Multilingual Tapestries

  • Period: to

    Linguistic Milestones in Composition Studies

  • Immigration Act led to significant increase in immigration.

    Immigration Act led to significant increase in immigration.
    1965: Immigration Act led to significant increase in immigration, both in sheer numbers and in parts of the world represented. Many of the children of these immigrants grew up with a separate home language and school language, even those born in the United States. In succeeding years, L2 students in higher education increasingly included resident immigrants in addition to international students.
  • Kaplan, Robert. “Cultural Thought Patterns in Inter-Cultural Education.” Language Learning 16 (1966).

    Kaplan, Robert. “Cultural Thought Patterns in Inter-Cultural Education.” Language Learning 16 (1966).
    1966: “…diversity affects not only the languages, but also the culture…language in its turn is the effect and the expression of a certain world view that is manifested in the culture.” “…language represents a kind of destiny, so far as human thought is concerned, this diversity of languages leads to a radical relativism…if Aristotle had been Mexican, his logic would have been different … the whole of our philosophy and our science would have been different.”
  • James Sledd publishes “Bi-dialecticism: The Linguistics of White Supremacy"

    1969: James Sledd publishes “Bi-dialecticism: The Linguistics of White Supremacy"
  • Geneva Smitherman presents “Black Power is Black Language” to the CCCC conference in April, 1969

    Geneva Smitherman presents “Black Power is Black Language” to the CCCC conference in April, 1969
    1968: Geneva Smitherman publishes “Black Power is Black Language” to the CCCC conference in April, 1969 This is where I start to highlight a push among English scholars, primarily Black ones, to centralize and legitimize Black English in both educational and social realms. Smitherman delivers this presentation at the CCCC conference, establishes herself as a prescient voice in this conversation, and begins a career of prolific scholarship on Black English.
  • Geneva Smitherman publishes “English Teacher, Why You Be Doing the Thangs You Don’t Do?”

    1972: Geneva Smitherman publishes “English Teacher, Why You Be Doing the Thangs You Don’t Do?”
  • J.L. Dillard publishes Black English: Its History and Usage in the United States

    1972: J.L. Dillard publishes Black English: Its History and Usage in the United States
  • Geneva Smitherman publishes “‘God Don’t Never Change’: Black English from a Black Perspective.”

    1973: Geneva Smitherman publishes “‘God Don’t Never Change’: Black English from a Black Perspective.”
  • Resolution on the Students' Right to Their Own Language

    Resolution on the Students' Right to Their Own Language
    1974: Affirmed the students' right to own patterns and varieties of language--the dialects of their nurture or whatever dialects in which they find their own identity and style. The policy asserted that the claim that any one dialect was unacceptable must be seen as an attempt of one social group to exert its dominance over another. Linguistic research called into doubt the reality of the existence of any "Standard" dialect. In addition, speech could not be compared to edited written forms.
  • Larry Smith publishes "English as an International Auxiliary Language."

    Larry Smith publishes "English as an International Auxiliary Language."
    1976: Larry Smith publishes "English as an International Auxiliary Language." This seminal study opened discussion of World Englishes and led to the first conferences (1978) and would eventually lead to the formation of ICWE.
  • Zamel, Vivian. “Teaching Composition in the ESL Classroom: What We Can Learn from Research in the Teaching of English.” TESOL Quarterly 10.1 (1976): 67-76.

    Zamel, Vivian. “Teaching Composition in the ESL Classroom: What We Can Learn from Research in the Teaching of English.” TESOL Quarterly 10.1 (1976): 67-76.
    “Teaching Composition in the ESL Classroom: What We Can Learn from Research in the Teaching of English." TESOL Quarterly Brought process pedagogy to L2, arguing that advanced L2 writers are similar to L1 writers and can benefit from instruction emphasizing process. Some L2 teachers promoted process-based approaches; others warned against its applicability for L2
  • 176 schoolchildren in Soweto, South Africa, die protesting the right to be taught in English

    176 schoolchildren in Soweto, South Africa, die protesting the right to be taught in English
    1976: 176 schoolchildren in Soweto, South Africa, die protesting the right to be taught in English The Soweto Uprising, also known as 16 June, is a series of protests led by high school students in South Africa that began on the morning of 16 June 1976. Students from numerous Sowetan schools began to protest in the streets of Soweto in response to the introduction of Afrikaans as the medium of instruction in local schools. An estimated 20,000 students took part in the protests.
  • Geneva Smitherman publishes Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America

    Geneva Smitherman publishes Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America
    1977: Geneva Smitherman publishes Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America, an epochal work which delinetaes the unique linguistic and rhetorical features of Black English. She also analyzes societal attitudes about Black English and how they affected educational policy.
  • Twin conferences on World English variations held (Smith and Kachru)

    Twin conferences on World English variations held (Smith and Kachru)
    1978: Issue of world Englishes first raised, attempting to address global variations of the language. Honolulu conference sought to emphasize "the distinction between the uses of English for international (i.e. external) and intranational (i.e. internal) purposes..." Concluded with this: "So far as we know, no organization exists that takes account of any language in the light of this fundamental distinction..."
  • Braj Kachru's Three Circles Model

    Braj Kachru's Three Circles Model
    Early 1980s: Braj Kachru coins the term “world Englishes” and develops the Three Circles of English model of English language dispersion: 1) Inner: 1st dias. (UK, US), 2) Outer: 2nd dias., norm-developing (Ghana), 3) Expanding: 3rd. dias, norm-dependent (China) Tension between “World English,” English as a “lingua franca” that unites the world’s speakers in commercial and political contexts, and “World Englishes,” which focuses on variations created within “English creoles” around the world.
  • Larry Smith publishes English for Cross-cultural Communication.

    1981: Larry Smith publishes English for Cross-cultural Communication.
  • Krashen, Stephen. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. New York: Prentice Hall, 1982.

    Krashen, Stephen. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. New York: Prentice Hall, 1982.
    1982: Krashen, Stephen. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. New York: Prentice Hall, 1982, did much to reinforce the principle that languages are learned through exposure rather than learning of rules. Krashen's ideas had an affect on ESL methodology and ideas about grammar's place within composition.
  • Resolution on English as a Second Language and Bilingual Education

    Resolution on English as a Second Language and Bilingual Education
    1982: This NCTE resolution affirmed students' right to maintain a heritage language and supported efforts to support heritage languages with bilingual programs while continuing to supply students with the needed English skills to succeed in wider society. It primarily applied to lower levels of education.
  • Peter Strevens publishes “Whose Language Is It Anyway?”

    Peter Strevens publishes “Whose Language Is It Anyway?”
    1982: Peter Strevens publishes “Whose Language Is It Anyway?” Strevens's discourse on the state of affairs in English, delivered to members of the Royal Society of the Arts. He says, "for us, as native speakers of English, the first part of the answer to the question, 'Whose language is it?' is that on the sheer statistics of language use English is not 'ours' -or at least, not just 'ours', and indeed, less 'ours' than 'other people's.'" Figure of English speakers globally is 700 million.
  • Cummins and Swain. Bilingualism in Education: Aspects of Theory, Research, and Practice. New York: Longman, 1986.

    1986: Cummins and Swain. Bilingualism in Education: Aspects of Theory, Research, and Practice. New York: Longman, 1986.
  • Resolution on English as the "Official Language"

    Resolution on English as the "Official Language"
    1986: Resolution on English as the "Official Language" was apparently a response to a drive to legislate an English only policy in Congress and state legislatures initiated in 1983. By 1992 16 states had passed such resolutions, although in at least one case case (Arizona) a federal judge ruled that it violated the free speech protection of the First Amendment. The CCCC adopted a Guideline on the National Language Policy and updated it in 1992. Extending the commitment to affirming linguistic
  • Geneva Smitherman republishes Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America

    1986: Geneva Smitherman republishes Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America
  • Invention the term “Generation 1.5”

    1988: Immigration researchers Rumbaut and Ima invent the term “Generation 1.5” while studying Southeast Asian refugee youth.
  • ICWE is formed

    1988: At TESOL conference in Honolulu, ICWE (International Committee on the Study of World Englishes) is formed
  • Braj Kachru publishes The Alchemy of English.

    1990: Braj Kachru publishes The Alchemy of English.
  • Suresh Canagarajah: World Englishes within English teaching and composition studies

    Suresh Canagarajah: World Englishes within English teaching and composition studies
    1990s: ”Critical applied linguist” Suresh Canagarajah promotes an understanding of World Englishes within English teaching and composition studies and calls on global communities to resist linguistic domination
  • Keith Gilyard writes Voices of the Self: A Study of Language Competence

    Keith Gilyard writes Voices of the Self: A Study of Language Competence
    1991: Keith Gilyard writes Voices of the Self: A Study of Language Competence, an autoethnographic work on his own linguistic journey with both Black English and Standard English. I highlight this here because I think it marks a moment when rhet/comp scholars visibly entered the conversation that had been dominated by linguists.
  • Journal of Second Language Writing established

    Journal of Second Language Writing established
    Journal of Second Language Writing established *Devoted to publishing theoretically grounded reports of research and discussions that represent a contribution to current understandings of central issues in second and foreign language writing and writing instruction. Arguably represents the emergence of second-language writing as an interdisciplinary field situated at the crossroads between second-language acquisition (lingustics) and composition studies
  • IAWE (International Association of World Englishes) is launched

    1992: At ICWE conference, IAWE (International Association of World Englishes) is launched
  • Guadalupe Valdes, ""Bilingual Minorities and Language Issues in Writing: Toward Professionwide Responses to a New Challenge"

    Guadalupe Valdes, ""Bilingual Minorities and Language Issues in Writing: Toward Professionwide Responses to a New Challenge"
    Written Communication article Examines the impact of divisions of language minority students Explores the complex and varied characteristics of "bilingual minority students" and the increasing presence of these students in composition courses Comp. as consisting of two large areas of expertise: teaching second-language students and teaching mainstream native speakers Call to action for professionals in the fields of composition and second-language studies
  • Silva, Tony. “Toward an Understanding of the Distinct Nature of L2 Writing: ESL Research and Its Implications.” TESOL Quarterly 27.4 (1993): 657-675.

    Silva, Tony. “Toward an Understanding of the Distinct Nature of L2 Writing: ESL Research and Its Implications.” TESOL Quarterly 27.4 (1993): 657-675.
    1993: Silva, Tony. “Toward an Understanding of the Distinct Nature of L2 Writing: ESL Research and Its Implications.” TESOL Quarterly 27.4 (1993): 657-675.
  • Harklau. “ESL versus Mainstream Classes: Contrasting L2 Learning Environments.” TESOL Quarterly 28.2 (1994): 241-272.

    1994: Harklau. “ESL versus Mainstream Classes: Contrasting L2 Learning Environments.” TESOL Quarterly 28.2 (1994): 241-272.
  • The Ebonics Debate explodes

    The Ebonics Debate explodes
    1996: The Ebonics Debate explodes In the winter of 1996, the Oakland school board declared Ebonics to be a legitmate, teachable language dialect.Their decision was met with intense opposition on a national scale. Eventually, the school board retracted their decision and reconformed to traditional pedagogy, exalting standard English as the norm. While shortlived, this event spurred much scholarship in English Studies.
  • CCCC Statement on Ebonics

    CCCC Statement on Ebonics
    1998: CCCC Statement on Ebonics. Coming on the heels of an intense debate, this served as CCCC official response to the Ebonics issue. The statement acknowledges the legitimacy of Ebonics as a language variation and calls for teachers to be trained to effectively teach students who use Ebonics.
  • Bosher & Rowecamp. “The Refugee/Immigrant in Higher Education: The Role of Educational Background.” College ESL 8.1 (1998): 23-42.

    1998: Bosher & Rowecamp. “The Refugee/Immigrant in Higher Education: The Role of Educational Background.” College ESL 8.1 (1998): 23-42.
  • First Symposium on Second Language Writing

    First  Symposium on Second Language Writing
    Founded by Paul Kei Matsuda Began as a way of facilitating the advancement of knowledge in the field of L2 writing and to build a sense of community among those who are involved in L2 writing research and instruction. The first Symposium featured sixteen internationally recognized experts in the field, who addressed issues in theory, research, instruction, assessment, politics, and articulation with other disciplines. From '98-2005, held at Purdue
  • Generation 1.5 Meets College Composition, edited by Linda Harklau, Kay M. Losey, & Meryl Siegal

    Generation 1.5 Meets College Composition, edited by Linda Harklau, Kay M. Losey, & Meryl Siegal
    1999: Generation 1.5 Meets College Composition, edited by Linda Harklau, Kay M. Losey, & Meryl Siegal In fact, the term “Generation 1.5” was invented by immigration researchers Rumbaut and Ima while studying Southeast Asian refugee youth. (This book contributed to the inclusive approach taken within the CCCC Statement on Second Language Writing and Writers, 2001.)
  • John Rickford publishes African American Vernacular English: Features, Evolution, Educational Implications

    1999: John Rickford publishes African American Vernacular English: Features, Evolution, Educational Implications
  • McKay and Wong characterize “the new immigrant” in college and university writing/language programs: New Immigrants in the United States: Readings for Second Language Educators

    McKay and Wong characterize “the new immigrant” in college and university writing/language programs: New Immigrants in the United States: Readings for Second Language Educators
    2000: McKay and Wong characterize “the new immigrant” in college and university writing/language programs: New Immigrants in the United States: Readings for Second Language Educators
  • John Rickford and J.R. Rickford write Spoken Soul: The Story of Black English

    2000: John Rickford and J.R. Rickford write Spoken Soul: The Story of Black English
  • CCCC Statement on Second Language Writing and Writers (revised 2009)

    CCCC Statement on Second Language Writing and Writers (revised 2009)
    2001, revised 2009: CCCC Statement on Second Language Writing and Writers This statement includes the full continuum of learners, both ESL and Gen 1.5 students, those who are already literate in another language and those whose literacy is only in English. Formal recognition that second-language writers and second-language writing pedagogy are a part of the composition classroom. Compositionists have a professional responsibility to understand needs & develop instructional practices
  • Landmark Essays on ESL Writing ed. Tony Silva and Paul Kei Matsuda

    Landmark Essays on ESL Writing ed. Tony Silva and Paul Kei Matsuda
    2001: Landmark Essays on ESL Writing ed. Tony Silva and Paul Kei Matsuda Essays from 1962-1997 Linguistics, ESL, L1, Contrastive rhetoric
  • Generation 1.5 Theme issue of CATESOL

    2002: Generation 1.5 Theme issue of CATESOL
  • Bruce Horner and John Trimbur publish "English Only and U.S. College Composition."

    2002: Horner, Bruce, and John Trimbur. "English Only and U.S. College Composition." College Composition and Communica tion 53 (2002): 594-630.
  • Resolution on Affirming the CCCC "Students' Right to Their Own Language"

    Resolution on Affirming the CCCC "Students' Right to Their Own Language"
    2003: Resolution on Affirming the CCCC "Students' Right to Their Own Language" The NCTE affirmed the CCCC’s original statement, partially stimulated by recent Ann Arbor and Oakland court cases.
  • Theme issue of Reading Matrix journal: Generation 1.5 and Academic Language Acquisition

    2004: Theme issue of The Reading Matrix International Online Journal: Generation 1.5 and Academic Language Acquisition
  • Teresa M. Redd and Karen Webb publish Teacher's Introduction to African American English: What a Writing Teacher Should Know (NCTE Teacher's Introduction Series)

    Teresa M. Redd and Karen Webb publish Teacher's Introduction to African American English: What a Writing Teacher Should Know (NCTE Teacher's Introduction Series)
    2005: Teresa M. Redd and Karen Webb publish Teacher's Introduction to African American English: What a Writing Teacher Should Know (NCTE Teacher's Introduction Series)
  • Arnetha F. Ball and Ted Lardner write African American Literacies Unleashed: Vernacular English and the Composition Classroom

    Arnetha F. Ball and Ted Lardner write African American Literacies Unleashed: Vernacular English and the Composition Classroom
    2005: Arnetha F. Ball and Ted Lardner write African American Literacies Unleashed: Vernacular English and the Composition Classroom
  • Theme Issue of College English: Cross-Language Relations in Composition

    Theme Issue of College English: Cross-Language Relations in Composition
    2006: Theme Issue of College English: Cross-Language Relations in Composition Articles by Horner, Trimbur, Canagarajah, Lu, Matsuda, Bawarshi, Hawisher, Selfe, Liu, Guo
  • Matsuda, Cox, Jordan, and Ortmeier-Hooper. Second-Language Writing in the Composition Classroom. Bedford: Boston, 2006.

    Matsuda, Cox, Jordan, and Ortmeier-Hooper. Second-Language Writing in the Composition Classroom. Bedford: Boston, 2006.
    2006: Matsuda, Cox, Jordan, and Ortmeier-Hooper. Second-Language Writing in the Composition Classroom. Bedford: Boston, 2006. Provides a foundation in second-language writing for composition professionals. The five major sections represent a sample of research involving second-language students in various settings over the last fifteen years
  • NCTE Position Paper on the Role of English Teachers in Educating English Language Learners (ELLs)

    April 2006: NCTE Position Paper on the Role of English Teachers in Educating English Language Learners (ELLs)
  • Vershawn Young publishes "Nah We Straight: An Argument Against Code Switching"

    Vershawn Young publishes "Nah We Straight: An Argument Against Code Switching"
    2007: Young's article serves as an indictment of earlier attempts to implement codeswitching and calls for "codemeshing" instead.
  • Resolution on English-Only Instructional Policies

    2008: Resolution on English-Only Instructional Policies
  • Yamuna Kachru, with Smith, publishes Cultures, Contexts, and World Englishes.

    2008: Yamuna Kachru, with Smith, publishes Cultures, Contexts, and World Englishes.
  • Generation 1.5 in College Composition, edited by Mark Roberge, Meryl Siegal, and Linda Harklau.

    2009: Generation 1.5 in College Composition, edited by Mark Roberge, Meryl Siegal, and Linda Harklau.
  • Steven Fraiberg writes “Composition 2.0”

    2010: Steven Fraiberg writes “Composition 2.0” to demonstrate the need for multimodal and multilingual English composition instruction
  • The Matsudas write a retrospective on “World Englishes and the Teaching of Writing”

    2010: The Matsudas write a retrospective on “World Englishes and the Teaching of Writing”
  • Resolution on the Student’s Right to Incorporate Heritage and Home Languages in Writing

    Resolution on the Student’s Right to Incorporate Heritage and Home Languages in Writing
    2011: Resolution on the Student’s Right to Incorporate Heritage and Home Languages in Writing
  • “Language Difference in Writing: Toward a Translingual Approach” by Bruce Horner, Min-Zhan Lu, Jacqueline Jones Royster, and John Trimbur.

    “Language Difference in Writing: Toward a Translingual Approach” by Bruce Horner, Min-Zhan Lu, Jacqueline Jones Royster, and John Trimbur.
    2011: “Language Difference in Writing: Toward a Translingual Approach” by Bruce Horner, Min-Zhan Lu, Jacqueline Jones Royster, and John Trimbur. Extends the 1974 resolution on Students’ Right to their Own Language, arguing that languages need to be viewed as resources which writers use in fluid and negotiable ways.
  • Keith Gilyard writes True to the Language Game: African American Discourse, Cultural Politics, and Pedagogy

    Keith Gilyard writes True to the Language Game: African American Discourse, Cultural Politics, and Pedagogy
    2011: Keith Gilyard writes True to the Language Game: African American Discourse, Cultural Politics, and Pedagogy
  • A Written Communication article on Gen 1.5 students

    A Written Communication article on Gen 1.5 students
    2013: A Written Communication article on Gen 1.5 students wins the John R. Hayes Award for excellence in research. By Stephen M. Doolan, the article, “Generation 1.5 Writing Compared to L1 and L2 Writing in First-Year Composition,” concludes that Gen 1.5 students do not differ greatly in textual terms from L1 writers, but L2 writers differ significantly.
  • Canagarajah publishes Translingual Practice: Global Englishes and Cosmopolitan Relations

    Canagarajah publishes Translingual Practice: Global Englishes and Cosmopolitan Relations
    2013: This groundbreaking study is a kind of review of the circumastances that have led to a multilingual reality on a global scale, and what implications this has for our collective and personal futures. Transnational contact in diverse cultural, economic, and social domains Migration has involved people taking their heritage language to new locales Technology has increased codemeshing