The Swinging Pendulum

Timeline created by kateyoung3
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
    President - L. B. Johnson (Dem)
    88th Congress - Both House and Senate have a Democratic majority On April 9th, 1965, President Johnson signed the ESEA of 1965 into law after it was passed in the senate on April 7th. This act signaled the beginning of Federal Government involvement in the country's educational system. Growing out of the "Great Society's War on Poverty" the act offered funding enticements to improve educational opportunities for disadvantaged children.
  • Bilingual YES / The Bilingual Act of 1968 (P.L. 90-247) under Title VII of ESEA

    Bilingual YES / The Bilingual Act of 1968 (P.L. 90-247) under Title VII of ESEA
    President - L.B. Johnson (Dem)
    90th Congress - Senate and House have a Democratic majority The Bilingual Act of 1968 under Title VII of ESEA was the first legislation for bilingual education passed by Congress and signed into law by President Johnson on 1/2/1968. It had bipartisan support and granted funds specifically for the needs of Limited English Speaking Ability (LESA) students in poverty. Unfortunately, the focus was not on helping these students keep up academically with their peers.
  • Bilingual YES / 1974 and 1978 reauthorizations of Title VII

    Bilingual YES / 1974 and 1978 reauthorizations of Title VII
    During these two reauthorizations:
    - 1974 Presidents (Rep) Richard Nixon and (Rep) Gerald Ford
    - 1974 - 93rd congress, both Houses are Democratic
  • Bilingual NO / Opposition to Bilingualism Strengthens

    Bilingual NO / Opposition to Bilingualism Strengthens
    President Carter (Dem)
    95th Congress Both Houses are Democratic
  • Bilingual NO / English - Only Movement

    Bilingual NO / English - Only Movement
    Senator S.I. Hayakawa (R-CA) from 1977 - 1983
    President - 1981-1989 Ronald Regan (Rep)
    Congress was mostly Democratic during this time except for the Republican Senates from 1981 -1986 1981 - Hayakawa unsuccessfully proposed a constitutional amendment declaring English the official language of the U.S.
    - He linked the growing backlash to bilingual education with U.S. language policy in general

    - After he retired in 1984 he began the advocacy group U.S. "English" to lobby for English only.
  • Bilingual NO / 1984 and 1988 Reauthorization of Title VII

    Bilingual NO / 1984 and 1988 Reauthorization of Title VII
    President - Ronald Reagan (Rep)
    1984 - 98th Congress - Senate (Rep) and House (Dem)
    1988 - 100th Congress - both Houses Democratic
  • Bilingual YES / 1994 Reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act

    Bilingual YES / 1994 Reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act
    President - Bill Clinton (Dem)
    103rd Congress - Both Houses are Democratic
  • Bilingual NO / English Only Movement in States

    Bilingual NO / English Only Movement in States
    President -Bill Clinton (Dem)
    105th Congress - Both Houses are Republican
  • Bilingual NO / 2001 Reauthorization of ESEA - No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)

    Bilingual NO / 2001 Reauthorization of ESEA - No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
    President - George W. Bush (Rep)
    107th Congress - Senate Dem and House Rep
  • Bilingual NO / Title III - the English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act

    Bilingual NO / Title III - the English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act
    President - George W. Bush (Rep)
    107th Congress - Senate Dem and House Rep
  • Bilingual YES (well... a little better) / Every Students Succeeds Act (ESSA)

    Bilingual YES (well... a little better) / Every Students Succeeds Act (ESSA)
    President - Barack Obama (Dem)
    114th Congress - Both Houses are Republican