Formation of the Early Universe

By AkiKaza
  • Big Bang

    Big Bang
    0 Seconds after the Big Bang
    - Big Bang occurs
    - creation of space and time
  • Planck Epoch

    0 to 10e-43 after the Big Bang
    - planck is shortest possibly interval of time (so far)
    - four fundamental forces (gravitation, electromagnetism, weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force), possibly all unified
  • Grand Unification Epoch

    10e-43 to 10e-36 seconds after the Big Bang
    - three of the fundamental forces combine to form the electronuclear force
    - gravity separates from the other three forces
  • Inflationary Epoch

    Inflationary Epoch
    10e-36 to 10e-32 seconds after the Big Bang
    - universe undergoes extremely rapid exponential expansion
    - releases energy; universe is repopulated with new and hot particles
  • Electroweak Epoch

    10e-36 to 10e-12 seconds after the Big Bang
    - strong force separates, leaving only electroweak force
    - creation of large numbers of exotic particles
  • Quark Epoch

    Quark Epoch
    10e-12 to 10e-6 seconds after the Big Bang
    - weak force separates from electromagnetic forcce
    - all four fundamental particles are now separated into their present forms
    - universe is filled with quark-gluon plasma (particles)
  • Hadron Epoch

    Hadron Epoch
    10e-6 seconds to 1 second after the Big Bang
    - universe cools
    - hadrons (i.e. protons and neutrons) begin to form
  • Lepton Epoch

    Lepton Epoch
    1 second to 10 seconds after the Big Bang
    - hadrons and anti-hadrons go through annihilation phase
    - leptons and anti-leptons (particles) dominate the universe
  • Period: to

    Photon Epoch

    10 seconds to 380,000 years after the Big Bang
    - leptons and anti-leptons go through annihilation phase
    - universe is dominated by photons (light particles)
  • Radiation Era

    10,000 years after the Big Bang
    - radiation dominates the universe
    - wavelengths of light, x-rays, radio waves, ultraviolet rays
  • Matter Domination

    70,000 years after the Big Bang
    - cold, dark matter dominates the universe
    - dense regions become denser; matter starts to clump together
  • Recombination

    377,000 years after the Big Bang
    - density of universe falls; hydrogen and helium atoms begin to form
    - initially ionized particles (no electrons); as universe cools, electrons are captured by ions and form neutral atoms
    - photons can now travel freely (decoupling); go on to form cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation
  • Dark Ages

  • Period: to


  • Structural Formation

    Structural Formation
    stars begin to ignite; matter clumps together to form planets; galaxies begin to form
  • Formation of Solar Star System

    Formation of Solar Star System
    between 8 to 9 billion years after the Big Bang, the Solar Star System forms
  • Present Day

    Present Day
    13.7 billion years after the Big Bang