WWI, Versailles, and Great Depression- Zachary DeBortoli

By zd9737
  • Conflict Leads to War- Before the War Began

    It had been a long time since there was a large war in Europe, but tensions were rising, in no small part due to nationalism. Many nations wanted to prove through pride they were better than the rest. Social Darwinism added to this, making the more nationalistic governments feel more powerful than minor ones. Along with that, imperialism irritated many host nations, creating even more sour relations. With imperialism, militaries grew larger, leading to their glorification through militarism.
  • Assassination of Franz Ferdinand

    On the 28th day of June, in the year 1914, the first World War sparked to life. Franz Ferdinand, the Archduke of Austria was assassinated by a Serbian named Gavrilo Princip while in Sarajevo. This occurence angered Austria-Hungary greatly. They issued a final warning to the Kingdom of Serbia, and upon its rejection, Austria-Hungary declared war.
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    Word War 1

    Globally, World War 1 was a more advanced war than any war before it. Throughout all countries involved, warfare strategies were evolving, and technologies improving. This eventually lead to more efficient warfare, but initially resulted in more deaths due to not knowing how to use the new weaponry. In America, women and black people alike earned more rights, so that the homeland economy would not suffer from the lack of males. By the end of the war, there were a total of over 16 million deaths.
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    War and Alliances

    After Declaring war, Austria-Hungary sought out Germany for support in the case of Russian militarism. Germany provides, and Russia mobilizes, declaring war specifically on Austria-Hungary. Because of this, Germany then declares war on Russia. At this point, countries begin to pick sides. Italy, the Netherlands, America, and other countries declare neutrality. The United Kingdom, Serbia, and Japan declares war on Germany. Germany declares war on France. Other countries also join the fight.
  • Germany Invades Belgium

    Germany had declared war with France, but needed to go through Belgium in order to get there. Belgium being a neutral country, did not want Germany passing through. Germany sent an ultimatum to them, demanding passage, which was denied by Belgium. The British military supported Belgium's decision, and opted to provide back up military power. Germany declared war and troops crossed into their border.
  • The Sinking Lusitania

    America and Britain had close a good relationship, and were close trading partners. When the German's and British went to war, even though America feigned nuetrality, the relations between Germany and America were stiff. When America found out that a German U-boat had sunk the Lusitania, they were enraged. Germany promised that they would not sink any more ships that were not specifically war ships, and America remained neutral. But, if Germany sunk more neutral ships, America would retaliate.
  • The Zimmerman Telegram

    After sinking the Lusitania, Germany gave the U.S. the Sussex pledge. When the British decrypted the Zimmerman Telegram, it revealed that Germany intended to begin using restricted submarine warfare. They planned to do this, and also propose an alliance to Mexico, as they foresaw America being angry, and were to use Mexico to distract them. The British passed the message on, and America's call to war became all the more imminent.
  • The United States Join the Fight.

    Although America was originally declared neutral in the war, because Britain was a close trading partner, tensions between Germany and America grew. After the ship Lusitania was by the Germans, America became angry with Germany. After German usage of submarines in war-zone waters, along with the sinking of the American ship Housatonic, America had had it with peaceful relations. After preparing for war the previous war, America had decided that it was finally time to fight.
  • The End of the War

    November 11, 1918 marks the end of the Great War. At 11 o' clock in the morning, the fighting officially ended, with the signing of the Armistice of Compiègne. With the arrival of the fresh American troops the year before, along with 4 years of fighting multiple foes, Germany could no longer keep up. With the signing of this document, the fighting was officially over, but the war was not declared over until the signing of the Treaty of Versailles.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    The Treaty of Versailles determined that Germany was responsible for the war, and had to pay the consequences of it. The main goal of the Treaty of Versailles was to keep Germany economically weak. Germany lost 250,000 square miles of land and territories, Its military and navy size were also greatly cut back, limiting the number of soldiers, ships, and weapons. Germany also had to admit responsibility of the war, and pay back 5 billion dollars in reparations.
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    The Roaring 20's

    The 1920's was a good time for America and the global economy. Many people grew wealthy, and economics and business grew large. Life was made easier for the common folk, as many invention, such as cars became available to them for the first time. Culture grew and spread through Jazz, which represented the spirit of this time period. Despite all of the great growth in wealth for city dwellers, farmers received the short end of the stick. Many farmers were consumed in debt from World War 1.
  • The Stock Markets Crash

    In September, 1929, prices in the stock markets began to slide down. Nervous speculators stopped purchasing more stocks, and the market fell even more. On October 24, investors sold all of their stocks, causing the sale values of stocks to depreciate, lowering the stock market to the lowest it had ever been. People then ran to the banks, and withdrew all their money. Banks quickly ran out of money an closed, and with businesses no longer having money from stocks, the nation fell into a crisis.
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    The Great Depression

    The Great Depression was a hard time in America and the rest of the world. Many people lost their jobs and struggled to find work. Banks closed, and businesses lost large portions of their money. Unemployment rates soared up to nearly 30%. Many families struggled for food, and women and black people were largely removed from the work force. Many nations around the world fell due to a lack of America's loans, bringing the global economy down. It stayed this way up until World War 2 began.
  • The Reconstrution Finance Corporation

    The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was established as Herbet Hoover's response to the Great Depression. The RFC gave billions of dollars in public loans to banks and large businesses, with the hopes that the banks and businesses would use this money to be lent out, or be spent to increase employment. Hoover wanted the receivers of the loan to stimulate the economy, and get the money to those who needed it most, but most banks and businesses just held on to the funds that they were given.
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    The First New Deal

    Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal spanned over many different government policies and institutions, in an attempt to bring the economy out of the crisis it was in. The New Deal focused of what is known as the 3 R's- Relief, Recovery, and Reform. The First New Deal dealt with initial relief from the recessions, and aided the banks and railroads, to try and stimulate economic growth.
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    The Second New Deal

    The Second New Deal had a similar goal as the First New Deal, but was a lot more proactive about them. The Second New Deal added programs like the Works Progress Administration, the Social Security Act, and the Fair Labor Standards Act. The Second New Deal began many more public works, and provided many jobs for the unemployed. The government became the largest national employer during this time.
  • Social Security Act

    During the Great Depression, elderly people lost their homes and their life savings. Being one of the only nations that did not give back to their elderly, America decided to join in on that pension. The Social Security Act created insurance for unemployment, work-related accidents, and those who were economically stricken, such as mothers, and those with disabilities. Although the act initially had a selective audience, it grew to include the likes of farmers and black citizens.
  • The Works Progress Administration

    The Works Progress Administration provided jobs for millions of Americans. It was an important New Deal Policy, which provided relief in the form of jobs in public works projects. Lead by Harry Hopkins, the WPA improved highways, cleaned rivers, and were advocates of water and nature conservation. It built many establishments that we use even today, such as museums, parks, sidewalks, hospitals, and even courthouses. Its many job opportunities helped to lower the unemployment levels in America.
  • The Fair Labor Standards Act

    Sometime in 1938, the Fair Labor Standards Act Was passed into law. This act was directed at businesses, and had the goal in mind of improving circumstances for factory workers. The Fair Labor Standards Act established a minimum wage of employees at 25 cents per hour, and maximized the amount of hours an employee could work at 44 hours a week. Along with this, it outlawed child labor.
  • World War 2 Begins

    Germany, under the lead of Hitler began what is known as World War 2. It dragged in many of the world's nations, and caused a lot of death and destruction. But, World War 2 also ended the recessions that had been going on since 1929. As nations prepared for war, many new jobs were required. People could look for jobs as a soldier, or building airplanes and other equipment, and farmers could provide extra crops to the army.This all stimulated production, and provided jobs, ending the recession