Timetoast 10

Violation of Civil Liberties in American History

  • Jan 1, 1492

    Conquests and Crusades

    Conquests and Crusades
    European settlers (mainly Spanish) came to America to explore and colonize land in the early 16-century. Explorers like Cortes and Pizarro came to America, and conquered the indigenous peoples living there, such as the Aztecs and Incas. Conquistadors continued their expeditions for wealth, and were cruel to many Native Americans, beginning the encomienda slavery system, and official oppression of the Native Americans.
  • Rise of Slavery

    Rise of Slavery
    As the scope of American agriculture changed, the labor force did as well. Americans had primarily relied on indentured servants for labor, but eventually turned to African slavery. African slaves were cheaper, and able to be treated more poorly by their masters, especially because their service ran no risk of ending.
  • The Quest for Religious Freedom

    The Quest for Religious Freedom
    Many American settlers had emigrated from Europe in search of religious freedom. King Henry VIII had changed certain principles in the Anglican Church during the early-seventeeth century, upsetting many Christians. Pilgrims and immigrants felt oppressed by the heavily-regulated religious practices in Europe, essentially living in a state without the separation of church and state.
  • Navigation Acts and Vice-Admiralty Courts

    Navigation Acts and Vice-Admiralty Courts
    The Navigation Acts were implemented by the British monarchy to raise revenue for the mother country. Colonists could only trade on British ships, which limited manufacturing in the colonies. They also established vice-admiralty courts to try smugglers, which often featured a British judge with no jury, suspending due process of law.
  • Virginia Fornication Laws

    Virginia Fornication Laws
    The Virginia Fornication Laws were implemented in the state of Virginia to safeguard moral righteousness and purity. The laws set limitations on certain types of sexual relations, especially those pertaining to interracial couples and adultery. The laws were heavily biased against women and blacks, setting punishments such as fines, expulsion, and orphaning bastard children.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    Virginia farmers were upset by numerous Indian attacks and unfair tax leverages. They felt that the elite had too much societal power, allowing the socioeconomic gap to widen between classes. Landless man had not been given the right to vote. Nathaniel Bacon organized a militia of farmers who set out to kill Indians, gain the right to vote, and burn the capital. The revolt was put down by Governor Berkeley.
  • Pueblo Revolt

    Pueblo Revolt
    The Pueblo Native Americans were suffering under the Spanish caste system during the seventeenth-century, and formulated a revolt after being subjected to brutally hard labor, destruction of their ancient religions, famine, and witchcraft. Led by Pope, the Pueblos sought to destroy all things Spanish, but were reconquered 12 years alter by Diego de Vargas.
  • The Dominion of England

    The Dominion of England
    The Dominion of New England fused various New England and Middle colonies together because they were weak. Led by Sir Edmund Andros, many people were unhappy by the forced conglomeration, especially because it was imposed without the sovereignty of the people (action done by England).
  • The Salem Witch Trials

    The Salem Witch Trials
    The Salem Witch Trials transpired in late-1692 as a result of underlying anxiety and physical exhaustion in the rigidly Puritan Massachusetts-Bay Colony. The trials began to spiral out of control when the colony's government began imprisoning hundreds of innocent people, even leading execution crusades. The court revived previously outlawed practices, such as peine forte et dure and the reliance of spectral evidence. The gap between the accusers and the accused was highly marginalized.
  • Zenger Libel Trial

    Zenger Libel Trial
    John Peter Zenger was an immigrant who operated a printing press for the New York Weekly Journal. He wrote critical pieces pertaining to the governor of New York, William Cosby. Zenger was accused of libel, and thrown in jail, even though his pieces were all true. British law claimed that libel was anything defamatory; American law shifted towards liberalism, emphasizing that libel had to be false in order to be a crime.
  • British Oppression

    British Oppression
    After a long period of salutary neglect, the British monarchy refocused its attention on the colonies. Because of the French and Indian War, England needed revenue, which it planned on raising from the colonies. The British then launched a series of taxes, such as the Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts, and aggressive legislature, such as the Quartering Act. Americans were outraged by this action, especially because they had been virtually represented in Parliament.
  • Pontiac's Rebellion

    Pontiac's Rebellion
    British colonists moved west, encroaching on Indian lands, but refused to give them gunpowder and treat them as equals. The Indians rebelled under Pontiac, an Ottawa Chief, attacking British forts and settlers. The British in turn spread smallpox, decimating the Indian population. The rebellion caused the subsequent passing of the Proclamation of 1763, pushing the Indians west of the Appalachian Mountains.
  • The Boston Massacre

    The Boston Massacre
    British soldiers had been deployed in the American colonies to maintain order and enforce the Townshend Acts. The soldier on duty at the Customs House in Boston was taunted by local colonists, causing a crowd to grow, and more soldiers to be dispatched. The soldiers then fired into the crowd, killing five.
  • Shays' Rebellion

    Shays' Rebellion
    Shays' Rebellion was an armed rebellion of farmers and militiamen in Massachusetts, angered over the post-war economic depression (especially for farmers). Many war veterans and farmers were arrested and thrown into debtors prisons. Shay and his followers attempted to raid a federal arsenal for weapons, and were not effectively stopped by the government due to the weakness of the Articles of Confederation.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    Western Pennsylvanian farmers revolted against the governmental tax on whiskey; a major facet of the western industry. The rebellion contrasted with Shays' Rebellion, because it demonstrated the strength of the Constitution as opposed to the weakness of the Articles of Confederation.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    Alien and Sedition Acts
    The Alien and Sedition Acts were passed under John Adam's presidency. The Alien laws gave the president the power to deport anyone he deemed "suspicious," and the Sedition Act prohibited the false, scandalous, and malicious writing against the government or certain officials. The laws seriously hindered 1st amendment rights.
  • Impressment

    Impressment was practiced by Royal Navy ships where they forced men into working on their vessels through violence or coercion. In desperate need of sailors because of Britain’s war with France, they extended this practice and seized 6,000 American men during the years 1803-1812. This was seen comely in port towns, as “recruiters” searched boardinghouses and taverns and these ships referred to as floating hells, had terrible conditions and paid up to five times less than an American ship.
  • Embargo Act of 1807

    Embargo Act of 1807
    This act was made by Jefferson and prohibited American ships for leaving for foreign ports thus cutting off trade this all nations. Even though it technically only prohibited exports it ultimately stopped imports too because few ships came to American ports knowing they would leave without cargo. This ultimately hurt the American economy and didn’t damage Britain’s economy as they traded with South America.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    During the War of 1812, the US fought with England, the greatest naval power in the world, because of the British attempted to restrict U.S. trade, impressments of American sailors and America’s desire to expand its territory. During the war, the US had many costly defeats at the hands of British, Canadian and Native American troops over and the capital was burned in 1814. Nonetheless, American troops were able to repel many British invasions and the war ended with the treaty of Ghent.
  • Indian Removal Act/ Trail of Tears

    Indian Removal Act/ Trail of Tears
    President Jackson, passed the Indian Removal Act giving the federal government power to relocate Native Americans in the east to territory that was west of the Mississippi River and in 1838 he called in federal troops in to “escort” 15,000 Cherokee Indians to their new homes in Indian Territory. This was later named the trial of tears because 1/3 of the people died. During Jackson’s presidency he forced Indians to exchange 100 million acres of their land for 32 million acres of public land.
  • Nullification

    In 1832 Jackson passed a tariff that would benefit the north at the expense of the south Jackson’s VP, Calhoun led a state convention to declare that tariff laws were void and SC would oppose any efforts to collect the tariff. Jackson then encouraged his allies to prepare a compromise bill so the federal government wouldn’t lose its image and Henry Clay came up with the compromise tariff of 1833 to relieve tensions.
  • The Annexation of Texas

    The Annexation of Texas
    After the Texas War for Independence, Texas became a territory of its own lead by president Sam Houston. The territory struggled with autonomy, especially because Texas had no established currency. The United States annexed the territory into the country without the consent of the peoples in Texas, angering many Anglo-Saxans who moved to the territory to pursue economic freedom, and Tejanos who had no desire for becoming American citizens.
  • Rise of Reactionary Hate Groups

    Rise of Reactionary Hate Groups
    Groups such as the KKK and the Know Nothing Party now appeared in the political amphitheatre, and responded to problems with violence. Many groups of people, such as blacks and Catholics, became limited out of fear of these groups, and were often oppressed by their brutality.
  • Prison Reform (antebellum)

    Prison Reform (antebellum)
    After the Second Great Awakening, many Americans sought to purify society for its vices. Prisons and mental hospitals at the time were some of the worst facilities, where patients and inmates would be kept in unsanitary cells without heat, and were brutally beaten. Debtors, murderers, women, and children were often integrated in the same facilities.
  • Fugitive Slave Act and Slave Codes

    Fugitive Slave Act and Slave Codes
    The Fugitive Slave Act was part of the Compromise of 1850, added to appease southern Democrats. the act allowed escaped slaves to be turned into the authorities regardless of what territories they ended up in, and whites were forced to help find the escaped slave. In addition, Black Codes, harsh rules for slaves, were tightened during this period.
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford

    Dred Scott v. Sandford
    This landmark Supreme Court case was the case in which the Surpeme Court decided that a. blacks are citizens of the states, but not the US, and therefore cannot even sue in the Supreme Court, b. Congress cannot regulate slavery in territories, and c. slaves are property and the 5th amendment applies to them.
  • John Brown in Bleeding Kansas

    John Brown in Bleeding Kansas
    After the Dred Scott case, John Brown became furious, and wanted to stand up to the government, especially in the wake of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. He killed 5 settlers at Pottawotamie Creek, and planned a raid/slave revolt in Harper's Ferry. He captured the armory and cut telegraph wires, taking hostages, but was later surrounded and injured (and executed) by the state militia.
  • Lincoln's Suspension of Civil Liberties

    Lincoln's Suspension of Civil Liberties
    In 1862, Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus, an official court order demanding a prisoner be brought before the court. Lincoln's suspension only applied to people held as prisoners of war or enlistment resisters. Civil law was also suspended in the South, and it was placed under Martial Law. Lincoln also censored various pockets of the South.
  • The Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial Revolution
    The Industrial Revolution transpired in the late-nineteenth century. Many unjust and unregulated practices erupted at this time, such as child labor, company towns, scrip, low wages, sweatshops, immigrant/convict labor, yellow dog contracts, and imperialistic monopolies (vertical and horizontal integration).
  • Reconstruction Act of 1867

    Reconstruction Act of 1867
    The Reconstruction Act of 1867 passed the 14th amendment, but blocked former Confederates from voting. Confederate political leaders were placed under even greater scutiny, and were barred from office for several years.
  • Fort Laramie Treaty

    Fort Laramie Treaty
    The United States government "negotiated" this treaty with the Sioux Indians, forcing them to consent to live on reservations and guaranteeing them lands in South Dakota, even though this went against their religion and their culture. If they were found off of reservations, they would be sought and killed by the government. This treaty hurt the Native Americans because they did not know how to support themselves on reservations since they were nomadic and followed the buffalo.
  • Political Machines and the Spoils System

    Political Machines and the Spoils System
    Political machines such as Tammany Hall used bribery and other corrupt means to ensure that certain parties stayed in power. Another characteristic of such machines was the spoils system, where friends of the elected person, instead of the most qualified people, received government jobs.
  • Enforcement Acts

    Enforcement Acts
    The Enforcement Acts were passed during Reconstruction to allow the government to intervene in reactionary groups, and potentially break them up. This angered groups such as the KKK and gave the country more jurisdiction in putting down organized crime groups and suspicious activity, but was hard to enforce.
  • Voting Restrictions

     Voting Restrictions
    After the 15th Amendment was passed, many southerners’ tried to keep blacks from voting. To do this, states amended their constitutions to attempt to disenfranchise blacks. Literacy tests, poll taxes, and property requirements were created as blacks had little education, money or property. To protect illiterate whites, the grandfather clause exempted anyone whose ancestor could vote in 1860. People also took the law into their own hands and resorted to lynching or intimidation to scare blacks.
  • Battle of Little Bighorn

    Battle of Little Bighorn
    The Battle of Little Bighorn took place after the government tried to renegotiate with the Sioux over land they were granted in the Fort Laramie Treaty that was allegedly "untouchable" and "guaranteed" after the discovery of gold in the South Dakota region (the battle, however, occurred in Montana).
  • The Chinese Exclusion Act

    The Chinese Exclusion Act
    The Chinese Exclusion Act was a federal law signed into legislature by President Arthur in 1882, barring Chinese immigrants from immigrating into the United States (Angel Island). The act was intended to last for ten years, but was renewed in 1902 and upheld until the mid-twentieth century.
  • Haymarket Square Riot

    Haymarket Square Riot
    The Haymarket Square Riot initially started as a rally amongst labor unions, anarchists, and socialists/communists striking for a more hands-on government and better working conditions. A bomb was set off during the rally, killing several police officers. About 8 anarchists were arrested with little evidence to prove (in fact, they were probably innocent), and half of them were executed.
  • Dawes Severalty Act

    Dawes Severalty Act
    On this day, the Dawes Severalty Act was signed into law by Grover Cleveland. This act divided the reservations into 160-acre plots, one of which went to each Native American male head of house. This infringed upon the rights of the Native Americans, who were supposed to have control over their reservations. Instead, the American government decided to make decisions for them rather than leaving them alone.
  • Battle of Wounded Knee

    Battle of Wounded Knee
    The Battle of Wounded Knee was fought between the United States and the Plains Indians as a result of uncalled for paranoia of the American people towards the Sioux. The Sioux were preoccupied with the Ghost Dance at the time, a spiritual movement where they tried to reunite with dead relatives and achieve happiness. That scared the government, who accidentally killed the Sioux chief, Sitting Bull, eventually ending in the deaths of 300 unarmed Sioux men, women, and children.
  • Coxey's Army

    Coxey's Army
    After the Panic of 1893, the unemployment rate rose to an astounding 18%. In response, Jacob Coxey called for a protest march to Washington DC to draw attention to the troubles of workers and to ask for government relief to create jobs. Distressed workers marched to the Capitol steps to demand their work relief, but were broken up by the police. Although Coxey’s Army didn’t accomplish much, it represented one of the first times the American people reached out to the government for help.
  • Pullman Strike

    Pullman Strike
    On this day, workers of Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago began a wildcat strike in response to lowered wages without lowering rent. The workers were angry that they were barely getting enough pay to pay rent and feed their families. Attorney General Richard Olney brought a federal injunction and when the strikes did not stop, Grover Cleveland sent federal troops to end the strike on the premise that the federal mail was not being delivered.
  • General Weyler's Concentration Camps

    General Weyler's Concentration Camps
    General Weyler was a Spanish commander in Cuba who relocated Cuban civilians into camps called concentration camps that were breeding grounds for disease and malnutrition. The public outcry against these camps and violation of rights of Cubans helped push America into the Spanish-American war.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    This Supreme Court case legalized segregation and the, “separate but equal” Jim Crow Laws. The perpetrator, Homer Plessy, attempted to sit in a white railroad car. After being asked to move to the black car and refusing, Plessy was arrested for violating a Louisiana law that created segregated railroad cars. He was found guilty in court, and Plessy’s case was taken to the US Supreme Court where he was also found guilty. As a result of his loss, segregation and lynching blacks became more common
  • Imperialism

    During this time period, America felt threatened by Europe's intervention and colonization in Africa. To strengthen the "weakening empire," America set out to obtain more territories. Anti-imperialists saw this as an infringement on civil liberties for citizens of countries (such as Hawaii and the Philippines) who did not want to be annexed into the United States. The White Man's Burden christianization of "heathens" was also seen as oppressive and subjugating.
  • Annexation of Hawai'i

    Annexation of Hawai'i
    The Hawaiians' rights were violated by the Americans first in their coup, where they ignored what native Hawaiians wanted and instead did whatever was good for white Hawai'ian sugar planters. Also, McKinley annexed Hawaii even though they did not want to be annexed.
  • The Philippine-American War

    The Philippine-American War
    The Philippine-American War was a conflict beginning as a result of the Spanish-American War (Treaty of Paris), and the Philippine's claim of independence despite America's annexation. The war was seen as particularly oppressive to the Filipinos because of the use of heavy guerilla warfare and the clear advantages of America over the Filipino people.
  • Lochner v. New York

    Lochner v. New York
    This Supreme Court Case overturned the Bakershop Act that prohibited the amount of hours a baker could work a week to 60. John Lochner, a baker in New York, argued that it is unconstitutional for the state to regulate the amount of hours he could allow his employees to work . In a 5-4 vote, the Supreme Court said that the act is in fact unconstitutional as it violates the 14th amendment. This therefore made it legal for people to work extremely long and unhealthy hours as they had been before.
  • Japanese Segregation

    Japanese Segregation
    President Roosevelt felt threatened by Japan's emergence as a strong world power in the Russo-Japanese War. This lead him to send the Great White Fleet of American naval ships around the world to show America's power and intimidate the Japanese. Another form of intimidation used by America was the segregation of Japanese children from white schools. This was later amended in the Gentlemen's Agreement, but heavily limited Japanese immigration.
  • Sterilization and Eugenics

    Sterilization and Eugenics
    During the Progressive Era, the nation took an interest to scientific management and eugenics: the principle of achieving "the perfect human" through selective breeding. The government ran discrete procedures where they forced various people with developmental disabilities to become sterilized, and outwardly prohibited reproduction among certain groups of people.
  • The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

    The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
    A fire broke out at this factory and it served as a wakeup call to Americans about the horrible conditions found in most workplaces. When the fire broke, cloth scraps that were littered on the ground became fuel for the fire to spread to other floors. With the doors locked and no working fire escapes the young women had to decide whether they should jump to their deaths or burn and over 100 died. Conditions like these were not uncommon and this is just a model of what many factories were like.
  • World War I: Naval Blockade,Transatlantic Cable, and Lusitania

    World War I: Naval Blockade,Transatlantic Cable, and Lusitania
    When World War I first started, America was neutral. The nation traded with both the Central and Allied powers. Britain, however, wanted America to join their side and help fight the Central powers. To accomplish this, they established a naval blockade around the enemy countries, prohibiting trade, and cut the transatlantic cable, making the war reports very one-sided. In addition, the Lusitania sank as a result of German aggression, killing many Americans despite neutrality.
  • The Committee on Public Information

    The Committee on Public Information
    The Committee on Public Information was a war-time committee established as a way of communicating information regarding the war to the public. The organization was headed by George Creel, and heavily used four-minute men to propagate the war effort. Any information the public heard was essentially from the government's point of view; therefore, Americans were not given both sides of the story, and were influenced by CPI manifesto.
  • Espionage and Sedition Acts

    Espionage and Sedition Acts
    The Espionage and Sedition Acts were passed in conjunction as a way of protecting the government during wartime. The acts prohibited any violent threat or conspiracy towards the government, including advocation of socialism or communism, and disparaging the draft. The acts were used on the grounds of "clear and present danger" during the Schenk v. US case of 1919.
  • Prohibition

    Prohibition, or the 18th amendment, was a widely protested law that banned the sale, production, importation, and transportation of alcohol. Many people felt this law was hypocritical to traditional American ideals as it did not give people the right to choose whether or not to drink, but rather told them it was not allowed. This only lead to organized crime, speakeasies, and the wide distribution and sale of unsanitary, unregulated alcohol. This law was later repealed by the 21st amendment.
  • The Failure of the Civil Rights Movement

    The Failure of the Civil Rights Movement
    In the wake of the Progressive Era, many reform movements saw change and reparations to the social conditions protested for--this was not the case for the Civil Rights Movement. Many African Americans were continuing to be lynched, and were extremely segregated from white society. Minstrel shows and blackface were still used, such as in the 1927 film "The Jazz Singer," and movies such as "The Birth of a Nation" and highly racist manifesto came into use. KKK membership reached an all-time high.
  • The Sacco-Vanzetti Trial

    The Sacco-Vanzetti Trial
    In this landmark trial, two Italian anarchists were tried for a robbery and murder on little real evidence. On July 1, 1920, they were pronounced guilty and were both executed on August 23, 1927. This decision was the subject of riots in many cities as Europeans felt that the American justice system was prejudiced, and that Sacco and Vanzetti were only executed due to their immigrant and anarchist status.
  • Emergency Quota Act and Immigration Act

    Emergency Quota Act and Immigration Act
    The Emergency Quota Act (1921) and Immigration Act (1924) aimed to curb the number of immigrants entering the country. The first restricted the number of immigrants from each nation to 3% of the population of immigrants from there in the 1910 census, while the second restricted immigration further to 2% from the 1890 census. This limitation of civil liberties was enacted in fear of socialism and communism spreading from Eastern European immigrants.
  • The Scopes Monkey Trial

    The Scopes Monkey Trial
    In Tennessee, a law was passed banning teachers from acknowledging evolution in public schools. However, John Scopes freely admitted to the crime. With famed lawyers William Jennings Bryan and Clarence Darrow on the case it quickly garned national attention and became a question of science vs. religion, as it was clear that Scopes had broken the law. However, as Scopes, Darrow, and the ACLU knew, the law restricted the freedom of teachers to teach the subject matter completely.
  • The Rise of Fascism

    The Rise of Fascism
    Many nations fell to fascism at the onset of WWII, changing the course of diplomacy and international composition. Fascism is the concept of exalting the nation over the individual, where the success of the country is controlled by a dictator who heavily limits the political, social, and economic rights and entitlements to their citizens. Citizens of a fascist government are often stripped of civil rights such as freedom of speech and ownership.
  • Bonus Army Attacks

    Bonus Army Attacks
    WWI veterans were set to receive pensions 20 years after WWI. Because of the economic downfall during the 1930s, many veterans formed the "Bonus Army" and marched on Washington, demanding their pensions 10 years early. President Hoover dispatched General MacArthur, who broke up the occupation with violent force, gasing the marchers and setting fire to their tents. Numerous lives were lost and many were injured.
  • The Holocaust

    The Holocaust
    Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany in early-1933; he believed in racial supremacy, and blamed various groups of people--such as the Jews--for WWI. He began interning sects of people, such as Jews, gypsies, African Americans, and homosexuals in death camps over a span of about 10 years, after various attacks such as Kristallnacht. The Holocaust was one of the largest practices of genocide to date, killing over 6 million people at the hands of one nation/political party (Nazism)
  • National Industrial Recovery Act

    National Industrial Recovery Act
    The National Industrial Recovery Act, signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt as part of the New Deal, set up the National Recovery Administration (NRA). This institution encouraged industries to join and draft “codes” regulating trade and industry competition as well as workers wages and hours. By doing this, workers could be exploited and the federal government violated its rights by interfering with intrastate conflicts. This was later overturned in Schechter v. US.
  • The Office of Censorship

    The Office of Censorship
    The Office of Censorship examined all letters going abroad and worked with broadcasters and publishers to keep images of the war positive. They also created propaganda about the war that made it look beneficial and encouraged people to support it or join the military. This limits the information that people get and gives the American people a bias image of the events that occured which didn’t allow them to form informed opinions.
  • Segregation of African-Americans in the army

    Segregation of African-Americans in the army
    Despite the “Double V” campaign being lead by many passionate, pacifist African Americans, the United States overlooked their rights when dealing with the military. The one million blacks who served in the military served in segregated units headed by white officers. This shows that despite the great civil rights progress being made, white Americans were still unable to overlook their racial intolerances and allow blacks to serve like any other citizen thus stripping them of their rights.
  • Lower Wages for Female Workers

     Lower Wages for Female Workers
    During World War II, women went to work to help the war effort, however despite their willingness to work that proved crucial to the war effort, they were paid less than men. Women earned only 65% of the money that a man would earn doing the same job, and when men returned from battle, women were expected to relinquish their jobs and go back to tending their houses. This is proof of the double standard between men and women and the fact that after 100’s of years, women faced discrimination.
  • The War Production Board

    The War Production Board
    President Roosevelt established the War Production Board during 1942 to allocate war materials and produce necessary instruments of industry. The WPB instituted a moderate ration on certain food and items for the average American family, limiting their ability to purchase certain items: a freedom they had enjoyed previously.
  • Japanese American Internment

    Japanese American Internment
    On February 19, 1942, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 which excluded any people of Japanese ancestry from the Pacific coast and put them into relocation camps. These people lost all of their money as they had to quickly leave their house, bringing along only the barest necessities. They were forced to live in what were basically barracks and a strict curfew was enforced.
  • Smith-Connolly Act

    Smith-Connolly Act
    The act allowed the government to seize and operate industries threatened by strikes, especially those threatening the war effort, and prohibited labor unions from contributing to federal elections. The act limited civil liberties designated to citizens through the First Amendment and recognized workplace rights--a practice commonly used in times of war
  • Atomic Bomb

    Atomic Bomb
    On August 6 and 9, 1945, two atomic bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It was estimated that, at the very least, 150,000 died in these bombings, with at least 90,000 dead in Hiroshima and at least 60,000 dead in Nagasaki. Many civilians were killed. This unleashed the power of a single government to obliterate human life and created life-altering circumstances such as radiation and other health problems for generations to come.
  • Federal Employment Loyalty Review Program

    Federal Employment Loyalty Review Program
    This was signed by Harry S Truman in Executive Order 9835. In this program, federal employees had to swear an oath that they were unconnected to communism. More importantly, it allowed a federal employee's boss to do a background check on them at any time. People connected to communism or labor unions and homosexual people were often the targets of this program.
  • Rosenberg Execution

    Rosenberg Execution
    Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were two Russian spies who integrated themselves into America society, and leaked government secrets to the USSR government. Both were found guilty of treason, and were executed by the government. The policy of finding communists began and continued the Red Scare, and was controversial in its use of the electric chair.
  • Hydrogen Bomb

    Hydrogen Bomb
    The American government developed the Hydrogen Bomb in the early-1950s, and decided to test it on an island in the Pacific. The bomb was 26x more powerful than the Atomic Bomb, and completely obliterated the island, leaving harmful effects of radiation and never returning the inhabitants either.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycotts

    Montgomery Bus Boycotts
    Many buses in segregated America had a policy of making blacks sit in the back and whites sit in the front. Blacks were expected to forfeit their seats to white people, even if they had to get off the bus. After the protest of Rosa Parks and similar events, blacks began protesting public transportation in Montgomery under the leadership of Dr. King. The protests proved successful one year later.
  • Emmett Till's Death

    Emmett Till's Death
    Emmett Till, a fourteen-year-old black boy, was murdered in Mississippi after flirting with a white woman. Both of his murderers were acquitted by the all-white jury. However, Till's mother held an open casket funeral to emphasize the brutality of his death. Till's murder outraged America and started off the civil rights movement.
  • De facto segregation

    De facto segregation
    De facto segregation differs from De jure segregation as it is not enforced by law, but societal behavior. Occurring in schools or neighborhoods African Americans were separated from the rest of the white population. For example, when the forced bussing of children to integrate races occurred in schools the black kids accepted their position at the bottom of the food chain and sat at tables away from the whites and even though they were technically in the same school, they often didn't ineract.
  • Greensboro Woolworth Sit-In

    Greensboro Woolworth Sit-In
    Though not the first-ever sit-in, this was the successful sit-in that started the trend of sit-ins in the civil rights movement. Four African-American college freshman sat at the Woolworth's lunch counter. When they were refused service, they sat there until it closed. This continued until July, when the store was desegregated. This also inspired blacks in many other towns to stage similar sit-ins.
  • Birmingham Protests

    Birmingham Protests
    Civil rights acitvists were protesting in Birmingham, Alabama, one of America's most segregated cities. Nicknamed "Bombingham" after many violent attacks, integrating Birmingham became a major goal of the movement. There were marches and freedom rides running through the city. Police commissioner "Bull" Connor responded aggressively to the blacks, turning fire hoses and police dogs on them. The enforcement's response outraged the nation.
  • 16th Street Baptist Church Bombing

    16th Street Baptist Church Bombing
    In September,1963, white southerners lead a violent attack on the 16th Streeet Baptist Church, which was a civil rights headquarters. The bombing killed 4 innocent girls, who were attending the church for Sunday School, shocking many civil rights activists, and causing the movement to begin to turn violent.
  • Diem's Reign

    Diem's Reign
    Ngo Dinh Diem, the "president" of South Korea, was placed into power by the American government. He proved to be a very oppressive leader, and did not allow Buddhists to openly practice their religion (major repression of civil liberties). Buddhists began burning themselves in protest as the American government moved to organize a coup against him.
  • Freedom Summer Killings

    Freedom Summer Killings
    College students from the North traveled to the Deep South to promote blacks to safeguard their civil rights, and register to vote. They set up freedom schools which taught blacks how to advocate for their civil rights nonviolently. Three civil rights workers were lynched by a racist white mob, bringing tensions to a boil, and posing the threat of hostile white southerner resistance to the movement.
  • Agent Orange and Napalm

    Agent Orange and Napalm
    Agent Orange and napalm were two deadly chemicals used in Vietnam. Agent Orange was a herbicide used to decrease ground cover that led to birth defects in humans. Napalm was jelly gasoline that gave people severe burns and terrible injuries. Not just soldiers, but many Vietnam civilians were exposed to both of these deadly chemicals, and many died as a result.
  • Selma Marches

    Selma Marches
    Civil rights workers lead a series of Marches from Selma to Montgomery to register voters. It took 3 attempts to complete the march because of hostility towards the protestors, and faced mass amounts of violence.
  • My Lai

    My Lai
    The My Lai massacre was an event where under the command of William Calley, soldiers attacked a South Vietnamese village and killed many women and children. Thought to be filled with Vietcong, soldiers brutally killed and destroyed everything in sight and took the lives of unarmed citizens. Reports say that praying women and elderly men were shot and bayoneted and after the event General Calley was tried and charged with murder.
  • 1968 Democratic Convention Riot

    1968 Democratic Convention Riot
    A riot between police and anti-Vietnam war Democrats broke out in Chicago as the activists were protesting over the Democratic nomination. After news that LBJ wouldn’t run for reelection came out the antiwar Democrats saw an opportunity to elect a Democrat who didn’t support the war but talk of Hubert Humphrey getting the nomination angered the activists as they felt his association with LBJ would cause him to support the war. The riot was eventually put down violently through the use of clubs.
  • Bombing of Cambodia and Laos

    Bombing of Cambodia and Laos
    Nixon began his policy of Vietnamization, but wanted to cripple the Ho Chi Minh Trail, so he began a bombing campaign on Cambodia and Laos. The action outraged the public and lead to fierce protests, in addition to chemical warfare implications. There were many civilian deaths both in this bombing campaign and in Vietnam.
  • Kent State Riot

    Kent State Riot
    University students at Kent University were protesting the invasion of Cambodia. The demonstration turned violent once the protestors began setting fire to the ROTC buildings. The dean and the local police called it off, but the protestors didn't. The Ohio National Guard was called in to put it down, and used tear gas and violence to stop the students. 4 students were killed, and viewed the response as terror-based, seeming like everyone was "out to get them."
  • Jackson State Riot

    Jackson State Riot
    Students led a protest similar to the ones at Kent State University, but at Jackson State University in Jackson, Mississippi. The protests were against the Vietnam War, especially the bombing of Cambodia. They were confronted by police and the National Guard; two students were killed and 12 were injured.