royal charter to the colony in 1633. This allowed the colony to govern their own colony and guarantee their freedom and religion. The colony had religious freedom which had attracted religious minorities like Baptist Jews, and Quakers. He also wanted church and state to be seperate. Separation from church and state was called secularism.
  • Navigation Acts

    Navigation Acts
    Navigation Acts were laws put in place to restrict trade with other countries. The colonies can only trade with their mother country, Britain. Mercantilism came to rise thanks to the British. They maximize exports out of Colonial America so the British can make money off of them and continue to grow. In return, the British give them protection. This new economic system had hurt the colonies, mostly merchants. This had made colonist angry and was one of the significant events leading up to war.
  • Nathanial Bacon Rebellion

    Nathanial Bacon Rebellion
    Bacon rebellion was an armed rebellion by Virginian farmers against the rule of Governor Berkeley. This was led by Nathanial Bacon. Tensions between the settlers and natives leading to an attack on settlers on their land. Governor Berkeley was unpopular with his policies on being defensive with the natives and had it only benefited his friends. Bacon at first, volunteer to defend himself then decided to rebel and raised an army to take over Jamestown. Commissioners replaced the government.
  • Salem Witch Trials

    Salem Witch Trials
    The Salem Witch Trials (1692-1693) was held in Salem, Massachusetts and had spread to other parts of the country. It was a series of investigation and prosecution of ordinary people who are accused of being witches. They were 19 convicted "witches" that had died and many more were imprisoned. More than 200 people were accused. Having strange behavior was a key of being accused of witchery. The witches were considered to be followers of "satan".
  • Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    Triangle trade got its name from the shape it makes when the 3 continents traded with each other. The 3 continents that traded with each other was: Africa, Americas, and Europe. Raw materials like cotton and sugar is sent to Europe to be finished. Some of the goods would then be sent/traded to Africa. Slaves from Africa would then be shipped to the Americas on plantations. The passageway to the Americas for the slaves were called, "Middle Passage". This trade helped the practice mercantilism.
  • Slavery

    Slavery had replaced indentured servants because of how often they were dying. Slaves were cheap and reliable coming out of Africa. Slaves were traded and transported by ships to Americas on the Atlantic slave trade. These slaves would work on plantations.This passageway to the Americas was called "Middle Passage". Condition in the during the "Middle Passage" was difficult and cramp. Lots of slaves died from disease and had spread amongst each other thanks to the small confinement they were in.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    The Act of Union was passed by the British and Scottish parliament in 1707. This had unified England and Scotland as one country named Great Britain. With the unification, Scotland gets to keep its independence with their legal and religious system. While their money, tax, sovereignty, trade, government, and flag became into one. The new flag was a combination of flags from both countries. The so called new flag was called "Old Union", after a new was adopted when Ireland joined.
  • New England Economy

    New England Economy
    The climate in the New England Colonies varies differently with the rest of the colonies. It is very cold and the soil is hard so it would be hard to grow any crops. Colonist along the coast relied on trading, fishing, shipbuilding, and whale hunting for whale oil. Lumber was also big business and was in big need thanks to the shipbuilding industry. Whale oil was valuable and used in lamps. Rum was a big exporter for trade. Manufacturing were also mostly concentrated in the New England economy.
  • Deism

    Deism is a monotheistic belief. It was started by Edward Herbert. Their belief is that one god exists and have created the universe. And that god does not intervene in the world or during in a humans lifetime. This philosophy had emerged during the enlightenment and had spread across Europe and to the Americas. This was a prominent philosophy during the colonial times. Some of America's most prominent people like George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Thomas Paine.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    The Great Awakening were multiple periods of religious revival mostly christianity, in the thirteen colonies. They were multiple waves of this revival up to 2 or 3. This revival help revie faith in many people of the congregation. Sermons and gospel were more emotional and energetics. Prominent figures were John Edwards and George Whitfield. George Whitfield was the person would had started the "Great Awakening" along with the help of John Edwards. Preaches and sermons were methods they used.
  • Salutary Neglect

    Salutary Neglect
    Salutary neglect was practiced by the British government on the 13 colonies back in America. The British government let the colonies to let them self-govern themselves and the British wouldn't be involved in their internals affairs. Trade regulations were also loosely enforced. In return, they ask them to be loyal to the British government. The increasing autonomy the British give to the colonies would later on lead to their independence. The British became stricter leading to a revolution.
  • Seven Years War / French and Indian War

    Seven Years War / French and Indian War
    This worldwide conflict involved the British, French, and Spain. Indian tribes tend to side with a country. Algonquins sided with the French and Iroquois sided with Britain. Conflict started when colonist wanted to move west into the Ohio Valley to grow tobacco. The problem was that France and Britain claims the disputed territory leading to war. British win at Fort Henry and was the turning point in the war. The Treaty of Paris (1763) ends the war and Britain seize control of New France.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was a political protest against the Tea Act. The British put a small tax on tea and it angered the colonist because they did have representation in parliament. The motto "No taxation without representation", came along. Members of party along with members Son of Liberty dressed up as Native Americans and boarded a British ship containing tea. They then, crack open the chest of tea and threw it into the harbor. They threw almost $1 million dollars of tea in today's currency.
  • Coercive Act / Intolerable Acts

    Coercive Act / Intolerable Acts
    This was a series of 4 acts to punish the colonist. The Boston Tea Party dumping almost $1 million dollars worth of tea into the harbor and the destruction of British property were the reason for these acts. One act closed the Boston Port until the damages from Boston Tea party was paid. Another one closed Massachusetts governments and turned it into appointed body. One act that also gives British official immunity from prosecution. Lastly, the Quartering Act let soldiers quarters at your home.
  • 1st Continental Congress

    1st Continental Congress
    The 1st continental congress met in Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia after Coercive acts were enacted. 12 of the 13 colonies were there except Georgia. Each colonies had a different way to fix this problem with Britain. Some took radical views like separation while others wanted peaceful negotiations. Important figures like George Washington and Patrick Henry was there. All the colonies agree that the king and parliament must understand grievance of the colonist and have effective communication.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    The Olive Branch Petition was the colonist last attempt at peace with the King and parliament. The petition had the colonist pledged their loyalty to the crown and as British citizen. Thomas Jefferson wrote the first draft, but seemed too aggressive. John Dickinson, wrote the final draft and was more toned down. The letter was sent to Britain with an Olive Branch representing peace. King George III had rejected it resulting in war with the American colonist called the American Revolution.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    The colonies united as one against the crown for independence. This marks the start of the American Revolution. Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence.THis declaration have grievance against the crown. Anti-monarchical sentiment showed how much they hated the monarchy. It was completed on the second of July and wasn't signed until the 4 of July marking our independence as a nation. Some of the important signers were John Hancock, Samuel and John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    This battle was significant and a turning point in the war. The British Army was trying to merge with their navy and the Americans had stopped them in their path. General George Washington and with the help of Benedict Arnold. The British had retreated and 10 days later surrendered. This was a major American victory had convinced the French government to recognize the colonist efforts at independence and enter the war as their ally. The French supported them with their naval and armed forces.
  • Article Of Confederation

    Article Of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation was the first constitution of the United States. The central government was weak, so they couldn't enforce taxes and was up to the states to collect the taxes. The confederation was also short on money while in debt, so there was no money for pensions. Nothing was getting done in congress and currency was next to nothing because that printed too much money lead to a devaluation of the currency. Restricted trade and falling agricultural prices led to recession.
  • American Virtues

    American Virtues
    New virtues popped up after the the revolution. The idea of republic was particularly unique and was used way back during Greeks times. Style and architecture was different. They wanted to represent their democratic values and have adopted greek style. This was the start of greek revival in America. You can see it today in some houses and government buildings with column entrances and white granite materials. At one point, they wanted to ditch the english language in favor of greek.
  • Treaty of Paris (1783)

    Treaty of Paris (1783)
    This treaty was signed by Britain and America officially ending the revolution. The terms of this peace trey were favorable to the Americans more than the British. The British crown formally recognizes the US as sovereign country. It also had establish a northern border and had to give up territory east of the Mississippi River, doubling it land size and paving a way for westward expansion. The americans in return have to restore loyalist properties and give them fair treatment.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    The rebellion was led by Daniel Shay with revolutionary veterans. The uprising started in Western Massachusetts and began to spread because of high taxes and poor economic conditions. Daniel Shay and his men marched toward Springfield and closed down courts. They had also attacked the federal arsenal there. Shay's rebellion was put down eventually by militia efforts. This was a test of the Articles of Confederation and it proves it was too weak with the central government having little power.
  • Constitutional Convention - 2 plans

    Constitutional Convention - 2 plans
    2 plans at conventions; Virginia and New Jersey plan. The Virginia plan favored large population states. They would have a lower house and would be people elect. The executive & judicial branch have equal powers. The New Jersey plan favored small states and was the opposite. Each state equals 1 vote and the legislature would be people elect. The Connecticut Plan would be a compromise with a house and senate. The House would be based on population and the senate would be each state gets 1 vote.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    This ordinance was a way for territories turn into states to be admitted into the union. The northwestern states most commonly known as "American Midwest" was targeted, Each territory would have a governor and a council. Once the territory population reaches 5000, they are able to have a legislature. When the territory reaches a population of 60000, it can apply for statehood. This ordinance provided liberties and education in the territories. Slavery was not allowed in these territories.
  • Slavery @ Constitutional convention

    Slavery @ Constitutional convention
    Slavery was the most contentious issues at the constitutional convention. They didn't know how to count slaves. Should they be part of the population or regarded as property? If they were counted as slaves, it would mess up the balance in congress. The south wanted them to be counted while the North insisted. A compromise made by James Wilson and Roger Sherman was made. The compromise was called the 3/5 compromise. Each slave would be counted as 3/5 for population in congress.
  • The Great Debate

    The Great Debate
    This debate was between the Federalist & Anti-Federalist. John Jay's "Federalist Papers", help explained the new constitution and why it needs to be ratify. Federalist also supports strong gov. and checks & balances. On the other side, Anti-Federalist was the opposite. They wanted less gov. and more state rights. In the end, the federalist won, the constitution was the law of the land. To be ratified, the Bill of Rights were needed to be added. It was a bill of basic rights for every citizen.
  • Election of 1788

    Election of 1788
    This was the first ever election in the history of the United States. It was also the the first election under the new constitution. George Washington was elected president and John Adams was is Vice President. People see George Washington as god like and no one ran against him. There was no running mates in the election and who got second place was the Vice President. They used the electoral college as established by the new constitution. The electoral votes wins the race not the popular vote.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    The Bill of rights is the first 10 amendments in the United States constitution. It was created in 1989 and wasn't ratified until 1791. It had guaranteed such rights like freedom of speech and religion. This was put into so the constitution could be ratified. This was necessary to safeguard personal liberties and would place specific limits on government power. It was written by James Madison, a republican. Later on, the Bill of rights will grow into what is now today, 27.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    Whiskey rebellion was an uprising of farmers from western Pennsylvania due to the tax on whiskey. The federal gov. had put a 25% tax on whiskey to raise money. This had hurt the farmers because whiskey was economically important and was bringing in big profits. The farmers revolted and threaten to attack Pittsburgh. 6000 farmers marched to Pittsburgh only to be top by George Washington's army. The rebellion was then put down. This was the first major domestic test of the new constitution.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    During this time, slavery was in a decline that was until someone named Eli Whitney made the Cotton Gin in 1793. This would prove to be a revolutionary tool during the American Industrial Revolution. The cotton gin was able to separate the seeds from the cotton more efficient than slaves picking the seeds out by hand. This would require less slaves to work on plantations, but the exact opposite happened. Slavery had increased dramatically to work in the fields all over the lower south of the US.
  • Pinckney's Treaty

    Pinckney's Treaty
    Pinckney's Treaty was between the United States and Spain. This treaty fixes the border with Spanish Florida at the 31 degrees latitude line and establish trades with each nation. This treaty also gives the US access to the Mississippi River and make New Orleans a port. Both nations agreed to stop indians attacks on each other near each others border and protects each others freedom of the seas. The treaty was negotiated by Thomas Pinckney and Manuel de Godoy of Spain.
  • Election of 1796

    Election of 1796
    George Washington made a farewell address. He said he was done after 2 terms and he wanted the nation to avoid conflicts. Also he wanted the nation not to have "permanent" alliances with other countries, but having temporary alliances is okay. He didn't want to serve a 3rd term because it would look like tyranny or become a monarchy like Britain. The election was between John Adams (Federalist) and Thomas Jefferson (Republican). John Adams won, so Thomas Jefferson was the Vice President.
  • Kentucky Resolution

    Kentucky Resolution
    Thomas Jefferson, a republican, thought of this resolution. This resolution was in protest of the Federalist "Alien and sedition acts" and had passed in Kentucky and Virginia legislatures. It gave an idea that states can nullify any laws that is enforced by the government. Later on, S. Carolina would be the first state to nullify a law. The constitution was a compact of many states and not just under one. This had the foundation of states rights. Slavery and the Civil war was fought over this.
  • Election of 1800

    Election of 1800
    John Adams was running for re-election against Thomas Jefferson again. This time, Thomas Jefferson had won, but he was tied with Aaron Burr. Alexander Hamilton, speaker of the house, and Jefferson had reached a deal with each other. Hamilton would persuade the House to vote for Hamilton and in return, Jefferson would promise not to undo federalist legislation. This made Thomas Jefferson the 3rd president in US history. The aftermath of the deal, Jefferson & Burr would hate each other immensely.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana territory from Napoleon of France for $15 million dollars. France needed money so they sold the land for less than 3 cents an acre. This purchase doubled the land of the United States. To scout this new lands, Jefferson funded Lewis and Clark expedition to this new territory. They negotiate treaties with natives and inform people of US inquisition. They met Sacagawea who helped them along the way with translations and peaceful intentions.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    The Battle of New Orleans wasn't supposed to happen because the war was over. The treaty of Ghent was signed in Belgium on December 12, 1814 ending the War of 1812 between the United States and Britain. News of this slowly spreaded across the ocean and in America, nevertheless the battle happened . The battle stated on January 8, 1815 with Andrew Jackson and his biracial army, which was made up regulars around town, defeating the British. This had made Jackson a household name across America.
  • Changes in Agriculture

    Changes in Agriculture
    Agriculture had come a long way since the first civilization. Inventions like the iron plow, crank churn, and the cotton gin revolutionized it. The iron plow was invented by John Deere and was able to plow or dig up the hard soil. This was useful in every climate. The crank churn was developed to the churn butter and was most commonly used in households. The cotton gin was developed by Eli Whitney and was able to separate the seed from the cotton faster than by picking it by hand.
  • Changes in Transportation

    Changes in Transportation
    Transportation has evolved over many centuries and these recent inventions would change the industrial revolution. Infrastructure like roads and canals was built to for easier and smoother movement. A canal connected Lake Erie to New York City making a shortcut for the Great lAkes to the Atlantic. The steam engine revolutionized transportation forever. It lead to faster ways of movement like the steam boat and trains. Railroads are made for the trains and it had led to cheaper prices.
  • Changes in Communication

    Changes in Communication
    Communication was evolving and inventions like the printing press and telegraph revolutionized the world. The printing press was invented back during the Tang Dynasty and had allowed information to be mass produced and easily distributed.The telegraph was also invented by Samuel Morse. It traveled by telegraph lines and it used morse code to communicate, which was developed by Samuel himself. The telegraph allowed almost instant communication between people and was faster than hand delivery.
  • American System

    American System
    The American System was an economic plan under President Adams for America after the war of 1812. Henry Clay and other whigs supported it & that America needed to be economically independent. There was 3 plans: Taxing all foreign goods to protect american industries, establishing a new national bank (2nd), & construct new infrastructure like roads & canals in the west. This plan was significant & reduce their dependence on foreign goods. This also help fuel the belief of Manifest Destiny.
  • Panic of 1819

    Panic of 1819
    The Panic of 1819 stated the Second Bank of the United States had given out too much credit and then restricting it too quickly. This was the first and one of the worst economic recession in US history. There was an economic boom after the War of 1812 and the era of good feelings. The "American system" was put in and the bank give credit to Americans and money for infrastructure. Falling agriculture prices, bad loan, and inflation led to the downfall of the United States economy.
  • Florida

    The United States wanted Florida due instability in the region and dispute of borders. The Adams-Onis treaty (Transcontinental Treaty) was signed between the US and Spain. Spanish claim on Florida was ceded to the US and renounced Oregon Treaty. In return they have recognize sovereignty over Texas. They also had established a border line with the recent acquisition of Louisiana Territory starting at Sabine River. The US also put aside $5 million to settle claims against Spain.
  • McCulloch v. Maryland

    McCulloch v. Maryland
    This was a landmark case for the Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS). Maryland passed a law that imposes a tax on the bank in 1818. A federal cashier named James McCulloch, refused to pay the tax and Maryland had sue him. The case went up the Supreme Court and they rule in favor of McCulloch. John Marshall explains that congress has implied powers no mention in the constitution when it is necessary and proper to do so. Also, Maryland can't tax the government because it benefits them.
  • Missouri Crisis

    Missouri Crisis
    Missouri wanted to join the union as a slave state in 1819.This would upset the balance of slave and free states in congress. To keep peace, they made a compromise called "Missouri Compromise". This compromise made Missouri a slave state while adding Maine into the Union as a free state. It had also drew an imaginary line across the whole United States. The 36*30* line was made establishing a border between free and slave state. Anything north of the line would be free and south of it, slave.
  • Foreign Immigration

    Foreign Immigration
    During the time of the American Industrial Revolution, Cities were popping up everywhere and their populations were beginning to sprawl. Some people decided to move to the rural areas away from the city. European also immigrated to the cities for various of reasons. The Irish came over due to a potato famine & settled in slums, while Germans had poor harvest with political turmoil settled in the Midwest. Scandinavians/British came over for economic opportunities and settled in the North/Midwest.
  • Architecture

    Between 1820s -1850s, there were a greek revival of architecture in the United States. This started after the US won the War of 1812 and that the country was descendants of the greeks nations where democracy was born. Greek style of architecture was adopted around the nation from government buildings to businesses, and houses. The first building to use this style would be the 2nd national bank in Philadelphia. Details of the architecture would be pillars, white marble, & post-beam construction.
  • Education

    Schools back then, all you had to do is show up or show up for school when you wanted. With new reforms, grades were assigned to students to track of students progress. New textbooks and instruction was implemented to make sure students learn. Also, students was required to be at school as part of their attendance. The disadvantages of this is that there would be higher tax to fund the schools and labor shortages on where to find teachers. Catholics fear Protestant education in schools.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine was a policy endorsed by President James Monroe. The United States wanted influence over the new lands in western america and declared that Europe would need stay out of Latin America or the western hemisphere in general. This was America's influence zone and were scared that European mercantilism would take over expansion in the area leading to colonialism of the area. The United States wanted Latin America to develop and develop relations with them.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    This election was between 4 candidates: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William Crawford, % Henry Clay. It was the first election that no one had won the majority of votes & had to be decided by congress. Jackson had won the popular vote, but Adams had won the electoral college. Adams & House speaker Henry Clay made a deal. Clay sway congress to vote for Adams & Clay would be his secretary of state. Jackson would then lose becoming bitter & angry. This would be known as "corrupt bargain".
  • Stephen F. Austin

    Stephen F. Austin
    Stephen F. Austin was the son of late Moses Austin. After his died died, he was out in charge of the land grants and was governor of Texas. 300 families hd first settled there with these conditions to follow. They have to become catholic and citizens of Mexico, learn spanish, and have no slaves. Whites starts to outnumber hispanics and people there start to disobeying the laws. By 1830, the population had reached 30,000 settlers. Soon, these people would have rebellion talks against Mexico.
  • Second Great Awakening - Prisons

    Second Great Awakening - Prisons
    Reforms were made to prison and how they handled prisoners. Penitentiaries were made by quakers who believe solitary confinement was a way to confess to their sins. The first one built was Sing Sing in 1826 in New York. Prisoners worked in the day and go back to their cells at night. Another penitentiary would be Eastern State Penitentiary in 1829 in the state of Pennsylvania. They also practiced solitary confinement and the penitentiaries had to be kept quiet as possible at all times.
  • Election of 1828 - Andrew Jackson

    Election of 1828 - Andrew Jackson
    This election would be the re-match between Andrew Jackson & John Adams. This time, Jackson has a new strategy to win. He goes back to talk about his humble beginnings & about his military career. He embraces democratic values & started the democratic party. This election had the second party system where both party have equal holds of the country. He was frequently attacked by his opponents like calling him a womanizer. "Old Hickory" was his nickname because how he go back to his grassroots.
  • Spoil system

    Spoil system
    The spoil system was implemented after Andrew Jackson took office in 1829 after his victory in the election of 1828. He had replaced bureaucrats who were highly capable and educated to do their jobs and replaced them with his own supporters. This is his way of rewarding their loyalty. The spoil system was a dramatic change for a president's cabinet. There was opposition against the system saying that it only address the needs of the party and not the people and leads to political abuses.
  • Crime in growing cities

    Crime in growing cities
    Unrest & crime was a problem with growing cities. Immigrants would compete with white people for jobs creating tension. These tension would lead to groups like the white mob terrorizing other races. Political rivalries would heat up with one's differences on each topic. Religion will be debated on with Catholics & Protestants. The issue of slavery will divide communities. To deal with this, the first police force was established in 1830s and New York City was the first city to have this in 1845.
  • Temperance movement

    Temperance movement
    The temperance movement is a movement to moderate or completely abstain from alcohol. People bad then would consistently get drunk and go to work the next day all groggy and be unproductive. This would hurt the business and make them lose their jobs. The would drink multiple times throughout the day and would lead them to being dependent on alcohol ruining their lives. The movement had started small, but then had spread across the country. Reducing alcohol consumption was their main goal.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Nat Turner was a slave and preacher. When an eclipse happened on a night in 1831, he believed god gave him a sign of stating a slave rebellion. Rebellion was in Virginia the same year, making up of 60-80 slaves. The rebellion killed 50-60 white people and the Northerners seen it as heroic. Later, Nat would be hanged. New laws were put in place after this event. It had outlaw slave preaching & limited firearms. Southern militias were strengthen & assaults on whites were capital offenses.
  • Abolitionists

    There were 2 types of abolitionist during this timespan: Gradualism and Immediatism. Gradualism supporters wanted to take steps towards freeing the slaves. Freeing them gradually integrating them back or to Africa. African Americans who went over to Africa established themselves a country call Liberia. Many free slaves wanted to go there do to the tension between them and whites. Immediatism supporters wanted an immediate end to slavery. These 2 side of the abolitionist are considered radical.
  • Nullification Crisis

    Nullification Crisis
    The Nullification crisis was a major event leading up to the civil war. Congress had raised import taxes and this had hurt southern agriculture economy especially South Carolina. This was the "Tariff Act of 1832". So then, South Carolina decides to nullify the law within the borders and Vice President John Calhoun support their decision. Jackson and Calhoun disagree with each other leading to him resign from VP. Henry Clay would then reach a deal with congress to scale back on the tariffs.
  • Shakers

    Shakers are a protestant (quaker) sect of christianity. They're called shakers do their over joyful practices during worships. Shakers believe in pacifist way of life and were communistic. They also believed in no sex (celibate), equality among the sexes but were separated. Other things they also believed in was the rejection of domesticity, no private property, and no marriage. Due to them not believing in sex, their population had decreased dramatically to now a population of only 2 in 2017.
  • Election of 1836

    Election of 1836
    This election was between Martin Van Buren a.k.a Old Kinderhook "OK" and several Whigs candidates like William Henry Harrison. Martin had barely won the election and had inherited the bad economy. The bank war had hurt the economy with most of the money going to the states. This had resulted in a recession in which it got worse. The Panic of 1837 was one of the biggest recession in US history. Poor harvest, failed business, factories closed, and unemployment rose were some of the effects.
  • Battle of San Jacinto

    Battle of San Jacinto
    This battle was the last battle in the Texas Revolution effort against Mexico. General Sam Houston demanded a surprise attack on Santa Anna forces. The battle only last 20 minutes with barely any casualties on Sam Houston forces while Santa Anna forces suffered huge amounts. Santa Anna was captured while trying to sneak away as a Texian soldiers. The treaty of Velasco was signed by both sides in March of 1836 marking the end of the war and Texas having independence from Mexico.
  • Election of 1840

    Election of 1840
    Martin Van Buren was running for re-election against General WIlliam Henry Harrison (Whig). Whigs spread rumors about Van Buren like that he was Burr's illegitimate son. The whigs was also able to influence womens to vote for Harrison on their behalf of their husband. Harrison wins the election and a month into his term, he dies from pneumonia from a cold during a speech in cold temperatures. He had served the shortest term for a president ever. Vice President John Tyler becomes president.
  • Great Migration

    Great Migration
    The Great Migration consisted of the Oregon Trail and Mormon Migration. The Oregon Trail was an overland trail that stretched 2000 miles during a 5-6 month trip that ended in Oregon Territory. People who move there wanted new opportunities and land. Mormons were discriminated in every community they have settled in. Joseph Smith was killed by an angry mob and Brigham Young was the new leader. He instructed mormons to leave to Salt Lake Valley in Utah to get away from the violence and government.
  • Election of 1844

    Election of 1844
    This election was between John Tyler (Whig) and James Polk (Democrat). Texas was a heated debate with Democrats "For" and Whigs "Against" Texas admission into the Union. This would mess up the balance of slaves and non-slaves states. 3 goals set by Polk was: Annex Texas, Settle Oregon border with Britain, and Settle Mexican Border. Polk wins election but, Texas was annexed before Polk Inauguration. Polk then send diplomats to buy the Southwestern part of Mexico and establish the border.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    In 1846, David Wilmot, a democrat, proposed the Wilmot Proviso. It was a proposal to ban slavery in the newly acquired territories from Mexico. The proposal had failed to get passed in congress so it never went into effect. The proviso passed in the House of Representatives, but not in the Senate. The proviso further divided the North and South on the issue of slavery. The North think slavery should not exist and that they're human beings.The South thinks it should legal everywhere.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    Seneca Falls convention was held in Seneca Falls, New York. This convention would be the cornerstone of suffrage and was the first woman's rights convention held in the US. It was started by Elizabeth Stanton and Lucretia Mott. It comprised of 300 men and women that came up with the "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolution" that described women grievance and demands. This called for secure rights for women to vote and have fair economic opportunities.The media coverage was negative about them.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    This treaty was between United States and Mexico which brought the Mexican-American War to an end. The treaty had favored the Americans and they were able to dictate the terms. It was signed on February 2, 1848. Mexico had to ceded 55% of its territory which is now modern-day Southwestern part (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming) of the United States. They also have to give up all claims of Texas and recognize the Rio Grande as the southern border.
  • Election of 1848

    Election of 1848
    This election was between Lewis Clas (Democrat), Zachary Taylor (Whig), and Martin Van Buren (Free-soil Party). Taylor was really a no party man and his views are unknown. He would campaign in the north as non-slavery, but would campaign in the south as pro-slavery. Van Buren supported the Wilmot Proviso, and keeping slavery where its at. The Free-soil party was only a single issue party that slavery should expand into the western territories. Zachary Taylor would later on win the election.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    California was part of the newly acquired land from the Treaty of Hidalgo. Gold was discovered in 1849 and thousands had migrated there. The population was quickly growing and had become a territory in 1848 and then a state in 1850. People moved there hoping to make it rich. Gold was easy to find and mining started in 1852 along with towns. The chinese also migrated here along with others. They came looking for opportunity and faced hard working conditions in mines. They also faced harsh racism.
  • Industrialization vs. Agriculture - North

    Industrialization vs. Agriculture - North
    The North during this time was rapidly growing and industrialized. New advancing inventions like the steam engine proved to more efficient in every kind of way. They would be used on trains and boats. Immigrants provided the North for a cheap source of labor to work in factories. Infrastructure was important in the North's growth. The railroads ran east to west and North East to Midwest. These railroads help moving things around cheaply like food around quickly and provided transportation.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    Henry Clay introduced the resolutions on January, 29,1850. This compromise is made of 5 bills. The compromise was supposed help the crisis between the North and South. The first bill allowed California to be a free state. Secondly, New Mexico and Utah decide whether is they want to allow slavery (Popular sovereignty). Third, Texas gives up to the United States government and had absorb it debt. Fourth, slave trade was banned in Washington, D.C.. Lasty, it had enacted the Fugitive Slave Act.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    The underground railroad was made up of networks of safe houses, routes, and helpers, abolitionist, help slaves escape the South. This was a secretive network and was very dangerous. This was da Harriet Tubman was one of the most famous "conductors". She was able save 5,000 slaves and take them to the North. Canada was the ultimate destination for slaves due to them outlawing slavery. 100,000 slaves were freed between 1830-1860. Plantation owners would hire people who would these slaves back.
  • Kansas - Nebraska Act

    Kansas - Nebraska Act
    The Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed in 1854. The act was proposed by Stephen Douglas and the president at the time, Franklin Pierce pushing the act through. It had also repealed Missouri Compromise with the 36* 30* line going away. Popular sovereignty had replaced it letting the state choose whether they want to be a slave state or not. As of the result, Kansas turned into a slave state and Nebraska was a free state. These act further divided the North and South on the issue of slavery.
  • Dred Scott v. Sanford

    Dred Scott v. Sanford
    This was a landmark case for the Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS). Dred Scott sued his master for his freedom. He had resided in a free state and territory where slavery was allowed. The supreme court had concluded that Scott wasn't free in the first place and that slaves do not have a right to a trial. It had also ruled that congress can't regulate slavery in the territories. This had further escalated the tensions between sections of the country bringing it closer to a civil war.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    The election of 1860 was a race between 3 candidates. John Breckinridge was the Democrat official leader and John Bell was the unofficial. Each of the candidates appealed to different regions of the country. The Democrat party was hugely divided and the Republicans see this as a chance. Abraham Lincoln of the Republicans won the election in party due to the divisions in the Democrat Party. With the election of Lincoln, the south was upset and it led them to secede from the Union.
  • Civil War - North

    Civil War - North
    The Civil War should've been an easy win for the North. The North had a big population standing at 22 million people. They were heavily industrialized with 110,000 factories making it a $1.5 billion industry. They made 97% of weapons were manufactured, 94% of clothes, & 90% of shoes/boots. They also have 30,000 miles of track stretching across the union for transporting. One disadvantage they had was poor military leadership. They would fight to uphold the constitution & preserve the union.
  • Civil War - South

    Civil War - South
    The South had many disadvantages. The population is smaller than the North's standing at 9 million while slaves accounted 4 million. Industrialization wasn't big with 18000 factories strong and a $155 million industry. Only 3% of weapons were manufactured. They also have 9000 miles of railroads tracks for transportation. One strength of the South would be strong military leadership like Robert E. Lee. They compared themselves as patriots and hope to gain european allies like Great Britain.
  • Slaves

    Border states were essential to the civil war. Both sides try to gain influence of them. Those states were MIssouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware. The South need them for the industry and war population. The North let me keep their slaves if they join them. After the Battle of Antietam, President Abraham Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation which declare slaves free. Slaves started fleeing North after the proclamation was announced. BOrder states were allowed to keep their slaves.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    Robert E. Lee forces decides to invade the North & both side converge on Gettysburg, Pittsburgh. It started on July 1 & end on July 3. On the last day of the battle, the Union charged up the center at confederates with their bayonets forcing Lee to retreat and had lost a third of his forces. This battle would be the most important battle of the war & bloodiest. It also proved to the turning point in the war favoring the Union. All of this leads up to the Gettysburg Address by President Lincoln.
  • Election of 1864

    Election of 1864
    This election was between Abraham Lincoln (republican) and George McClellan, former general under Lincoln (democrat). Lincoln was running for re-election was actually scared this time that he would lose the election. Northerners were weary of the war. Northern democrats attack Lincoln's setback in order to gain ground. But thanks to General William T. Sherman's capture of Atlanta, a major industrial city for the South, help Lincoln secured his win and was re-elected into office for a 2nd term.
  • Women at work

    Women at work
    Women had changing roles from the usual traditional roles of women during the war. Thanks to the war, it had gave generally made dominant positions to women. They had replaced males as teachers, nurses, civil service jobs like city's district of representatives, store managers, farms, and plantations owners in the South. Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross. At first, she helped distribute supplies needed in the Union, but later on to help soldiers on boths sides of the war.
  • Assassination

    On the night of April 4, 1885, President Lincoln and his wife attended a play at Ford's Theater in Washington D.C. He was sitting in a booth from above. The assassination was 5 days after General Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse ending the Civil War. John Wilkes Booth got into Lincoln's booth and shot him in the head, then escaping. Doctors couldn't save him and dies the next day. HIs funeral attracted millions of people on the railroad where he was buried in Springfield, Illinois.
  • Lincoln's 10% Plan

    Lincoln's 10% Plan
    They were 2 plans of reconstruction for the South. Lincoln's 10% Plan & Wade-Davis Bill. Lincoln's plan was also called Amnesty & Reconstruction 1863. His plan included the pardon of all southerners, except confederate officers/officials. A southern state could be readmitted into the Union once 10% of population voted. Confederate soldiers/officials had to the oath of loyalty. States had to apply for federal recognition & was given a new state government & constitution was needed to be approved.
  • Freedmen's Bureau

    Freedmen's Bureau
    Freedmen's Bureau was established in 1865 by the United States government and was a relief agency for mostly blacks & poor whites in the South after the Civil war. It was also the main institution for reconstruction. They provided them with food, education which included adults, & emergency services. They confiscated land from the white for agriculture to give to the blacks (40 acres & mule). The bureau wasn't able to fully carry out their goals due to the politics of racism and reconstruction.
  • Black Codes

    Black Codes
    Series of laws that limited equal civil rights & economic opportunity for blacks across the South & had make blacks an exploitable workforce. These codes also outlawed interracial marriage & from blacks serving on juries. Vagrancy laws was also implemented. Blacks were arrested for wandering even though they don't have a house. They were forced to work on plantation to pay a fine with little pay. Children of vagrant were also forced to work as "apprentice" till 21 and have to sign a contract.
  • Freedom amendments

    Freedom amendments
    The freedom amendments are the 13, 14, 15th amendments. These amendments are sometimes called the civil right amendments. The 13th amendment abolished the slavery and was passed by Lincoln and radical republicans before the war ended. The 14th amendment defines citizen as born in the United States and that they are entitled to equal protection under the law. The 15th amendment gave universal male suffrage for blacks. It was necessary to protect black votes. Women also wanted suffrage.
  • Andrew Johnson administration

    Andrew Johnson administration
    Andrew Johnson became president after Lincoln's assassination. He opposed secession & was racist. He promoted a lenient readmission policy which included an oath, a return of all property, renounce the succession, & ratify the 13th amendment. High ranking confederates were also pardoned. Most states had failed to live up to these terms. Johnson was impeached by congress in 1868 & was the first to do so. He one vote away from being ousted from office with less than a year left in his term.
  • Election of 1868

    Election of 1868
    This was the first election in the reconstruction era and between republican Ulysses S. Grant and democrat Horatio Seymour. Grant was politically moderate and wanted peace. This election showed how racist the North and South was. Black vote was important, but violence and intimidation came along with blacks voting. Grant advantages was the that he was popular in the North, give freedmen voting in the South, and disenfranchisement of the whites in the South. This lead Grant winning the election.
  • Election of 1876

    Election of 1876
    The election was between Samuel Tilden, democrat, & Rutherford Hayes, republican. This election were influenced by previous administration corruption, reconstruction issues, & poor economy health were hoped to be fixed. The popular vote when to Tilden, but electoral votes was unclear. The compromise of 1877 gave Hayes all the electoral votes and agrees to end reconstruction. He won and started to remove all troops from the South. This was the beginning of total suppression for southern blacks.
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