U.S in the Vietnam War

  • U.S.A. helping France

    U.S.A. helping France
    U.S.A. decides to help France in the war with Vietnam. America supports France in fear that if they don't, communism will spread. By 1954 the U.S. is paying for 3/4 of France's war costs.
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    the vietnam war

  • Geneva Accords and Ngo Dinh Diem

    Geneva Accords and Ngo Dinh Diem
    After the French left Vietnam, and the Geneva Accords impermanently divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel, America immeadiately came to the aid of the southern portion of Vietnam. The U.S. wanted to help the anti-communist leader, Ngo Dinh Diem, win the election in Vietnam. Diem refused to run, for he knew that the communist leader Ho Chinh Minh would definitely win the election. Eisenhower increased American military aid.
  • Vietcong

    Ho Chinh Minh created a guerilla army called Vietcong to fight the South Vietnamese. Due to Vietcongs assassinations of government officials and their increase in control of Vietnam, Diem looked to the U.S. for help.
  • Dislike for Diem

    Dislike for Diem
    Diem's unpopularity increased due to the creation of strategic hamlets, and his discrimination against Buddhism. American Ambassador, Henry Cabot Lodge, expressed understanding towards the South Vietnamese generals, when he learned of their plan to overthrow Diem.
  • Diem executed

    Diem executed
    Diem was executed on November 1, 1963. The South Vietnamese government became more fragile and chaotic as a result of Diem's death, which in turn increased America's involvement.
  • The Gulf of Tonkin lie

    The Gulf of Tonkin lie
    President Johnson announces that American Destroyers were attacked by North Vietnamese torpedo boats. Johnson said that the North Vietnamese attacks were unprovoked, even though American warships had been helping the South Vietnamese attack the North Vietnamese with commando raids. Johnson appeals to Congress, asking them to authorize use of U.S. armed forces, and Congress agrees.
  • Johnson orders airstrikes

    Johnson orders airstrikes
    Vietcong began attacks in the fall of 1964 on bases inhabiting American advisors stationed in South Vietnam. Soon after the Vietcong attacked the base at Pleiku, leaving 7 americans dead, Johnson decides to take action. He orders aircrafts to attack North Vietnam.
  • Johnson's approval and disapproval

    Johnson's approval and disapproval
    Johnson's approval ratings went up after the airstrikes in North Vietnam. His actions were approved by his closest advisors Robert McNamara and McGeorge Bundy, along with other advisors who wanted America to continue its aggressiveness against communism. However, Undersecretary of State, George Ball did not approve of the extent of America's involvement in the Vietnam war.
  • Operation Rolling Thunder

    Operation Rolling Thunder
    Johnson decided to change his policy to a sustained bombing campaign. Operation Rolling Thunder was commenced, and the first American combat troops were sent into Vietnam.
  • Teach-In

    Starting in March 1965, faculty members and students of the University of Michigan took part in a teach-in. Teach-ins were informal discussions about people's opposition to the Vietnam war. In May 1965, 122 colleges conducted a "National Teach-In" on the radio.
  • War powers for the president

    War powers for the president
    The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave the president the ability to employ U.S. armed forces in Vietnam. Soon after the House and Senate passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, the Vietcong attacked South Vietnam.
  • The increasing number of U.S. soldiers in Vietnam

    The increasing number of  U.S. soldiers in Vietnam
    More than 180,000 American soldiers were committed in Vietnam by the end of 1965. The number doubled in 1966.
  • Credibility Gap

    Credibility Gap
    There was a credibility gap because the American government was giving contradicting information on what was happening in Vietnam. This shook American citizen's trust in their government. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee would call in Secretary of State Dean Rusk to inform them of what was happening in the Johnson's administration war program.
  • Questioning the war

    Questioning the war
    6,700 U.S. soldiers dead. America questions their involvement in the war due to the increasing number of casualties. Victory in Vietnam was seeming less and less possible.
  • The refusal of a full scale invasion

    The refusal of a full scale invasion
    Johnson doesn't launch a full scale invasion on North Vietnam, in fear of bringing China into the war. This elongated the war, and forced America to fight a war of attrition. 220,000 Vietnamese were killed.
  • Anger at the draft, and drafting techniques

    Anger at the draft, and drafting techniques
    3,300 Americans were prosecuted due to their refusal to serve in the war. A total of 500,000 draftees refused to fight in Vietnam. A rally took place at Wahington Lincoln's Memorial, attracting many anti-war demonstrators. In 1969, the government used a lottery system making those with low lottery numbers drafted into the war.
  • Tet Offensive

    Tet Offensive
    The North Vietnamese and Vietcong inflicted an enormous attack on the day of Tet, the Vietnamese New Year. This attack was called the Tet Offensive. The Vietcong and North Vietnamese guerilla fighters attacked most of the American air bases in Vietnam, and the Vietcong commandos fought their way into the American Embassy located in Saigon.
  • The wins and losses of the Tet offensive

    The wins and losses of the Tet offensive
    Although the North Vietnamese had majorly won politically, they suffered militarily. President Johnson boasted about the North Vietnamese's failure in the Tet offensive. American citizens however, were shocked that the North Vietnamese launched such a powerful attack when they were being so regularly informed of the opposing side being on the verge of defeat. Due to this, Johnson's favorability in America decreased.
  • Henry Kissinger tries to negotiate

    Henry Kissinger tries to negotiate
    Soon after elected, President Nixon appointed Henry Kissinger as the special assistant for national security affairs. Over the course of four years, Kissinger tried to negotiate with Le Duc Tho(North Vietnam's negotiator) about the possibility of there being a cease-fire, along with the American prisoners of war. Nixon enforces Vietnamization.
  • Kent State University response to Cambodia

    Kent State University response to Cambodia
    President Nixon announced that U.S. soldiers had invaded Cambodia. As a response to the invasion, the students of Kent University conducted a protest. Ohio National Guard used tear gas and rifles on the students without an order to do so.
  • 26th Ammendment

    26th Ammendment
    Young Americans were angered that they were old enough to fight, but not old enough to vote. Due to this, the 26th Ammendment was ratified allowing those who were 18 and older the right to vote.
  • "peace is at hand"

    "peace is at hand"
    2/3 of Americans wanted the Vietnam war to be over. President Nixon modified his insistence of North Vietnamese pulling out of South Vietnam before a peace treaty could be signed.Kissinger announced that "peace is at hand".
  • Pressuring Nguyen Van Thieu

    Pressuring Nguyen Van Thieu
    Nguyen Van Thieu's, South Vietnam's president, refused to allow Northern Vietnamese troops to stay in South Vietnam. Nixon's administration inflicted massive air raids on Northern Vietnam, so that the Northern Vietnamese would negotiate. Thieu caved in to America's pressure, and allowed the North Vietnamese to stay in the South. A peace treaty was signed by the North and South Vietnamese "ending the war and restoring peace in Vietnam" on January 27, 1973.
  • North Vietnam disobeys the peace treaty

    North Vietnam disobeys the peace treaty
    Once all of the American troops were gone, the North Vietnamese launched a massive attack on South Vietnam. Although Nixon promised Thieu support if the North Vietnamese attacked, he could no longer help because of his resignation due to the watergate scandal. The new president, Gerald Ford, was unable to help, for Congress wouldn't supply American aid. On April 30, North Vietnamese captured and renamed Saigon to the Ho Chi Minh City, and united Vietnam under Communist rule.
  • The aftermath of Vietnam

    The aftermath of Vietnam
    The Vietnam war cost America $170 billion, and around 58,000 soldier's lives. Returning Vietnam veterans were shunned by society, rather than treated as heros.