The Changes in Bilingual Education

  • Jan 1, 1400

    Indigenous Languages

    North America is rich in various indigenous languages of Navtive American tribes
  • Period: Jan 1, 1492 to

    History of Bilingual Development

  • U.S. Articles of Confederation

    U.S. Articles of Confederation
    U.S. Articles of Confederation were written in three languages English, french, and German. in order to set allies, ratifiy contracts and stop raids against certain states.
  • Cherokee Treaty Signed

    Treaty of 1828- Treaty between Cherokee Native American and U.S. Government written in both English and Cherokee
  • 1st State to Adopt Bilingual Education

    1st State to Adopt Bilingual Education
    Ohio is the first state to adopt a bilingual education law, allowing German-English instruction at the parents’ request
  • Following Ohio's Lead

    Following Ohio's Lead
    Lousisianna passes similar bilingual education laws as the state of Ohio. Providing French and English instruction
  • Spanish is allowed

    Spanish is allowed
    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidaglo was signed giving new language freedoms to SPanish speaking persons
  • English-Only Schools for Native Americans

    "... in 1864, Congress barred Native American students from receiving instruction in any language other than English. This legislation signaled the continuation of a national policy of Native American assimilation, which later included coercing parents into sending their children to be “civilized” at Indian boarding schools."
  • 1st attempts for anti-bilingual laws within schools

    Wisconsin and Illinois attempted to institute English-only schooling for all students
  • English-Only Schools in Puerto Rico and the Philippines

    English Only Schools were forced upon the people in Puerto Rico and the Philippines after the U.S. victory of the Spanish American war
  • Nationality Act of Texas

    Required immigrants to speak English in order to begin the process of becoming naturalized, legitimized the use of language as a mode of exclusion and discrimination.
  • German language is out of Iowa

    The state of Iowa bans the use of any foreign language and removes all the uses of German from elementary schools
  • Period: to

    French is banned from Maine

    Ku Klux Klan members in Maine, numbering 150,141 in 1925, burn crosses in hostility to French Americans (Diaz-Rico 120)
    Diaz-Rico, Lynne T. A Course for Teaching English Learners, VitalSource for Ashford University, 2nd Edition. Pearson Learning Solutions. VitalBook file.
  • Meyer v. Nebraska

    Supreme Court bans English-only laws
  • Del Rio Independent School District v. Salvatierra

    A Texas Superior Court rules that the school in the suit cannot segreate its Mexican students, however a higher court rules that in order to teach these students English, these students must be segreated
  • Lemon Grove v. Alvarez

    State superior court rules that in california, school segregation is against the law
  • Massive IQ testing

    Massive IQ testing of Puerto Ricans in New York. Testing was used to place Spanish-speaking children two to three years below grade level.
  • Japanese Schools are closed

    Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor
  • Méndez v. Westminster School District

    Courts rule that all schools must be open to all children regarless of thier lineage.
  • Fleeing Cubans demand Spanish -langage schooling

  • The Civil Rights Act: Title V (Diaz-Rico 121)Diaz-Rico, Lynne T. A Course for Teaching English Learners, VitalSource for Ashford University, 2nd Edition. Pearson Learning Solutions. VitalBook file.

    was the chief drive for bilingual education in the United States .
  • 1968 Bilingual Education Act (BEA)

    First bilingual-bicultural education program at the federal level.
    Supplemental funding for school districts interested in establishing programs to meet the needs of people with limited English abilities.
    Had to be from low-income families.
    Provided funding for planning and developing bilingual education programs as well as training and operation for these programs
  • Boycotts against schools breakout in Los Angeles

    Leaders of the boycotts are arrested
    Two years later, charges are deemed unconstitutional
  • Bilingual programa fall short

    Bilingual programs reach only one out of every forty Mexican-American students in the Southwest.
  • Serna v. Portales Municipal Schools

    First federal court enforcement of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Title VI
  • Keyes v. School District No. 1, Denver, Colorado

  • The Equal Education Opportunities Act (EEOA) (U.S. Congress)

    “No state shall deny equal educational opportunities to an individual on account of his or her race, color, sex, or national origin by the failure of an educational agency to take appropriate action to overcome language barriers that impede equal participation by its students in its instructional programs.”
  • Bilingual Education Act of 1974

    Eliminated low-income criteria of the 1968 Act.
    Provided a definition of Bilingual education.
    Feedback and progress report must be given.
  • Lau v. Nichols

    U.S. Supreme Court establishes the right of students to differential treatment based on their language minority status, but it does not specify a particular instructional approach.
  • Serna v. Portales Municipal Schools (1974)

    Court provides an adequate relief program for Spanish-surnamed children
  • Lau Remedies—guidelines from the U.S. Commissioner of Education.

    Standardized requirements for identification, testing, and placement into bilingual programs. Districts are told how to identify and evaluate children with limited English skills, what instructional treatments to use, when to transfer children to all-English classrooms, and what professional standards teachers need to meet. (Diaz-Rico 121)
  • Senator S.I. Hayakawa

    Senator S.I. Hayakawa introduced a constitutional amendment that made English the sole official language of the United States.
    1983: Hayakawa founds "U.S. English", a legislative organization.
    By 1998, twenty-five states had made English their official language
  • Ron Unz's Proposition 227 (California)

    the �English for the Children� initiative. This proposition eliminates bilingual education.
    Was passed in 1998, but is still debated today.
    Peaked people's interest in bilingual education.
    Passage was a significant event in California 's educational history.
  • Utah promotes English-only laws

    State initiative in Utah promotes English-only laws in the state government.
  • Proposition 203 passed in Arizona

    similar to proposition 227 in California.
    Eliminates teaching students in any other language besides English
  • The Colorado English for the Children Initiative

    similar to proposition 227 in california and proposition 203 in Arizona.
    Eliminated bilingual education in Colorado's public schools
  • No Child Left Behind Act (2001

    signed by President Bush is the successor of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.
    Much debate over how helpful this is to non-native English speakers