LINEA DEL TIEMPO DE LOS PERIODOS DEL IDIOMA INGLES

  • 450

    OLD ENGLISH PERIOD

    OLD ENGLISH PERIOD
    Old English language, also called Anglo-Saxon, language spoken and written in England before 1100; it is the ancestor of Middle English and Modern English. Scholars place Old English in the Anglo-Frisian group of West Germanic languages.
  • 450

    Start of Old English

    Start of Old English
    Anglo-Saxon settlement (Angles, Frisians, Saxons, Jutes) of Britain begins.
  • Period: 450 to 1100

    OLD ENGLISH PERIOD

    Old English language, also called Anglo-Saxon, language spoken and written in England before 1100; it is the ancestor of Middle English and Modern English. Scholars place Old English in the Anglo-Frisian group of West Germanic languages.
  • 597

    Beginning of Christian Conversion

    Beginning of Christian Conversion
    St. Augustine arrives in Britain (beginning of Christian conversion of the Anglo-Saxons)
    The Latin language the missionaries brought was still only used by the educated ruling classes and Church functionaries, and Latin was only a influence on the English language at this time, being largely restricted to the naming of Church dignitaries and ceremonies
  • 597

    Alphabet

    Alphabet
    The alphabet used to write our Old English texts was adopted from Latin, which was introduced by Christian missionaries.
  • 600

    Anglo- Saxon Language

    Anglo- Saxon Language
    Anglo-Saxon language covers most of modern-day England
  • 793

    Viking raids of Britain begin

    Viking raids of Britain begin
    Began to make sporadic raids on the east cost of Britain. They came from Denmark, Norway and Sweden, although it was the Danes who came with the greatest force. Notorious for their ferocity, ruthlessness and callousness, the Vikings pillaged and plundered the towns and monasteries of northern England before turning their attentions further south.
  • 800

    Literature

    Literature
    About 400 Anglo-Saxon texts survive from this era, including many beautiful poems, telling tales of wild battles and heroic journeys. The oldest surviving text of Old English literature is “Cædmon's Hymn”, which was composed between 658 and 680, and the longest was the ongoing “Anglo-Saxon Chronicle”. But by far the best known is the long epic poem “Beowulf”.
  • 871

    Alfred the Great becomes king of Wessex

    Alfred the Great becomes king of Wessex
    By the time Alfred the Great came to the throne in 871, most of the great monasteries of Northumbria and Mercia lay in ruins and only Wessex remained as an independent kingdom. Alfred, set about rebuilding and fostering the revival of learning, law, and religion. Crucially, he believed in educating the people in the vernacular English language, not Latin, and he himself made several translations of important works into English.
  • 878

    Danelaw established, dividing Britain into Anglo-Saxon south and Danish north

    Danelaw established, dividing Britain into Anglo-Saxon south and Danish north
    Viking expansion was finally checked by Alfred the Great and, in 878, a treaty between the Anglo-Saxons and the Vikings established the Danelaw, splitting the country along a line roughly from London to Chester, giving the Norsemen control over the north and east and the Anglo-Saxons the south and west. Although the Danelaw lasted less than a century, its influence can be seen today in the number of place names of Norse origin in northern England
  • 911

    The beginning of Norman French

    The beginning of Norman French
    Charles II of France grants Normandy to the Viking chief Hrolf the Ganger
  • 1066

    The Norman conquest under William the Conqueror

    The Norman conquest under William the Conqueror
    The Norman Conquest of 1066, when William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy and, later, William I of England) invaded the island of Britain from his home base in northern France, and settled in his new acquisition along with his nobles and court. William crushed the opposition with a brutal hand and deprived the Anglo-Saxon earls of their property, distributing it to Normans who supported him.
  • 1067

    Language of Normandy

    Language of Normandy
    The conquering Normans were themselves descended from Vikings who had settled in northern France about 200 years before . However, they had completely abandoned their Old Norse language and wholeheartedly adopted French (which is a so-called Romance language, derived originally from the Latin, not Germanic, branch of Indo-European), to the extent that not a single Norse word survived in Normandy.
  • 1100

    MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD

    MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD
    The Middle English period saw the breakdown of the inflectional system of Old English and the expansion of vocabulary with many borrowings from French and Latin.
  • Period: 1100 to 1500

    MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD

    The Middle English period saw the breakdown of the inflectional system of Old English and the expansion of vocabulary with many borrowings from French and Latin.
  • 1154

    French (Anglo-Norman) Influence

    French (Anglo-Norman) Influence
    Often, different words with roughly the same meaning survived, and a whole host of new, French-based synonyms entered the English language.
    The pronunciation differences between the harsher, more guttural Anglo-Norman and the softer Francien dialect of Paris were also carried over into English pronunciations.
  • 1171

    Henry ll

    Henry ll
    Henry II declares himself overlord of Ireland, introducing Norman French and English to the country.
  • 1204

    Uncontrolled of the Duchy of Normandy

    Uncontrolled of the Duchy of Normandy
    King John loses control of the Duchy of Normandy and other French lands; England is now the only home of the Norman French/English.
  • 1215

    The Magna Carta ("Great Charter")

    The Magna Carta ("Great Charter")
    King John signs the Magna Carta ("Great Charter"), a critical document in the long historical process leading to the rule of constitutional law in the English-speaking world.
  • 1258

    King Henry III is forced to accept the Provisions of Oxford

    King Henry III is forced to accept the Provisions of Oxford
    King Henry III is forced to accept the Provisions of Oxford, which establish a Privy Council to oversee the administration of the government. These documents, though annulled a few years later, are generally regarded as England's first written constitution.
  • 1337

    The Hundred Year War against France

    The Hundred Year War against France
    The Hundred Years War between England and France leads to the loss of almost all of England's French possessions.
  • 1349

    The Black Death

    The Black Death
    The Black Death of 1349 - 1350 killed about a third of the English population, including a disproportionate number of the Latin-speaking clergy. After the plague, the English-speaking labouring and merchant classes grew in economic and social importance and, within the short period of a decade, the linguistic division between the nobility and the commoners was largely over.
  • 1362

    The Statute of Pleading

    The Statute of Pleading
    The Statute of Pleading, which made English the official language of the courts and Parliament (although, paradoxically, it was written in French), was adopted in 1362, and in that same year, Edward III became the first king to address Parliament in English, a crucial psychological turning point.
  • 1384

    The Bible

    The Bible
    John Wycliffe's produced his translation of “The Bible” in vernacular English. This challenge to Latin as the language of God was considered a revolutionary act of daring at the time, and the translation was banned by the Church in no uncertain terms
  • 1385

    Language

    Language
    English had become the language of instruction in schools.
  • 1399

    King Henry IV

     King Henry IV
    At his coronation, King Henry IV becomes the first English monarch to deliver a speech in English.
  • 1450

    The Great Vowel Shift

    The Great Vowel Shift
    The Great Vowel Shift begins, marking the loss of the so-called "pure" vowel sounds (which are still found in many continental languages) and the loss of the phonetic pairings of most long and short vowel sounds.
  • 1500

    Start of English Renaissance

    Start of English Renaissance
    The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England.
    The beginning of the English Renaissance is often taken, as a convenience, to be 1485, when the Battle of Bosworth Field ended the Wars of the Roses and inaugurated the Tudor Dynasty. Renaissance style and ideas, however, were slow to penetrate England, and the Elizabethan era in the second half of the 16th century is usually regarded as the height of the English Renaissance.
  • 1500

    English Renaissance

    English Renaissance
    The English Renaissance roughly covers the 16th and early 17th Century (the European Renaissance had begun in Italy as early as the 14th Century) and is often referred to as the “Elizabethan Era” or the “Age of Shakespeare” after the most important monarch and most famous writer of the period. The additions to English vocabulary during this period were deliberate borrowings and not the result of any invasion or influx of new nationalities or any top-down decrees.
  • 1500

    EARLY MODERN ENGLISH PERIOD

    EARLY MODERN ENGLISH PERIOD
    During the period of Modern English, British exploration, colonization, and overseas trade hastened the acquisition of loanwords from countless other languages and fostered the development of new varieties of English (World English), each with its own nuances of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. Since the middle of the 20th century, the expansion of North American business and media around the world has led to the emergence of Global English as a lingua franca.
  • Period: 1500 to

    ERALY MODERN ENGLISH

    During the period of Modern English, British exploration, colonization, and overseas trade hastened the acquisition of loanwords from countless other languages and fostered the development of new varieties of English (World English), each with its own nuances of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. Since the middle of the 20th century, the expansion of North American business and media around the world has led to the emergence of Global English as a lingua franca.
  • 1526

    The Bible

    The Bible
    William Tyndale prints his English translation of the New Testament of “The Bible”
  • 1539

    “The Great Bible” published

    “The Great Bible” published
    Ironically, a scant few years after Tyndale’s execution, Henry VIII’s split with Roman Catholicism completely changed official attitudes to an English “Bible”, and by 1539 the idea was being wholeheartedly encouraged, and several new English language Bibles were published (including the “Coverdale Bible”, the “Matthew Bible”, the “Great Bible”, the “Geneva Bible”, the “Bishops Bible”, etc).
  • Elizabeth I begins her 45-year reign as queen of England.

    Elizabeth I begins her 45-year reign as queen of England.
    Elizabeth I begins her 45-year reign as queen of England. The British defeat the Spanish Armada, boosting national pride and enhancing the legend of Queen Elizabeth.
  • William Shakespeare

    William Shakespeare
    William Shakespeare writes his Sonnets and the majority of his plays.
  • The Authorized, or King James Version, of “The Bible” is published

    The Authorized, or King James Version, of “The Bible” is published
    The “King James Bible” was compiled by a committee of 54 scholars and clerics, and published in 1611, in an attempt to standardize the plethora of new Bibles that had sprung up over the preceding 70 years. It appears to be deliberately conservative, even backward-looking, both in its vocabulary and its grammar, and presents many forms which had already largely fallen out of use, or were at least in the process of dying out
  • Civil War breaks out in England

    Civil War breaks out in England
    Civil War breaks out in England after King Charles I attempts to arrest his parliamentary critics. The war leads to the execution of Charles I, the dissolution of parliament, and the replacement of the English monarchy with a Protectorate (1653–59) under Oliver Cromwell's rule.
  • The Royal Society of London

    The Royal Society of London
    The Royal Society of London appoints a committee to consider ways of "improving" English as a language of science.
  • Essay Upon Projects

    Essay Upon Projects
    In his Essay Upon Projects, Daniel Defoe calls for the creation of an Academy of 36 "gentlemen" to dictate English usage.
  • The Daily Courant

    The Daily Courant
    The Daily Courant, the first regular daily newspaper in English, is published in London.
  • The Act of Union unites the Parliaments

    The Act of Union unites the Parliaments
    The Act of Union unites the Parliaments of England and Scotland, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
  • Creation of an English Academy to regulate English

    Creation of an English Academy to regulate English
    Anglo-Irish satirist and cleric Jonathan Swift proposes the creation of an English Academy to regulate English usage and "ascertain" the language
  • Universal Etymological Dictionary of the English Language

    Universal Etymological Dictionary of the English Language
    Nathaniel Bailey publishes his Universal Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, a pioneer study in English lexicography: the first to feature current usage, etymology, syllabification, clarifying quotations, illustrations, and indications of pronunciation.
  • Dictionary of the English Language.

    Dictionary of the English Language.
    Samuel Johnson publishes his two-volume Dictionary of the English Language.
  • English grammarians

    English grammarians
    This period marks the rise of the English grammarians (Joseph Priestly, Robert Lowth, James Buchanan, John Ash, Thomas Sheridan, George Campbell, William Ward, and Lindley Murray), whose rule books, primarily based on prescriptive notions of grammar, become increasingly popular.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence is signed, and the American War of Independence begins, leading to the creation of the United States of America, the first country outside the British Isles with English as its principal language.
  • First English settlement

    First English settlement
    First English settlement at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa
  • LATE MODERN ENGLISH PERIOD

    LATE MODERN ENGLISH PERIOD
    Grimm's Law (discovered by Friedrich von Schlegel and Rasmus Rask, later elaborated by Jacob Grimm) identifies relationships between certain consonants in Germanic languages (including English) and their originals in Indo-European. The formulation of Grimm's Law marks a major advance in the development of linguistics as a scholarly field of study.
  • Period: to

    LATE MODERN ENGLISH

    Grimm's Law (discovered by Friedrich von Schlegel and Rasmus Rask, later elaborated by Jacob Grimm) identifies relationships between certain consonants in Germanic languages (including English) and their originals in Indo-European. The formulation of Grimm's Law marks a major advance in the development of linguistics as a scholarly field of study.
  • A New and Improved Grammar

    A New and Improved Grammar
    William Hazlitt publishes A New and Improved Grammar of the English Language.​
  • The first telegraph

    The first telegraph
    The telegraph is invented by Samuel Morse, inaugurating the development of rapid communication, a major influence on the growth and spread of English.
  • The Oxford English Dictionary

    The Oxford English Dictionary
    The Oxford English Dictionary is published.
  • World War II begins.

    World War II begins.
  • World War II ends.

     World War II ends.
    World War II ends. The Allied victory contributes to the growth of English as a lingua franca.
  • Canada officially becomes bilingual

    Canada officially becomes bilingual
    Canada officially becomes bilingual (French and English). The first major English dictionary to use corpus linguistics—The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language—is published.
  • David Crystal publishes The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language.

    David Crystal publishes The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language.
  • The Oxford English Dictionary Online (OED Online) is made available to subscribers.

    The Oxford English Dictionary Online (OED Online) is made available to subscribers.
  • The two-volume Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary is published by Oxford University Press.

    The two-volume Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary is published by Oxford University Press.
  • The fifth volume (SI-Z) of the Dictionary of American Regional English (DARE ) is published by Belknap Press of Harvard University Press

    The fifth volume (SI-Z) of the Dictionary of American Regional English (DARE ) is published by Belknap Press of Harvard University Press