1. Socrates – (469-399BC)According to Socrates, “no one commits an evil act knowingly and doing wrong arises out of ignorance.” A person will commit only moral evil if he lacks moral knowledge. Sometimes, a person may have knowledge but he deliberately commits an evil act to satisfy his hidden motive.
2. PLATO – (428-348 BC)Plato’s main concern is to challenge the views most people have about goodness, for it is here that they go disastrously wrong in trying to live happy lives. Most people think that virtue is a minor
good, or even an impediment to living a happy life. Plato considers this to be incorrect; it is only by being virtuous that we can hope to be happy.
3. Aristotle – (384-322 BC)Aristotle argued that virtues are good habits that we acquire, which regulate our emotions. Aristotle further argued that most virtues fall at a mean between extreme character traits. Aristotle’s “The Golden Mean Principle” states that to be happy, live a life of moderation. In everything that we do, we must avoid extremes (Roa, 2007).
4. UTILITARIANISM - (1863)The utilitarian ethics is best explained by the maxim, “Do whatever produces the greatest good for the greatest number.” The theory argues that what makes an act right is its consequences and not the motive of the action. The effects or consequences determine the goodness or badness of an action. An act is good if and when it gives good results, if it works, if it makes you successful, and if it makes you attain your purpose. Otherwise, it is bad.
5. Moral Positivism - (19th century)Thomas Hobbes believes that human beings are basically selfish creatures who would do anything to improve their position. Hobbes felt that like people, nations are selfishly motivated. For him, each country is in a constant battle for power and wealth. Hobbes’ moral positivism anticipates the chaotic outcome if laws are not abided. t is a must for every nation to have someone who
would manage and administer them.