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Key Dates in Bilingual Education

  • First Law of Bilingual Ed.

    First Law of Bilingual Ed.
    Ohio passes the first law to officially allow Bilingual Education.
    (English-German instruction)
  • Louisiana Bilingual Ed.

    Louisiana Bilingual Ed.
    Louisiana passes a law to allow bilingual education.
    (French-English instruction)
  • New Mexico

    New Mexico
    New Mexico passes a law that recognizes and permits Spanish instruction in public elementary schools.
  • Bennet Act & Edwards Act

    Bennet Act & Edwards Act
    The Bennet Act in Wisconsin and the Edwards Act in Illinois made children from the age of 8-14 in both public and private schools must be instructed in English in reading, writing, arithmetic, and American History.
  • Nationality Act

    Nationality Act
    This was Congress first language law requiring that all immigrants seeking to become a citizen should speak English. This law was "supposedly" to solve the bilingual education issue.
  • English only instruction

    English only instruction
    By this time 34 states had laws that mandated English only instruction.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    U.S. Supreme Court ruled that segregated schools were unconstitutional. leading a new era in the struggle for civil rights in the U.S.
  • National Defense Education Act

    National Defense Education Act
    Provided aid to both public and private schools at all levels to advance the areas of science, math, and foreign language. This also provided aid to English as a Second Language programs.
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    Prohibits any discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin.
    Title VI: Important role in protecting the educational rights of language-minority students in the U.S.
  • ESEA

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act is passed by President Johnson. Outlined and provided funds for educational programs that were considered essential for public education. Bilingual Education was on of their programs.
  • ESEA Title VII

    ESEA Title VII
    Under the Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Bilingual Education Act became a federal statute. Provided federal funding for the Bilingual Education Act of 1968.
  • The Bilingual Act

    The Bilingual Act
    Congress declares it to be the policy of the U.S. to provide financial assistance to local educational agencies to develop and carry out new and imaginative elementary and secondary school programs designed to meet these special educational needs.
  • Equal Educational Opportunities Act

    Equal Educational Opportunities Act
    Requires states to ensure that education agencies take "appropriate action to overcome language barriers that impede equal participation by its students in its instructional programs.
  • Lau v. Nichols

    Lau v. Nichols
    Court unanimously decided that the lack of supplemental language instruction in public school for students with limited English proficiency violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964. For students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education.
  • Reauhtorized Bilingual Education Act

    Reauhtorized Bilingual Education Act
    Educational services expanded to include students of any socioeconomic status who had limited English-speaking ability(LESA). Defined Bilingual Ed. for the first time as "instruction given in, and study of, English and the native language of the children of the limited English speaking ability.
  • Lau Remedies

    Lau Remedies
    Court instructed schools to take "affirmative steps" to address the educational inequities for these students(bilingual students). Also instructed school districts to identify and serve emergent bilinguals. Required bilingual ed. in elementary and permitted the introduction of ESL programs in the secondary level.
    1979: Were rewritten for release as regulations but were never published.
    1981: Terrel Bell withdrawn them.
  • Reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act

    Reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act
    Expanded eligibility for services from students with LESA to students with more general limited English proficiency (LEP), while reinforcing the "transitional" nature of bilingual ed.
  • Castañeda v. Pickard

    Castañeda v. Pickard
    Schools must take "appropriate action" to educate language-minoritized students. Action must be based on sound education theory, produce results and provide resources(qualified teachers and appropriate materials, etc.). Do not mandate a specific program such as bilingual Education or ESL.
  • Reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act

    Reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act
    Provided funding for programs that used only English in English language learners. 4% were reserved for those kinds of programs.
  • Reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act

    Reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act
    Expanded the funding for programs in which only English was used 25% of programs funded. Also imposed a 3 year limit on participation in transitional bilingual education programs. (schools had 3 years to move English language leaners to fluency in English.)
  • Reauthorization of ESEA

    Reauthorization of ESEA
    Congress reauthorize the provisions of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, including Bilingual Education Act, under the new Improving America's Schools Act. Increase attention to two-way bilingual education programs.
  • Proposition 227 "English for the Children Movement"

    Proposition 227 "English for the Children Movement"
    All California students must be taught in English as fast as possible. Places Non-English speaking students in a short-term English immersion program. Does not provide solutions to the challenges of cultural integration of language minorities.
  • Proposition 203

    Proposition 203
    In Arizona, this proposition banned bilingual education in that state. Limits school services for emergent bilinguals to a 1 year English only structured immersion program that includes ESL and content-based instruction exclusively in English. Waivers were impossible to obtain.
    2006: Arizona Legislature passed HS2064, which reshaped the structured immersion programs into a 4 hour a day block of instruction specifically on English language development.
  • No Child Left Behind Act

    No Child Left Behind Act
    Mandated that, by the 2013-2014 school year all students would achieve the level of "proficient" in state assessment systems. One of the subgroups NCLB required schools and district to keep track of was "limited English proficient students".
    Required assessments for emergent bilinguals under Title I(funding for poor students) and Title III(funding for limited English proficient students).
  • Common Core Standards (CCSS)

    Common Core Standards (CCSS)
    What students were expected to know at the end of each grade. CCSS devoted only two and 1/2 pages to English language learners and acknowledge "these students may require additional time, appropriate instructional support, aligned assessments as they acquire both English language proficiency and content area knowledge".
    Texas- state with 2nd highest # of emergent bilinguals in the country never adopted CCSS. English is used as a system of structures.
  • NCLB Standards

    NCLB Standards
    States lowered their standards so that more students appear proficient, schools missed a single target were considered failing, interventions were one size fits all, and the focus was on tests, forcing teachers to teach the test and eliminating subjects such as history and the arts.
  • Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1968

    Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1968
    Called the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). Goal is to prepare all students for success in college and career, while providing flexibility for some of NCLB's more prescriptive requirements.

    Title III: "Language instruction for English learners and immigrant students" "English language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement" Purpose is that it looks at their achievement on academic standards, taking the onus off standardized tests.
    Title I: Have goals for EB students.
  • Proposition 58

    Proposition 58
    The California Multilingual Education Act was passed. It lifted the restrictions on bilingual education.
  • Seals of Biliteracy

    Seals of Biliteracy
    These seals are awarded at the time of graduation from secondary schools to recognize students who have studied and attained proficiency in more than one language. 27 states approved this implementation.
  • Massachusetts Bilingual Education

    Massachusetts Bilingual Education
    The state passed a bill that permitted school districts to reinstate a bilingual education option. Reversing language education policy.