World War 1

  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand of the Austro-Hungarian Empire is assassinated in Sarajevo

    Archduke Franz Ferdinand of the Austro-Hungarian Empire is assassinated in Sarajevo
    Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie the Duchess of Hohenburg, are killed by Bosnian Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip. The Austrian government suspects that Serbia is responsible.
  • Period: to

    World War 1

  • Secretary of the Austro-Hungarian Legation at Belgrade sends despatch to Vienna

    Secretary of the Austro-Hungarian Legation at Belgrade sends despatch to Vienna accusing Serbian complicity in the assassination.
  • Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. World War I begins.

    “This is a dark day and a dark hour. The sword is being forced into my hand. This war will demand of us enormous sacrifice in life and money, but we shall show our foes what it is to provoke Germany.” - Kaiser Wilhelm II, July 31, 1914
  • In one month, the world erupts in war

  • Germany mobilizes her armed forces

    Germany mobilizes her armed forces
    Germany mobilizes her armed forces. War on Russia is declared.
  • Germany delcares War on Russia

    French military mobilisation ordered.
    Italy announces neutrality.
    Belgium announces neutrality.
  • Germany declares war on France.

    Germany declares war on France.
  • War on Belgium

    War on Belgium
    Germany declares war on neutral Belgium and invades in a right flanking move designed to defeat France quickly. As a result of this invasion, Britain declares war on Germany.
  • Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.

    Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.
  • "The Battle of the Frontiers"

    "The Battle of the Frontiers" -- 27,000 French soldiers die on this single day in an offensive thrust to the east of Paris, towards the German borders.
  • Battle of Tennenberg 26-30th August 1914

    Battle of Tennenberg 26-30th August 1914
    German army, led by Erich Ludendorff and Paul von Hindenburg achieves its greatest victory of the war on the Eastern front against Russia at the Battle of Tennenberg.
  • September 5-10th 1914 - 1st Battle of the Marne

    First Battle of the Marne halts German invasion in France.
  • Battle of Marne

    The First Battle of Marne checks German advance at the cost of 13,000 British, 250,000 French and 250,000 German casualties.
  • First trenches of the Western front are dug.

    First trenches of the Western front are dug.
    First trenches of the Western front are dug.
  • British Indian Expeditionary Force sails from Bombay to the Persian Gulf

    The British Indian Expeditionary Force sails from Bombay to the Persian Gulf in preparation for the defense of Mesopotamia.
  • First Battle of Ypres

  • Trenches are established along the entire Western Front

    Trenches are established along the entire Western Front
  • The British enter Basra

    Secured oil supplies in the Middle East needed to supply most of the Royal Navy
  • The Battle of the Falkland Islands

    The Battle of the Falkland Islands. A Royal navy task force sinks three German cruisers that were victorious at the Battle of Coronel in November. Only the SMS Dresden escapes.
  • German First High Sea fleet bombards Hartlepool, Whitby & Scarborough

    The German First High Sea fleet bombards Hartlepool, Whitby and Scarborough, killing 137 civilians and proving that the British mainland is susceptible to attack
  • 1st airborne attack on British soil, Zeppelins bomb Great Yarmouth and King's Lynn

    In the first airborne attack on British soil, Zeppelins bomb Great Yarmouth and King's Lynn, killing five civilians.
  • Turkey enters the war

    Turkey enters the war
  • Blockade of Britain by German U-boats begins.

    Blockade of Britain by German U-boats begins. All vessels are considered viable targets, including those from neutral countries.
  • Allied naval bombardment of the Dardanelles and Gallipoli begins.

    Allied naval bombardment of the Dardanelles and Gallipoli begins.
  • The British Offensive at Neuve Chapelle begins.

    Allied losses amount to 12,800 in two days. Some of the blame falls on the poor quality and lack of British shells, initiating the 'Shell Crisis'.
  • Second Battle of Ypres begins. First use of poison gas by Germany.

  • Allied landing at Gallipoli

    Allied landing at Gallipoli - 70,000 British, Commonwealth and French troops are under heavy fire. On 'Y' Beach, 1,200 out of a force of 1,500 men are casualties.
  • Austro-German offensive on Galicia begins.

  • German U-boat torpedoes British liner Lusitania

    German U-boat torpedoes British liner Lusitania with the loss of American lives, creating a US-German diplomatic crisis.
  • Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary.

  • The 'Shell Crisis' exposes the failings of the British Government in supporting front line troops.

    Discontent over rising casualty figures grows and a coalition government is formed as Prime Minister Asquith struggles to maintain control of the House of Commons.
  • The first Zeppelin raid on London kills seven and injures 35.

    British morale is shaken as Germany demonstrates it can attack the capital at will.
  • The Third and final Battle of Krithia begins at Gallipoli

    The Third and final Battle of Krithia begins at Gallipoli as Allies attempt to push inland from their beach-heads. British losses amount to 6,000 men.
  • British troops reach the Euphrates in Mesopotamia, and re-occupy Aden.

  • German troops use flame throwers for the first time against the British lines at Hooge, Ypres.

    German troops use flame throwers for the first time against the British lines at Hooge, Ypres.
  • Germans annex Warsaw

  • Allies land two divisions at Suvla Bay, Gallipoli.

    They opt not to take the strategic heights overlooking the beaches and are eventually pinned to the coast by Turkish troops.
  • A U-boat bombards Whitehaven, proving that Britain's maritime defences can be breached by German submarines.

  • The Battle of Scimitar Hill, Gallipoli, the final British offensive in the Dardanelles.

    The Battle of Scimitar Hill, Gallipoli, is the final British offensive in the Dardanelles. They are repelled and lose 5,000 men.
  • The Great Allied Offensive focuses on Loos and Champagne. A

    At the Battle of Loos the British use gas for the first time but the wind blows this over their own troops resulting in 2632 casualties - seven
    are killed.
  • British and Canadian regiments take Hill 70 at Loos and break the German line, but lack of reserves to exploit the breach results in limited success.

    British and Canadian regiments take Hill 70 at Loos and break the German line, but lack of reserves to exploit the breach results in limited success. The Canadians alone receive over 9,000 casualties.
  • Austro-Hungarians step up their campaign against the Serbians.

    Under German pressure to open up military rail links to Constantinople and the Middle East, the Austro-Hungarians step up their campaign against the Serbians. Anglo-French forces land at Salonika to counter allied German expansion in the Balkans.
  • British nurse Edith Cavell is executed by German firing squad for helping POWs escape from Belgium to Holland

    She becomes a popular martyr and British heroine.
  • Steel helmets introduced on the British Front.

  • Battle of Ctesiphon, 25 miles south of Baghdad.

    Allies inflict heavy casualties on the Turks, but are forced to retire to Kut due to lack of supplies. The Turkish soldiers give chase and besiege the town.
  • Sir Douglas Haig replaces Sir John French as Commander in Chief of the British Expeditionary Force.

  • Allies complete the evacuation of 83,000 troops from Suvla Bay and ANZAC Cove in Gallipoli.

    Not one soldier or sailor is killed in the withdrawal and the Turkish are unaware of the evacuation taking place.
  • British conscription law goes into effect

  • Battle of Verdun begins

    The longest battle of the war, the Battle of Verdun, is fought to a draw with an estimated one million casualties. The Battle ended December 1918.
  • Canadians take Vimy Ridge

  • US President Wilson publicly warns Germany not to continue unrestricted submarine warfare policies

  • The Battle of Jutland begins

    The Battle of Jutland, the only major naval engagement of the war is fought with no clear winner.
  • The Battle of Jutland Ends

  • The Battle of the Somme begins

    The Battle of the Somme results in an estimated one million casualties and no breakthrough for the Allies. British introduce the tank, an effective weapon but far to few to make much of a difference.
  • Woodrow Wilson re-elected President of the United States

    Woodrow Wilson re-elected President of the United States with campaign slogan: "He kept us out of the war"
  • The Battle of the Somme Ends

  • David Lloyd George becomes Prime Minister of Britain

  • Rasputin, the self-avowed holy man and confidant to the Tsarina, is murdered by relatives of the Tsar

    Rasputin, the self-avowed holy man and confidant to the Tsarina, is murdered by relatives of the Tsar.
  • Germany again declares unrestricted submarine warfare

  • Telegram to Mexico urging War against US discovered

    Reich Foreign Secretary Zimmermann's telegram to Mexico urging her entry into war against the United States is discovered and translated by the British
  • Tsar Nicholas II of Russia abdicates

    Provisional government is declared
  • President Wilson asks Congress for a declaration of war with Imperial Germany

    President Wilson asks Congress for a declaration of war with Imperial Germany
  • French launch disastrous offensive at Chemin des Dames

    French launch disastrous offensive at Chemin des Dames, advancing only 500 yards at the cost of 250,000 plus casualties
  • The United States passes the Selective Service Act empowering the Federal Government to draft men for the armed forces

  • Over half a million French soldiers mutiny, or "go on strike" and refuse to continue the failed offensive

    April - June
  • Russian Army lead by Alexander Kerensky begins last -- and disastrous -- offensive in Galicia

  • The first wave of the American Expeditionary Force lands in France

  • Third Battle of Ypres, known as Passchendaele

    Third Battle of Ypres, known as Passchendaele, results in minor gains, but still no breakthrough in the Western front at the cost of 700,000 casualties for both sides results in minor gains, but still no breakthrough in the Western front at the cost of 700,000 casualties for both sides, results in minor gains, but still no breakthrough in the Western front at the cost of 700,000 casualties for both sides
  • American troops in France fire their first shot in trench warfare

  • Bolshevik socialists, led by Lenin, overthrow Kerensky's government

  • Battle of Verdun Ends