A movement called socialism spread throughout Europe. Socialism is an economic and political philosophy that favors public, instead of private, control of property and income.
Elias Howe's created the first sewing machine.
Compromise of 1850
California was admitted as a free state, but in the other territory acquired from Mexico, voters would decide the slavery issue for themselves.
Elisha Otis develops a safety mechanism to prevent elevator car from suddenly falling.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
Divided the Nebraska Territory into Kansas and Nebraska.
Violence in Kansas
Southern proslavery forces attacked the free-state town of Lawrence, Kansas.
Dred Scott an enslaved African American from MIssouri, sued for his freedom in 1846. Between 1834 and 1838 he lived with a master in Illinois, which is a free state, The Supreme Court said Scotts couldn't sue because African Americans were not citizens.
The American Institute of Architecture
The American Institute of Architecture was established to professionalize the practice.
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Abraham Lincoln who is a Republican, challenged Stephen Douglas who is a Democrat, to a series of debates.
First department store
Rowland H. Macy opened what he called a department store in New York in 1858, it became the largest single store in America
First oil well
In 1859, Edwin Drake drilled what became the world's first oil well in Titusville, Pennsylvania.
Charles Darwin published, On the Originof Species, saying animals evolved by a process called, "Natural Selection."
The Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln, Stephen Douglas, John Bell, and John Breckinridge were the candidates for the next president.
South Carolina leaves Union
Once Lincoln was elected, South Carolina dropped out of the Union.
Confederate States of America
After South Carolina seceded from the Union, 6 other states also dropped the Union. All 7 states established, the Confederate States of America. The Confederate constitution stresses the independence of each state and the rights to secede
Lincoln takes office
Lincoln was sworn in as President.
Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed 50,000 slaves. Whoever was in the rebellion againt the United States would be free.
The Union Prevails
The Union succeeded in capurting Vicksburg, Mississippi. Advancing from Louisiana side of the Mississippi River, Union General, Ulysses S. Grant scored 5 victories in 3 weeks, ending with the surrender of 30,000 Confederate troops
The North faces problems
Congress passes a draft law saying, all able-bodied men between 20-45 have to serve in the military. In New York City, white workers attacked free African Americans as well as wealthy New Yorkers who were able to pay a fee to avoid military service.
Battle of Gerrysburg
Union troops defeated Lee at the town of Gettysburg.
War is over
In Virginia town of Appomattox Court House, Lee Surrendered to Grant.
Lincoln was assassinated
Lincoln gets assassinated at a play.
The 14th Amendement
The 14th Amendment was ratified.
Knights of Labor
Uriah Smith Stephens founded a Labor Union called Knights of Labor.
Corporations in America
The number of corporations in America increased dramatically.
The election of 1876
Samuel Tilden and Rutherford B. Hayes were running for the election, Hayes won.
Alexander Graham Bell made the first telephone.
The National League organized it into a business.
First major strike
Striking workers, responding to wage cuts, caused massive property desetruction in several cities.
Thomas Edison creates the electric light blub.
Chinese Exclusion Act
This is act prohibited immigration by Chinese laborers, limited the civil rights of Chinese immigrants already in the United States, and forbade the naturalization of Chinese residents.
Lamarcus Thompson opened the world's first roller coaster, at 10 cents a ride.
Spread of the Knights
By 1885, the Knights had grown to include 700,000 men and women nationwide, or every race and ethnicity.
American Federation of Labor
Samuel Gompers formed the (AFL)
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
United States Senate created the (ICC) to oversee railroad operations.
In Richmond, Virginia introduced a revolutionary: streetcars powered by overhead electric cables.
Sherman Antitrust Act
The Senate passed the Sherman Antitrust Act, which outlawed trusts.
European immigrants arrived in New York Harbor, they were processed at Ellis Island
Boston made the first nations subway system, New York followed in 1904.
In which white people of all different nationalities blended to create a single culture, this did not include Asian immigrants.