Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching

  • 1489

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  • Period: 1500 to

    XVI

    CENTURY
  • Period: 1501 to

    Latin

    It was a Lingua franca (Reading, writing, grammar structure and translating) S.XIX
    Latin was the dominant language of education, commerce, religion, and government in the Western World.
    Latin gradually became displaced as a language of spoken and written communication.
    The study of latin had become the standard way of studying foreign languages in schools.
    Latin grammar was taught through rote learning of grammar rules, conjugations, translations and practice writing sample sentences.
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    XVII

    CENTURY
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    XVIII

    CENTURY
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    XIX

    CENTURY
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    The Grammar-Translation Method

    Grammar Translation is a way of studying a language that approaches the language first through detailed analysis of its grammar rules, followed by application of this knowledge to the task of translating sentences and text into and out of the target language. It is still used in situations where understandig literary texts is the primary focus of foreign language study and there is little need for a speaking knowledge of the language.
  • 1845

    The principal characteristics were:
    ▲Reading and writing are the major focus.
    ▲Students are expected to attain high standards in translation.
    ▲Grammar is taught deductively.
    ▲Memorization
    ▲Student's L1 is the medium of instruction.
  • Henry Sweet

    Henry Sweet set principles for the development of teaching method:
    →Careful selection of what is to be taught
    →imposing limits on what is to be taught
    →Arranging what is to be taught in terms of the 4 skills (L,S,R,W)
    →grading materials from simple to complex
  • Mid and Late Nineteenth Century

    Opossition to the Grammar Translation Method gradually developed in several European countries.
  • L. Sauveur

    Used intensive oral interaction in the target language employing questions as a way of presenting and eliciting language. He opend a language school in boston in the late 1860, and his method soon became referred to as a Natural Method
  • Beginning of the Reform Movement

    *The discipline of linguistics was revitalized.
    *Phonetics was established.
    *Linguistics emphasized that speech was the primary form of language.
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    The Reform Movement

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    Direct Method

    Methodology around observation of child language learning.
    This is known as Natural Method too. In fact, at various times throughout the history of language teaching, attempts have been made to make second language learning more like first language learning.
  • Wilhelm Viëtor

    In Germany the prominent scholar used linguistic theory to justified his views on language teaching. He argued that training in Phonetics would enable teachers to pronounce the language accurately. Speech patterns, rather than grammar, were the fundamental elements of language.
  • F. Franke

    Wrote on the pshycological principles of direct association between forms and meanings in the target language and provided a theorical justification for a monolingual approach to teaching.
  • IPA

    The International Phonetic Association was Founded. It advicated:
    →The study of the spoken language
    →Phonetic training in order to establish good pronunciation habits
    → The use of conversation text and dialogues to introduce conversational phrases and idioms.
    →Inductive approche to teaching of grammar
    →New meanings
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    XX

    CENTURY
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    Karl Pearson

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was found. It is clearly an ongoing process, but based on the research conducted over the past decade, we can formulate some key guiding principles for the approach.
    1. PCA should be meaning-focused and personally significant as a whole.
    2. The controlled practice principle
    3. The declarative input principle
    4. The focus-on-form principle
    5. The formulaic language principle
    7. The focused interaction principle
  • 1920

    Use of the Direct Method on non-commercial schools in Europe had consequently declined.
    In France and Germany it was gradually modified in two versions that combined some direct method techniques with more controlled grammar based activities.
  • Audiolingual Method

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    The Methods Era

  • Communicative Language Teaching

    Communicative language teaching was introduced at the beginning of the 1970s by British and American scholars to promote the teaching of usable communicative skills in L2 instruction. Although it was seen by many as a counterreaction to the audiolingual method that dominated the 1960s, the main goal of CLT – to develop a functional communicative L2 competence in the learner – was actually similar to the primary audiolingual objective.
  • Howatt

    Points out that in Grammar Translation was not necessarily the horror that its critics depicted it as.
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    Michael Long

    Focus on form (FonF) and form-focused instruction (FFI) indicate a concern with the structural system of language from a communicative perspective. Thus, FonF/FFI refer to a new type of grammar instruction embedded within a communicative approach, and in that sense this approach is a prime example of trying to implement the explicit-implicit interface in actual classroom practice.
  • Content-Based Instruction and Task-Based Language Teaching

    New approaches to language teaching as did movements such as Competency-Based Instruction that focus on the outcomes of learning rather than methods of teaching. Other approaches, such as cooperative Learning, whole language approach and multiple intelligences, originally developed in general education, have been extended to second language settings.
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    XXI

    CENTURY
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    FACTS

    The focus in language education in the twenty-first century is no longer on grammar, memorization and learning from rote, but rather using language and cultural knowledge as a means to communicate and connect to others around the globe. Geographical and physical boundaries are being transcended by technology as students learn to reach out to the world around them, using their language and cultural skills to facilitate the connections they are eager to make.
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    TEACHERS

    21st century has seen many modified approaches and got them adopted in the language teaching/language learning process. The teacher should gear up the language teaching tools, appropriate to the current trends with the modern pedagogical approaches and methodologies in language teaching. Language teaching plays an important role to open up its resources to the learners to enable them to find the right expressions to convey the intended meaning to the listeners.
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    STUDENTS

    EFL students are increasingly likely to communicate with speakers of English or to access information in English via the Internet than they are in realized imagined-spaces. However, those English speakers are not probably from the core. As English continues to dominate the industries of business and technology, its status as a lingua franca is not about to change in the foreseeable future.
    Institutions choose approaches to involve learners to make learning process get completeness.
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    The principled communicative approach

    has become a real buzzword in language teaching methodology, but the extent to which the term covers a well-defined and uniform teaching method is highly questionable.
    Explicit learning refers to the learner’s conscious and deliberate attempt to master some material or solve a problem. This is the learning type emphasized by most school instruction. In contrast, implicit learning involves acquiring skills and knowledge without conscious awareness.
  • Cisco, INTEL and Microsoft

    Became concerned about the skill of students graduating from school and university. The three companies were alarmed that graduates were entering the workforce with skills that did not prepare them for employmet in a digital age.