1301 Timeline Project

Timeline created by kellchavez
  • 350

    The Olmecs

    The Olmecs
    The Olmec were an important and first advanced civilization in Mesoamerica. They are known as the mother culture of all mesoamerican civilizations. The Olmec civilization stretched a long way. They did things such as bloodletting, and creating Pyramids. They are also known today for their carved head figures. The Olmec's had influence on later cultures like the Maya and Aztecs. They affected beliefs, traditions, art, and architecture that was found in civilizations that came to be after theirs.
  • 476

    Dark Ages

    Dark Ages
    The Dark Ages were a fall backwards, there was no growing. This also caused a weaker economy. This was when cultural/educational domination by the catholic church occurred. Overall, this was a "chaotic time". Many unfortunate events occurred during the Dark Ages, such as, the fall of the Western Roman Empire, many conflicts with empires and treaties, the Great Famine, and more. Many claim that their is so many things still unknown from this time, since it was a major downfall instead of growth.
  • 900


    The Maya continued many of the traditions that began with the Olmec. However, they also "introduced ballgame, calendars, human sacrifice, and the caste system".The calendar was important to the Maya because it helped them know the best times to attack enemies, crown rulers, or to plant at correct times. They also were big with mathematics. To help them calculate solar years, and they believed that each day God would control how it worked. They also believed that human sacrifice pleased the Gods.
  • 1193

    The Crusades

    The Crusades
    The Crusades were a set of wars fought between Christians and their enemies, who were The Muslims, in order to regain Christian territory. People who would fight in the war were promised to receive indulgences. Both the Muslims and Christians had their fair share of wins, recapturing land. The Crusades were important to American history because of the technological advancements in navigation, these technologies later helped European exploration of the New World.
  • 1400

    The Black Death

    The Black Death
    The Black Death (also known as the Bubonic Plague) was a terrible plague that came from Eastern and Central Asia to Europe from 1347-1351. It killed about one third of the percentage of the European population. It was transferred by fleas on rats who traveled in cargo ships. In the process of getting infected, first, the ships would dock and unload, second, the rats would jump off and enter the city, third, the flies would leave the rats and land on humans, biting them and leaving them infected.
  • 1400

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance
    The Renaissance was a time also known as a rebirth. It was a big cultural movement. The Renaissance spread from Northern Italy to the rest of Europe. This era emphasized education, art, and critical thinking. The Renaissance imported technology and new ideas, classical ideas were also reborn. More artistry occurred, and artists wanted to revive the learning of the Greeks and Roman. Much more artistry occurred apart from that too, such as classic realism in sculpture, painting, and printing press
  • 1400

    Bering Land Bridge

    Bering Land Bridge
    The Bering Land Bridge was a bridge over 1,000 miles long, and it was connected to North America from a land bridge on the Bering Strait. It was used for people to migrate to North America. This bridge also joined Alaska and eastern Siberia. During an ice age, when the majority of the earth's water supply was stuck in glacial ice, sea levels dropped and this bridge emerged from the ocean and connected the two continents. Different civilizations used it to go to the Americas. People did cross it.
  • 1400


    The Aztecs were an ancient meso-american culture or civilization who arrived in central Mexico around the valleys. The capital of the Aztec Empire was Tenochititlan. Tenochititlan was a city with huge pyramid temples, big store houses and palaces. When huge stones needed to move, the Aztecs would use long thick ropes and wooden logs. The Aztecs defeated the Teponecs in a war and after went to work on building their aqueduct system.
  • 1454

    Amerigo Vespucci

    Amerigo Vespucci
    Being an Italian born merchant and explorer, Vespucci took part in early voyages of the New World with Spain around the late 15th century. Early accounts of Vespucci's voyages quickly spread throughout Europe. In 1507, a map was created naming what Vespucci discovered, the territory now known as South America was named in Vespucci honor. The times he made his voyages were between 1497- 1504. One of his most important contributions was exploring what he thought was Asia, but was actually America.
  • 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    Columbian Exchange
    The Columbian exchange was the exchange of things from the new and old world. Things interchanged were plants, animals, diseases, cultures, technology, ideas, and more. The exchange lasted for many years during the time of exploration. It affected many cultural and social makeups, especially in the Atlantic. The Columbian exchange is also what spread many different religions. In the long run, The Columbian Exchange circulated large amounts of livestock and crops that helped the populations.
  • 1492

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus
    Christopher Columbus was an explorer who while searching for a sea route to the indies, found the new world. He made a total of 4 trips from Spain to across the Atlantic ocean. Starting in 1492, the others trips were made in 1493, 1498, and 1502. He intended to find a water route from Europe to Asia, but instead explored land that is now the United States. His three ships were called Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria. Christopher Columbus helped lead the beginning of Spanish colonization.
  • 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    Treaty of Tordesillas
    Taking place in 1494, this treaties purpose was to separate Spain (west portion of South America) and Portugal's (east portion of South America) rights and to settle any disputes. This brought an end to exploration rivalry. Spains advantages were gaining western portion of south america, and creating profitable colonies in the americas.
  • 1500

    The Middle Passage

    The Middle Passage
    The Middle Passage were routes in which ships carrying slaves used to transport slaves from West Africa to the Americas. It was in use from 1500 to 1850. Around 11 million slaves were transported during the Middle Passage. Out of those 11 million being transported only 9.6 million ended up in the Americas. Large amounts of slaves died due to malnourished or disease that ravaged the slaves. But the slaves were eventually treated better before the end of the middle passage to attract more buyers.
  • 1500

    The Atlantic Slave Trade

    The Atlantic Slave Trade
    The Atlantic Slave Trade was a trade of where millions of Africans were shipped and captured across the Atlantic ocean. This was for them to be sold as slaves in the Americas. When the natives started to die out more slaves were needed to work their land for them, causing the Atlantic Slave Trade. Many slaves wouldn't even make it all the way, 10-20% died because of the poor living conditions in the Middle Passage (scarce food, etc) It lasted for quite a while, between the 1500s and the 1800s.
  • 1503

    Encomienda System

    Encomienda System
    The Encomienda System was a Spanish system that was controlling over Natives in many parts of the Americas. This system included giving royal grants of land from the Spanish to Spaniards, the ability to force natives on the land to work the plantation - like forced labor, the Spanish promised to Christianize natives living in the Americas. Natives were treated poorly. They faced heavy manual laboring, building roads and infrastructure along with laboring on plantations.
  • The Reformation

    The Reformation
    The Reformation was a religious movement in Europe that started because of the questioning of Catholic authority. It was led by reformers like Martin Luther and John Calvin. It began with events like Martin Luther's 95 Theses, Henry the VIII's start of the Church of England, and ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. It was the base of the Protestant religion and other branches breaking away from the Catholic church. Later these religions went to the New World to avoid persecution.
  • Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    The Triangular Trade was a shaped trading route that consisted of the colonies Europe, Africa, and The Indies. In triangle route one, colonies sent rum, iron, gunpowder etc to the indies, The Indies sent sugar, molasses and slaves to the colonies. In triangle route two The Indies sent molasses fruit and wood to England and they sent back iron, cloth and weapons In triangle route three the colonies sent rice sugar, furs etc. England send cloth and manufacture goods to the indies, who sent slaves.
  • Fur Trade

    Fur Trade
    Beginning in the 1500's, the Fur Trade was a trade where furs were being traded for goods such as tools and weapons. People such as Indians and Europeans were heavily involved. This trade was successful because there was a great demand for fur that had developed in Europe. The furs that were traded consisted of beaver, marten, mink, otter, and more. Some animals were even becoming extinct due to lots of hunting from the great demands. This affected beavers the most, they were the most valuable.
  • Indentured Servitude

    Indentured Servitude
    Indentured Servitude was a term for someone who was contracted to work for a "master" for a set amount of time, and this was in exchange for their passage to the colonies. Most of the contracts lasted seven years. Indentured servants often faced hard conditions and were not treated respectfully. When indentured servants finished their terms they were given things to help them start their own lives, such as clothing, tools, gun, land, etc. They were also able to start their very own farms.
  • Tobacco

    In 1612, John Rolfe introduced tobacco to the colony of Jamestown. The tobacco he introduced became the very first successful cash crop in the colonies. Because it was their largest export, it benefited the economy greatly and allowed them lots of growth. Tobacco also helped the indentured servant system because there was a need for labor to grow this crop. It brought in several people and it greatly expanded the colony.
  • Slavery

    Slavery was the condition of being owned by someone else and being forced to work, without making any wages or profit. African American people would be captured, transported, and sold as slaves. European settlers in North America turned to African slaves as a cheaper labor source than having indentured servants. Around 6 to 7 million slaves were imported to the new world in the 18th century alone. Slaves were usually mistreated. Many slave trades occurred such as the Trans-Atlantic slave trade.
  • The Mayflower Compact

    The Mayflower Compact
    The Mayflower Compact (signed November 21st, 1620) was the first agreement to do with self-government in American history. It was also the foundation for the Plymouth's government. It helped establish laws and social rules. One of the laws was that adult males, not including servants, had the right to vote on different things they wanted for the colony. The Mayflower Compact was one of the first examples of democracy for the colonies
  • Navigation Acts

    Navigation Acts
    The Navigation Acts were laws that regulated trade between England and its colonies. Only ships could carry goods from colonies to other places. Colonies had to ship certain goods to England for processing and distribution. The Navigation Acts were passes in the 1650's by the English Parliament. The Navigation Acts regulated trade between England and its colonies, but its purpose was to ensure that only England benefited from colonial trade. England resulted in having more jobs and more money.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    The Glorious Revolution occurred in 1688-89 when William of Orange and Mary, his wife, were asked to overthrow James ll for the sake of Protestantism, when Will came with his Army and James fled, thus being bloodless and fast. It was a shift from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. When William lll and Mary ll were crowned they would govern according to the laws of Parliament and not the laws of the monarchy. A Bill of Rights was made later that year accepted by William and Mary.
  • The Salem Witch Trials

    The Salem Witch Trials
    The Salem Witch Trials began during the spring of 1962, when a group of young girls in Salem Village, Massachusetts, were accused of being possessed by the devil/affected by witch craft. This made people start accusing others of using witchcraft as well. In total, 20 people were executed during these trials, although there was never enough evidence to convict anyone. If someone innocent was accused they were still treated poorly and tested to be a witch. The Salem Witch Trials lasted until 1693.
  • Act of Union (1707)

    Act of Union (1707)
    The Act of Union (1707) was an act passed by the Scottish and English parliaments. This act unified the two countries. The act was signed on January 16, 1707, and on May 1st, 1707 the Scottish parliament ended and the United Kingdom of Great Britain was created. It was important because Great Britain's focus was on the union, therefore British law was not enforced in the colonies. This allowed the colonies to have more control over local government and a bigger sense of independence.
  • Steam Engine

    Steam Engine
    The Steam Engine, invented by Thomas Savery in 1698 but reinvented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712, played a highly significant role in the Industrial Revolution. This was because the Steam Engine was a big advancement in transportation. The Steam Engine allowed for people to travel faster than they could before and it even helped the United States with its expansion into the west. The Steam Engine also provided a need for labor, to build and lay down tracks.
  • The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment
    The Enlightenment was a cultural movement focused on reason, science, and intellect. It affected the American colonies because it suggested following reason over blind faith and religion. Ideas explored in the age of Enlightenment were the basis for very important documents such as the constitution. Concepts like natural rights also blossomed in this time period furthering the development of America being built on the foundation of democracy rather than religion.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    The First Great Awakening had effects on British North America in the 1730's and 1740's. This Awakening emphasized human decision in matters of religion and morality. It was meant to purify religion from material distractions and to renew ones' personal faith in God. The movement was a reaction against the spread of skepticism during the Enlightenment of the 1700's. It made people more passionate about religion. Before the First Great Awakening, religious piety had been waning in the colonies.
  • Paul Revere

    Paul Revere
    Paul Revere was an American patriot in the American Revolution. Paul Revere is most known for alerting colonial invasion before the Battles of Lexington and Concord. Revere was a prosperous and prominent Boston silversmith who helped organize an alarm system for keeping watch on the British military, he let others know when they were coming. He was also apart of the Sons of Liberty group. Revere is very significant because he was also apart of the Midnight ride, and the Boston Tea Party as well
  • Thomas Paine

    Thomas Paine
    Born in Great Britain in 1737, Thomas Paine is best known for his literary contributions to the revolutionary cause. Thomas Paine wrote the pamphlets Common Sense and he wrote The American Crisis. Paine promoted human rights. He believed in God but denied the authority of the Bible, and he also believed that people tend to loose sight in morality, humanity, and theology. He criticized tyranny, monarchy and slavery. In 1792 he was tried for seditious libel in Great Britain after his publications.
  • Slave Clodes

    Slave Clodes
    The Slave Codes were a series of laws established in each state against slaves to give the owners complete power. (these laws varied by state) They were established out of fear because of slave rebellions, which is why one of the laws prohibited slaves from owning weapons. Others laws, like prohibiting slaves from reading and writing, were put in place to have more control over slaves and to make it harder for them to communicate.
  • French and Indian War

    French and Indian War
    The French and Indian war was fought between England and France for control of certain lands in North America. It was fought between 1754 till 1763. The Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War and gave control of all French land in North America to England. It was also known as the Seven Years War. The Stamp Act and The Sugar Act were two taxes levied by the British to help pay for the French and Indian war. Although the British won the war, they still faced pressing colonial problems.
  • Fort William Henry

    Fort William Henry
    The Fort William Henry was a British fort that fell to the french in 1757, after being constructed in September of 1755. After its fall, it showed the Natives that the French were winning, the Natives wanted to become the French's allies. The Fort William Henry was also the site of horrendous atrocities committed by the Huron tribes who were against the surrendered British and troops following the successful French siege in 1757. Forth William Henry was abandoned, but became a museum/attraction.
  • Fort Duquesne

    Fort Duquesne
    The Fort Duquesne was a very significant part of the French and Indian War. The fort belonged to the French and was a very significant location at the intersection of the Ohio Rivers which allowed for trade with the Native Americans. The Americans attempted to take it on September 14, 1758, which resulted in a battle. This was a push into the French and Indian War.
  • The Treaty of Paris (1763)

    The Treaty of Paris (1763)
    The Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian war in 1763. This treaty stated that France would give up all its territory in mainland North America. Although this was a major win for Britain and the colonies, it only furthered the tensions between them, leaving them with major war debt.
  • Townshend Act

    Townshend Act
    The Townshend Act passed in 1767. Townshend Act taxed lead, glass, paper, tea, and paint. Parliament was aware that collected and enforcing these taxes could be difficult so they hired royal custom commissioners to do so. when parliament gave the commissioners the power to search homes and private warehouses for stolen or smuggled items that had entered the colonies without payment of the customs duties. American resistance to the Townshend Acts would be firm. This was similar to the stamp act.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre (March 5, 1770) was when British soldiers in Boston opened fire on a group of American colonists. Resulting in the killing of five men. It began with a small argument between British Private, Hugh White, and some other colonists. More and more would gather and there ended up being over 50 colonists at the scene. A local British officer captain Thomas Preston sent soldiers over to the custom house to keep everyone in order. But the sight of these soldiers just angered more.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    The Olive Branch Petition was sent by the second Continental congress to King George lll, and it stated that it was a request to settle their differences peacefully without going to war. King George lll rejected the petition. King George lll claimed the colonies were to be in open rebellion. The significance of the Olive Branch Petition was that it was evident that this this was a point of no return for them. It would set the fate of the colonies. If they loose the war, they risk being executed.
  • The Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence was written by the founding fathers on July 4th, 1776 and signed on August 2nd, 1776. It declared the colonies independence from England, talked about basic rights and it listed complains that the colonies had against the British government. This was one of the most significant documents in American history. The Declaration of Independence stated America as a independent nation and gave a base for the rights that would be discussed in the constitution
  • The Articles of Confederation

    The Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation were the first constitution agreement of the newly independent colonies. The Articles of Confederation set up a base of what the national government was supposed to be, however since anything not reserved by the federal government was left for the states, the Articles of Confederation created a weak national government. The absence of a strong central government also led to a difficulty in establishing foreign relations. Many people were not in favor of the AOC.
  • Treaty Of Paris

    Treaty Of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris (Signed September 3rd, 1783) ended the American Revolutionary war. Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and John Adams negotiated this peace treaty with Great Britain. In the Treaty of Paris, the British Crown formally noticed American independence and ceded most of its territory east of the Mississippi River to the United States, doubling the size of the new nation and helping the start of westward expansion. This treaty took a long time since the British had to agree with the US.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    "Shay's Rebellion" was a series of protests by farmers that were focused on revolting against tax collections and other pro debtor laws. But the laws happened to be the government of Massachusetts way of dealing with an economic crisis. These laws had heavily affected farmers, some even had their farms seized. "Shay's Rebellion" is significant in American history because it is one of the first major events that contributed to the making of the new constitution.
  • The Virginia Plan

    The Virginia Plan
    The Virginia Plan (writtten by James Madison and proposed by Edmund Randolph) was for the Constitutional Convention.. The Virginia Plan was an outline for the constitution. It proposed three branches of government to create checks and balances. It also proposed the idea of a legislature. Overall, it focused on enforcing a strong central government. It was very important because it helped shape the constitution.
  • The Northwest Ordinance

    The Northwest Ordinance
    The Northwest Ordinance was an ordinance passed in 1787 that allowed a method for the admission of new states into the Union. It stated that once a territory reached a population of 60,000 people, the territory would be allowed to petition for state hood. It settled a basis for the northwest territories government, and for admissions into the Union. The United States was under the Articles of Confederation while this was passed.
  • The Connecticut Plan

    The Connecticut Plan
    The Connecticut Plan was proposed by Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth to the constitutional convention on July 16th, 1787. It proposed a solution to the debate between smaller and larger states on the issue of representation in the Senate. It suggested the idea that in the House of Representatives each state’s number of seats based on population and in the Senate, all states would have the same number of seats.
  • Election of 1789

    Election of 1789
    The Election of 1789 is very significant because it was the first presidential election in the United States. George Washington was elected President with 69 electoral votes and John Adams was elected vice president with 34 electoral votes. George Washington ran unopposed. Before this election the US was under the AOC. This was the first time that the people got to exercise their right to vote in the new nation. But at this time the only people who could vote were white men who owned property.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    The Whiskey Rebellion (1791-1794) was a protest or rebellion against an excise tax on whiskey, that resulted in lots of violence. The tax on whiskey happened due to Americas high debt. The protests threatened the stability of the new government, so in 1794, George Washington who was the current president led a militia to stop the revolt. The Whiskey Rebellion happened on the western frontier regions, but mostly western Pennsylvania. This event was the first big challenge to federal authority.
  • Bank of the U.S

    Bank of the U.S
    The First Bank of the United States (1791-1811), which was proposed by Alexander Hamilton (treasury secretary), was solely created for help to repair the United States economy. Other purposes were to collect tax revenues, transfer money, and pay bills of the gov. At this time, the United States government was in massive debt from the Revolutionary war. This required a standard form of currency as well. After 1811 it was up to Congress to approve or deny the renewal of the bank and it's charter.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    The Bill of Rights (written by James Madison) was composed of the first 10 amendments in the constitution. It was a list of amendments that put a limit on government power and that protected the peoples natural rights. The amendments were written in response to the people asking for a greater protection of individual liberties from the federal government. Without these amendments the government would have the power to take away rights and people would not be protected like they should be.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    The Cotton Gin, invented by Eli Whitney (1793) was a very important agricultural advance. It was important because it helped pull seeds from cotton faster, meaning that mass production was starting and the southern economy would rely on agriculture more than before. It also brought an increase in slavery, due to the need for more cotton production. It helped the industrial revolution, there was more need for machines to manufacture cotton into clothes. Cotton was in high demand as well.
  • Jay's Treaty

    Jay's Treaty
    The purpose of Jay's treaty was to settle disputes between the British and the Americans that were unresolved in the revolution. The motivation for this treaty was to create a bargain so a war would not be started with England. It succeeded in removing British troops from the Ohio Valley and made it possible for American ships to trade with both England and France. However, the French began to attack U.S. merchant ships after the treaty had been signed because they felt it violated their treaty.
  • Election of 1796

    Election of 1796
    The Election of 1796 was the first big political contest between federalists and republicans. In this election, John Adams was nominated for president by federalists and he ended up winning the election. Thomas Jefferson was nominated president by the democrats and republicans, and he ended up being vice president to John Adams. This was the only presidential election in which a president and VP got elected from opposing tickets.
  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

    Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
    The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (secretly written by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison) were written in response to Alien and Sedition Acts, and because it was believed that the acts were unconstitutional. They attacked the ideas of the Alien Sedition Acts. After the strict regulations put in place by the alien and sedition acts, the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were written to argue that the federal government could not go outside of powers stated in the constitution.
  • Election of 1800

    Election of 1800
    The Election of 1800 was a significant event in American history because it resulted in the creation of the 12th amendment. Thomas Jefferson, Aaron Burr and John Adams were running to be president. (3rd president of the US) Burr and Jefferson tied but the house of representatives elected Jefferson as president, and Burr was elected vice. It was also important because Thomas Jefferson won the election, and he was an important figure in the shaping of early America.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    In 1803, the United States, under Jefferson, brought the Louisiana territory from France. (under the rule of Napoleon) The United States paid $15 million. Because of this Napoleon gave up his empire in North America, it also helped because Napoleon needed money for France. This was important because it paved the way for westward exploration and expansion. This purchase was finalized on April 30th, 1803. The land that was purchased is equal to 15 states in the US and two Canadian provinces.
  • The Embargo Act of 1807

    The Embargo Act of 1807
    The Embargo Act was a law passed by Congress on December 22, 1807. It was created because there was trading problems between France, America, and Britain. The purpose of the embargo was for prohibiting the US vessels from trading in order for them to stop harassing American ships. This act forbid all exportation of goods from the US. An affect the Embargo Act of 1807 had on American shipping and marketing was that a lot of its earnings fell.
  • The Underground Railroad

    The Underground Railroad
    The Underground Railroad was a secret system carried out by abolitionists to hide and protect slaves that were escaping enslavement from the south up into the north. The Underground railroad was the biggest anti-slavery movement in North America. It brought more than 30,000 escaped slaves to British North America. Harriet Tubman was a big part of the Underground Railroad. Although born a slave, Harriet Tubman escaped slavery and dedicated time to help others escape using the Underground railroad
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    Some of the causes that led to the war of 1812 were Britain's seizure of american ships, impressment of sailors, belief by Americans that the British were arming native Americans and encouraging them to begin a riot, and Americas pure resentment of Britain.This war started in 1812 and lasted until 1814, however, the fighting stopped in 1815 because there was no communication of the treaty being signed to end the war. After the war of 1812, America became more isolated.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    The Battle of New Orleans (Jan 8, 1815) was the last and most significant battle in the War of 1812. Andrew Jackson led a very diverse army which included slaves, pirates, and Indians who were unaware of a peace treaty being signed a couple of weeks earlier. This was the most important battle in the war because it was won by America, boosting patriotism. It also labeled Andrew Jackson as a hero earning him a large following that later led him to become president.
  • The New Bank

    The New Bank
    The second bank of the United States was created in 1816 after a bad economic downturn. It was established by congress and meant to serve as a depository for federal funds and as government financial agents. However, just like the first, it failed in 1836. At this time, James Madison was president and this bank was part of his significance.
  • Mcculloch vs Maryland

    Mcculloch vs Maryland
    Mcculloch vs Maryland was a supreme court case regarding the Second National Bank of the U.S. This was a major case because it explored and helped establish differences in federal and state powers. It also strengthened federal authority and constitutionality of the bank of the US by stating that Maryland did not have the power to tax the bank. The case was basically won by Mcculloch because the supreme court ruled the tax went against constitutional and federal powers.
  • The Panic of 1819

    The Panic of 1819
    The Panic of 1819 was a regression in the country's economy after the War of 1812. Many banks in the country failed, many mortgages were closed resulting in people having to be forced off their homes or farms. Falling prices also caused the trigger of widespread unemployment and a decline in agriculture and manufacturing. The Panic of 1819 was the first major depression/ major financial crisis in United States history.
  • The Temperance Movement

    The Temperance Movement
    The Temperance Movement was a movement against the consumption of alcohol, that was usually led by women. This movement encouraged people to reduce alcohol consumption. Men would come home intoxicated and beat/mistreat their wives thus giving a reason for the push towards abstinence of alcohol. People protested against alcohol using moral reasoning and talk of the health issues it presented.
  • The Adams-Onis Treaty

    The Adams-Onis Treaty
    The Adams-Onis treaty (also called the transcontinental treaty) was a treaty concerning the selling of Florida from Spain to the U.S. Although Spain received no money, the United States assumed responsibility for five million dollars worth of damage the Americans caused in the rebellion against Spain. The results of this treaty were Spain gave Florida to the United States the United States gave up claims to Texas, and Spain gave up land. It was signed in 1819 but became effective in 1821.
  • Mormons

    The Mormon church (also known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints) was founded on April 6th, 1823. It was founded by Joseph Smith, who claimed to have golden tablets that God gave him the power to read, he basically claimed he was guided by an angel. People were very skeptical and judged the Mormons, persecuting them and causing them to move west to find land to create a Mormon community free of persecution. One of the reasons Mormons were heavily judged was due to polygamy.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine was a foreign policy statement that was originally set forth in 1823, and it created a sphere of Europeans and american influences. It was created due to the US and Britain being concerned over the possible European colonial expansion in the Americas. Britain especially feared that Spain would attempt to reclaim its former colonies which at the time recently gained independence.
  • The Election of 1828

    The Election of 1828
    The Election of 1882 was very important because it was the start of campaigns using personal attacks and several other campaigning strategies that have created a system of modern politics. It was known as Andrew Jackson's "revenge" since he spent the last four years constantly attacking Adams. Then, Jackson won the electoral votes and also started the political movement of the Jacksonian Democracy. Jackson's presidency brought the idea of "the common man."
  • Telegraph

    The Telegraph (invented in 1830) was a groundbreaking invention created by Samuel Morse. It was a machine that sent out electric signals on wires. The Telegraph greatly increased the speed at which messages were sent. It was extremely important because it was the first form of long-distance communication and played a major role in the civil war. Before the invention of the telegraph, messages would take longer to get across, long distance messages were only by horse or ship.
  • Transcendentalism

    Transcendentalism was a literary and philosophical movement, pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson, that put emphasis on celebrating individualism, self reliance, emotions, the truth in communication found with God and nature as well as with personal imagination, and freedom from social constraints. It started in the 1830s and 1840s. The people who dominated the Transcendentalist movement were highly educated thinkers that were from New England.
  • Indian Removal Act of 1830

    Indian Removal Act of 1830
    The Indian Removal Act was signed by Andrew Jackson on May 28th, 1830. It was a law that allowed the U.S government to move the Indians out and take their land. Indians were basically forced off their lands to move east of the Mississippi River. Some tried to stay by practicing their methods of farming and education to not be forced off their land, but it didn't always work. The path the Indians took while leaving their land became known as the Trail of Tears, on which about 4,000 died.
  • The Tariff Act of 1828

    The Tariff Act of 1828
    The Tariff Act (also known as the Tariff of abominations) was established on July 14th, 1803. The tariff would make it more expensive for Great Britain to export their finished products to the U.S, it was to protect american industry. They would then have less money for purchasing their essential raw materials, which was the Souths bigger source of income. The southern states were hurt because of inflated prices. This tariff was made under John Quincy Adams, and it hurt his reputation.
  • Nat Turners Slave Rebellion

    Nat Turners Slave Rebellion
    Nat Turner’s Slave Rebellion was a revolt that took place on August 21st, 1831 in Southampton Virginia. This slave rebellion occurred in 48 hours. In those 48 hours groups of slaves attempted to overthrow and killed planter families. It was led by Nat Turner. This slave rebellion was a crucial part of history because it was the 1st time that there was a successful revolt of slaves against white people. Virginia put suppressive policies in place as a response.
  • The Nullification Crisis

    The Nullification Crisis
    In response to the tariff of 1838, which was highly unpopular in the south, John Calhoun brought forth the theory of Nullification. It stated that states could nullify federal laws that they considered unconstitutional. This created a large debate over the constitution and brought up another issue which was the balance of powers between the federal and state government. It was issues like this that created tensions between states and the federal government.
  • Election of 1832

    Election of 1832
    In the Election of 1832, the biggest issue was that Jackson was very determined to kill the national bank. Jackson who was a democrat ran against Henry Clay who was a republican. For the first time during the Election of 1832, a few national conventions were held in able to nominate candidates. Jackson beat Clay in the election, leaving clay with his third loss. Jackson spent most of his second term dealing with the issues of the Bank of America.
  • Election of 1836

    Election of 1836
    In the Election of 1836, Martin Van Buren (Democrat) defeated several candidates of the Whig Party, which was led by William Henry Harrison. The Whig Party even had three candidates run to try and deprive Martin Van Buren by the majority. Although they tried to get Van Buren to loose, this strategy didn't work, it failed and Martin Van Buren ended up winning the election.
  • Lowell Mills

    Lowell Mills
    The Lowell Mills refer to mills that were a big part of the industrial revolution, and even became the center of it in America. The Lowell Mills introduced a new system of manufacturing and helped start trends in the industrial work life. They had over 8,000 factory girls and children (typically from farming backgrounds) that worked the textile machines and looms and spent long hours working for little pay in harsh working conditions. They were known as "mill girls" or "factory girls."
  • Oregon Trail

    Oregon Trail
    The Oregon Trail was a 2,000 mile trail that people took when traveling west during the westward expansion era. It stretched over two hundred miles and passed through what is modern day Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho, Nevada, California, and Utah. People emigrated to Oregon in hopes of claiming land and settling there. Some also hoped to participate in the Fur Trade. Unfortunately around one in ten who took the trail didn't survive due to diseases, or accidents caused by inexperience or exhaustion.
  • Election of 1840

    Election of 1840
    The Election of 1840 was when William Henry Harrison became the 9th president of the US. William Henry Harrison was the very first member of the Whig party to be elected as president. But his presidency was short. During the campaign, Harrison was mocked for being of old age. Democrats would say he was too old and too out of touch to be the nations chief executive. But the Whigs turned this around on the Democrats, with Harrison's success.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    Manifest Destiny was the belief that the United States was destined by God to stretch from coast to coast to expand its dominion and to spread democracy plus capitalism across all of North America. Fulfilling manifest destiny was the ultimate goal of westward expansion.The idea was built upon with the more land the country acquired and explored. The biggest impact of manifest destiny was that the United States got much wealthier and bigger. Most of the effects of Manifest Destiny were positive.
  • Annexation of Texas

    Annexation of Texas
    The Annexation of Texas (December 29th, 1845) was significant because it led to a war with Mexico in 1846. Texas was annexed and it became the 28th state. The thought of annexing Texas was very popular in the South but it was thought of in a negative way by the North. Some pros of annexation were money from the US would help pay debts and that Texas received protection from the United States army from Native Americans. A con was that many people wanted to keep Texas as an independent republic.
  • The Mexican American War

    The Mexican American War
    The Mexican American War began in 1846 over border disputes. The United States annexed Texas and Mexico then challenged the border. Congress officially declared war on May 13th. Mexico was led by the General Antonio López de Santa Anna and the United States was led by General Winfield Scott. On Feb. 2, 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed ending the war with the United States winning and securing more land. This treaty gave Mexicos northern lands to the United States.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    The Wilmot Proviso was a bill created with the purpose of banning slavery in the land that was acquired by the United States, after the Mexican American War. It was called the Wilmot Proviso because it was proposed by David Wilmot, a Pennsylvanian Congressman. This created lots of controversy having to do with union states and slavery, adding to tensions that let to the civil war. Southern senators, led by John. C Calhoun defeated the Wilmot Provisio leading to its failure in 1846-1847
  • Election of 1848

    Election of 1848
    The Election of 1848 was the election between Lewis Cass, Zachary Taylor, and Martin Van Buren. During this election, democrats were divided by anti-slavery, pro-slavery, and popular sovereignty. Zachary Taylor believed in popular sovereignty, and he had "military fame." Taylor, who was a part of the Whigs, won easily but died in 1850 due to a bad stomach flu. Millard Fillmore, his running mate ended up replacing him.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The Seneca Falls Convention was a meeting focused on women's social, civil, and religious rights. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott organized it to address the barriers put between women and men, and although it was for women not all the attendees were female, about 1/3 were surprisingly male. This convention was very important because it sent a wave of women reformers out to fight for women's suffrage and it greatly changed the economical and educational opportunities available to women
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    The California Gold Rush came into place when gold was first discovered in Coloma, California. After the news of finding gold spread, around 300,000 people came to California to look for it. These gold seekers were called "forty-niners." Even though people would face hardships on their trip to California, many took the risk. The California Gold Rush helped build roads, churches, schools and more in California. It also brought the admission of California to become a state in the year 1850.
  • The Compromise of 1850

    The Compromise of 1850
    The Compromise of 1850 was created by Henry Clay. Some of the results of the compromise were that slavery became outlawed in Washington DC, California was finally admitted as a free state, and mexico along with Utah determined whether slavery was allowed using popular sovereignty. The fugitive slave law was passed as well, which required citizens to aid in capturing runaway slaves. The Compromise of 1850 was caused by California wanting to enter the union as a free state.
  • The Fugitive Slave Act

    The Fugitive Slave Act
    The Fugitive Slave Act (1850) was a law issued by the federal government that made it a crime for anyone to help runaway slaves. If any person was caught doing so, they could of faced a $1000 fine and jail time for up to six months. Slaves were to be returned to their owners. If officers turned in found slaves, officers would be rewarded. This law strengthened the previous one from the year 1793. In protest of this law, Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote the book "Uncle Tom's Cabin" in 1852.
  • Election of 1852

    Election of 1852
    In the Election of 1852, Franklin Pierce who was a democrat with southern sympathies, went against military hero, general Winfield Scott, who was a part of the Whig Party. Franklin Pierce easily won the Election of 1852 and became president. This election is claimed to be the most one sided one since the Election of 1820. Franklin Pierce had 254 electoral votes while Winfield Scott had 42 electoral votes.
  • The Kansas Nebraska Act

    The Kansas Nebraska Act
    The Kansas Nebraska Act (1854) allowed for the two territories to choose whether or not they were deciding to be a slave or free state, through Popular Sovereignty. It also opened new lands for settlement, as well as had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise. This act also caused several tensions between the north and south, and led to some violence.
  • John Browns Raid

    John Browns Raid
    John Brown was a radical abolitionist that led a raid on Harper's Ferry, Virginia in 1859. His plan was that before the raid he would give weapons to slaves to turn the raid into a slave rebellion, but it never did. He was captured, tried for treason, and later killed for these crimes. The north made him seem like a saint after he tried to start a rebellion, making him a symbol of abolitionism. But in the south, he was seen as an attacker and a terrorist, and the south was outraged.
  • Union Blockade

    Union Blockade
    The Union ordered a blockade of southern ports to stop the export of cotton. They did this because the south mostly depended on the export of cotton and gained most of its profit from it. Without it, they wouldn't have any more money and wouldn't be able to gain resources and materials for the war. Also they could be getting supplies smuggled in through the ports.
  • Ulysses S.Grant

    Ulysses S.Grant
    Ulysses S. Grant was an Army general during the American Civil War, and the Commanding General at the conclusion of the American Civil war. Grant also was on the Unions side and fought on that side. Ulysses S. Grant fought in the Mexican war as well. He was then elected to be the 18th President of the United States in 1868, he served until the year 1877. His main focus during his presidency was having the act of reconstruction after the war.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    Issued by President at the time Abraham Lincoln, the Emancipation Proclamation was an order and its purpose was to grant freedom to slaves who were located in confederate states, if said states would not go into the union by Jan. 1st, 1863. It also stated that the only way freedom could be achieved for slaves would be if the Union won the war. The Emancipation Proclamation helped lead the way to finally abolishing slavery in the US.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    The Battle of Gettysburg (started July 1st, 1863 and ended July 3rd, 1863) was a huge battle that occurred in the south of Pennsylvania, and was apart of the American Civil war. This battle was also considered to be the turning point of the Civil War. The Battle of Gettysburg is also very famous due to its big size, large cost in lives, where it took place, and because of Abraham Lincolns contribution, the Gettysburg Address.
  • Freedmans Bureau

    Freedmans Bureau
    The Freedmans Bureau was established in 1856 by congress, and its purpose was to assist in helping more than a great amount of former slaves after the Civil War. Like in the name, it was dedicated to assisting freed men. The Freedmans Bureau was also beneficial in helping poor whites who were also in the South. It was a welfare agency that provided housing, food, medical aid and it offered legal assistance. It was a step in more freedom and equality for all.
  • Ku Klux Klan

    Ku Klux Klan
    The Ku Klux Klan, also known as the KKK, was a white supremacist group that would frequently attack African Americans. Their purpose was to make sure black Americans would not become equal to whites, to maintain slaves and the act of slavery, and to gain revenge from loosing the civil war against the northern states. The KKK would bomb and set peoples houses on fire, or do Lynchings. They killed a lot of African Americans out of pure hatred.
  • The Black Codes

    The Black Codes
    The Black Codes were laws passed in Southern states that lasted from 1865-1866 and ended in 1877 because of the Reconstruction. They were laws that restricted freed blacks' activity and made sure that whites still had control over their labor activity. Many states required blacks to sign yearly labor contracts; if they refused, they risked being arrested or forced into labor. It basically was a way of ensuring the way slavery was. They were now free but were still controlled by whites.
  • Panic of 1873

    Panic of 1873
    The Panic of 1873 (also known as The Long Depression) was a big financial crisis that was caused by having too many things that were not able to be funded. Such as too many factories and railroads. Many were being formed but they were too much to fund, especially not with bank loans. This panic triggered major depression in North America along with Europe. It lasted six years from 1873 till 1879, but the effects remained for longer than that on other countries as well.
  • Jim Crow Laws

    Jim Crow Laws
    The Jim Crow laws were laws that implemented racial segregation. These laws were extremely effective in the south and were in place from 1877 (the end of reconstruction) till the 1950's (start of the civil rights movement). These laws separated people of color from whites in things such as schools, public transportation, parks, restaurants, and more. There was to be no contact between people of color and white people. Although racial discrimination was forbidden, these laws only made it worse.
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    30,000 BCE

    Beginnings of Exploration

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    English Colonial Societies

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    Colonial America

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    The Revolutionary War

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    The Constitution

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    The New Republic

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    The Age of Jefferson

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    The American Industrial Revolution

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    Jacksonian American

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    Westward Expansion

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    Sectional Crisis

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    American Civil War

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