History of Genetics

Timeline created by sophieteearn
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    Genetic History

  • Mendel's paper is published

    Mendel's paper is published
    His discoveries included- units of inheritance in pairs; dominance and recessiveness; equal segregation and independent assortment. These ideas were not recognized for 34 years.
  • DNA is identified by Friedrich Miescher

    DNA is identified by Friedrich Miescher
    Friedrich Miescher discovered DNA as an acidic substance found in cell nuclei. The significance of DNA is not appreciated for over 70 years.
  • Mendel's experiments are "rediscovered"

    Mendel's experiments are "rediscovered"
    His experiments from 1866 were confirmed by three separate researchers.
  • The chromosome theory of heredity is proposed by Sutton.

    The chromosome theory of heredity is proposed by Sutton.
    Boveri recognizes that individual chromosomes are different from one another, but he doesn't make a connection to Mendelian principles. Nevertheless, Boveri is given co-credit by friend E.B. Wilson (Sutton's supervisor) for proposing the chromosome theory of inheritance.
  • A human disease is first attributed to genetic causes

    A human disease is first attributed to genetic causes
  • First experiments on quantitative traits in broad beans and wheat

    First experiments on quantitative traits in broad beans and wheat
    Bean experiments by Wilhelm Johanssen and in wheat by Herman Nilsson-Ehle.
  • Some genes are linked and do not show independent assortment

    Some genes are linked and do not show independent assortment
    As seen by Bateson and Punnett.
  • The word "genetics" is coined by William Bateson.

    The word "genetics" is coined by William Bateson.
  • The chromosome theory of heredity is confirmed

    The chromosome theory of heredity is confirmed
    Confirmed in studies of fly eye color inheritance by T.H. Morgan and colleagues.
  • The eugenics movement is popular, fueling racist sentiment and leading to involuntary sterilization laws.

       The eugenics movement is popular, fueling racist sentiment and leading to involuntary sterilization laws.
    The eugenics movement is popular, fueling racist sentiment and leading to involuntary sterilization laws.
  • First ever linkage map created by Alfred Sturtevant

    First ever linkage map created by  Alfred Sturtevant
  • H. Muller shows that X-rays induce mutations in a dose-dependent fashion.

     H. Muller shows that X-rays induce mutations in a dose-dependent fashion.
  • Some component of heat-killed virulent bacteria can "transform" a non-virulent strain to become virulent, as shown by Fred Griffith

    Some component of heat-killed virulent bacteria can "transform" a non-virulent strain to become virulent, as shown by Fred Griffith
  • Genetic recombination is caused by a physical exchange of chromosomal pieces

    Genetic recombination is caused by a physical exchange of chromosomal pieces
    As shown in corn by Harriet Creighton and Barbara McClintock.
  • One gene encodes one protein

    One gene encodes one protein
    As described by Beadle and Tatum.
  • Genetic material can be transferred laterally between bacterial cells

    Genetic material can be transferred laterally between bacterial cells
    As shown by Lederberg and Tatum.
  • The genetic code is cracked by a number of researchers

    The genetic code is cracked by a number of researchers
    (including Nirenberg, Matthaei, Leder, and Khorana)
  • The first restriction enzyme is purified by Hamilton Smith.

    The first restriction enzyme is purified by Hamilton Smith.
  • Recombinant DNA is first constructed by Cohen and Boyer.

    Recombinant DNA is first constructed by Cohen and Boyer.
  • DNA sequencing technology is developed by Fred Sanger.

    DNA sequencing technology is developed by Fred Sanger.
  • PCR is developed by Kary Mullis.

    PCR is developed by Kary Mullis.
  • DNA fingerprinting, gene therapy, and genetically modified foods come onto the scene.

    DNA fingerprinting, gene therapy, and genetically modified foods come onto the scene.
  • DNA microarrays are invented

    DNA microarrays are invented
    by Pat Brown and colleagues.
  • Automated sequencing technology allows genome projects to accelerate.

    Automated sequencing technology allows genome projects to accelerate.
  • The first cloning of a mammal (Dolly the sheep)

    The first cloning of a mammal (Dolly the sheep)
    performed by Ian Wilmut and colleagues, from the Roslin institute in Scotland.
  • The Drosophila genome is completed.

    The Drosophila genome is completed.
    The Arabidopsis genome is completed. The human genome is reported to be completed.
  • The sequence of the human genome is released, and the "post-genomic era" officially begins.

    The sequence of the human genome is released, and the "post-genomic era" officially begins.
  • Controversies continue over human and animal cloning, research on stem cells, and genetic modification of crops.

    Controversies continue over human and animal cloning, research on stem cells, and genetic modification of crops.