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HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE

  • Period: 450 BCE to 1066

    Sanxo-Anglo or Old English period.

    This period was characterized by end of roman rule in Britain and the numerous invasions the Celts, angles,Germanys,and Vikings in this territory.The Sanxo-Anglo sociality lived tribal groups ;admired the warriors for heroics actions,spoken old English and had oral literature by the high level illiteracy and the few existence of literary works .Many of these was of unknown author turned in traditional stories that described the importance the war,heroism,revenge,glorious and death .
  • 658

    Caedmon's Hymn

    Caedmon's Hymn
    Is a religious poem written In Old Middle and only have nine lines in length also known as “The Hymn of Creation”. “Now we ought to praise the Guardian of the heavenly kingdom,
    The might of the Creator and his conception,
    The work of the glorious Father,as he of each of the wonders,
    Eternal Lord,established the beginning.
    He first created for the sons of men". Translates from the gloss found in a manuscript in St Petersburg by Elaine Treharne Professor of English at Stanford University
  • 871

    Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

    Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
    The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle began to be compiled from 871 to 899 consists of a series of annals written in the Old English language. The command of King Alfred the Great was assembled included some epitome of universal history: the Venerable Bede’s , Gentis Anglorum, genealogies, regnal and episcopal lists, a few northern and West Saxon *annals. *History record of events year by year.
  • 975

    Beowulf

    Beowulf
    Is the oldest epic poem in literature English, its anonymous consisting of 3,182 lines, developed orally probably recited it to the accompaniment of harp music ; Tells about of the adventures legendary hero while possesses superhuman powers called “Beowulf ” he is main character .
  • 1066

    Batle of Hastings

    Batle of Hastings
    At 1066 AD William "The Conqueror " Duke of *Normandy defeated Harold II the King of England in the Batle of hastings , this event was important in the history the English literature because the French and Latin became the new languages of the government, Church and the nobilit and shaped the Middle English.
  • Period: 1066 to 1500

    Middle english period

    The event that began the Middle English was the Norman Conquest when William the Conqueror invaded the island of Britain from his home base in northern France. William deprived the Anglo-Saxon earls of their property. this event had Anglo-Norman French became the language of the kings and nobility of England.
  • 1085

    The Domesday Book

    The Domesday Book
    Is the earliest surviving public record of the England compiled by order of the king William The Conqueror ; the king needed Know the state of the country’s economy; what financial and military resources were available to him . The information was collected by Royal commissioners who were sent out around England.
  • 1100

    London becomes de facto capital of England

    London becomes de facto capital of England
    London grew in size through and some people began to build housed outside the walls. The king William was crowned king of England at Westminster on 25 December 1066.
  • 1167

    Oxford University established

    Oxford University established
    The King Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris ; this caused the rapidly the developed of the teaching.
  • 1180

    The Ormulum

    The Ormulum
    Is piece literary written in verse by a monk named Orm (or Ormin) consists of 20,000 lines ; talk about holy book (Biblie) , specifically the homilies explicating the biblical texts set for the mass throughout the liturgical year . The monk Orm preserved many details of English pronunciation existing at the time; he written a guide to pronunciation of the vowels. The only manuscrip of the work is currently in the Bodleian Library in Oxford.
  • 1209

    Cambridge University Established

    Cambridge University Established
    Was founded in the reign of Henry III , As a result of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople.
  • 1215

    Carta Magna

    Carta Magna
    Also known as “ the Great Charter ”or “The Magna Carta Libertatum” This is an agreement between the king John and a group of rebel barons for make the peace.Was drafted for Churchill and the barons; written in its majority by Archbishop Stephen Langto .It Promised the protection Churchill rights, reduce the powers of the King and govern with old laws that had prevailed before the invasion of the Normans.
  • 1358

    English replaces Latin as main language in schools

    English replaces Latin as main language in schools
    English became dominant in Britain again, but many French and Latin’s words added. English emerged over time as the acknowledged national language.
  • 1370

    William Langland writes “Piers Plowman”

    William Langland writes “Piers Plowman”
    It´s English alliterative poem written by William Langland. This poem is considered most greatest of English literature of the Middle Ages and was influenced “The Canterbury Tales “.
  • 1384

    John Wycliffe

    John Wycliffe
    In 1384 Publishes his English translation of “The Bible” .He was an Oxford professor, scholar, philosopher, lay preacher and theologian . Is considered the main precursor of the Protestant Reformation.
  • 1388

    Chaucer begins “The Canterbury Tales”

    Chaucer begins “The Canterbury Tales”
    This work is contains 24 stories including “ Troilus and Criseyde “ “House of Fame”, and “Parliament of Fowls “ in them the author Geoffrey Chaucer ; used the irony and critical for portrait of English society at the time, and particularly the Church. Was written in English medieval .
  • 1476

    William Caxton

    William Caxton
    Establishes the first English printing press , at london . Amongst the books he printed were "Canterbury Tales", "Confessio Amantis" and "Le Morte d'Arthur ".He printed more than 100 books in his lifetime also was the translator of many of the books he published, using his knowledge of French, Latin and Dutch.
  • 1500

    Start of English Renaissance

    Start of English Renaissance
    Was a cultural and artistic movement beginning in Italy in the late 14th century. In England developed a vigorous literary culture in both drama and poetry included writers such as Edmund Spenser , William Shakespeare and Thomas Wyatt left a legacy of the period .
  • Period: 1500 to

    Early Modern English

    Also called "Golden Age" because the development of printing by William Caxton and producing much literature in English . The major figure this age was William Shakesspeare.
  • 1539

    “The Great Bible” published

    “The Great Bible” published
    The Great Bible ; was the first authorized edition of the Bible in English, authorized by King Henry VIII of England to be read aloud in the church services of the Church of England.
  • William Shakespeare writes his first plays

    William Shakespeare writes his first plays
    It is not known with certainty started writing but was probably being performed in London by 1592 with the work “The Taming of the Shrew ” , around 1593 “ Henry VI Part II ”,” The Two Gentlemen of Verona Titus Andronicus” and “The Comedy of Errors” among other.
    Shakespeare is considered the best British writer of all time produced many poetries , novels , and t heater plays talk about themes of human experience ;life, love, death, revenge, grief, jealousy, murder, magic and mystery.
  • Publishes “A Table Alphabeticall”

     Publishes  “A Table Alphabeticall”
    Robert Cawdrey publishes “A Table Alphabeticall” first single language English dictionary ever published ,he selectioned of 2,543 words and their first-ever definitions.
  • Publication “Courante” or “Weekly News”

    Publication  “Courante” or “Weekly News”
    This year William Caxton establishes the first English-language newspaper, was prited in london in July .
  • First Folio of Shakespeare’s works is published

    First Folio of Shakespeare’s works is published
    The First Folio is the collected works of William Shakespeare published seven years after his death in 1616. His influence on literature universal has been so significant ; Works such as Romeo and Juliet , Hamlet , Othello , King Lear are still performed around the world.
  • Period: to

    Romanticism

    It romanticism in literature was the beginning of modern thinking about spirituality in terms of there being more than one deity and religion. This movement was influenced by changes the French Revolution
    The romantic artists and poets explored nature as if they were present within it . Its greather representatives wereImmanuel Kant and Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • First publication of “The Times”.

    First publication of “The Times”.
    The Times is daily newspaper published on 1 january in London .
    The oldest and most influential currently has long been recognized as one of the world’s greatest newspapers.
  • “The American Spelling Book”

     “The American Spelling Book”
    Noah Webster publishes his book "The american spelling " was a very popular textbook for young children of this time ; he hoped to create a distinctly American culture and language.
  • Blake, William

    Blake, William
    Is considered a visionary artist and figure in the history of the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age .The most renowned work in poetry is “Songs of Innocence and of Experience ” in 1794 his most famous poems are “The Lamb “,” The Tyger”, “A Poison Tree”, “London and The Chimney Sweeper”.
  • William Wordsworth

     William Wordsworth
    One of the great English poets, he was a leader of the romantic movement in England. his poem " I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud " in 1804 was inspired in the daffodils tthat he saw with his sis.ter dorothy.
  • George Gordon Byron or Lord Byron

    George Gordon Byron or Lord Byron
    Commonly known as just Lord Byron, was a British poet as well as William Blakes, was a figure of the Romantic Movement his first poem Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage in 1812 and his work most famous is “Oriental Tales”. Many of his poems described his indulgent life and numerous love affairs.
  • Jane Austen

    Jane Austen
    English novelist is recognized as one of the most important English writers of all time . in his novels used the irony , realism, humour, and social commentary . She was known for this novels:
    Sense and Sensibility (1811)
    Pride and Prejudice (1813)
    Mansfield Park (1814)
    Emma (1815)
    Persuasion and Northanger Abbey (both 1817).
  • Period: to

    Realism

    Realism is a literary movement that started in France in the 1850s as a reaction against Romanticism and which tried to show "life as it was" in literature all over Europe. the novels are certainly the most important literary form of the period. Some representative writers are Walter Scott (1771-1832 ) ,Jane Austen (1775-1817),charles Dickens (1812-1870) and William M. Thackeray (1811-1863) among others.
  • Period: to

    Trancendental Movement

    Beginning in New England in 1836 , this movement was a religious, literary, and political that discuss spiritual ideas. the Transcendentalists believed in intuitive thought, which is the ability to know something through instinctive feeling rather than conscious reasoning.
  • Period: to

    Victorian Period

    Was so named because is that produced during the reign of Queen Victoria ; during this era Britain was the world´s most powerful nation. The novels was realistic.
  • Period: to

    Existentialism

    Existentialism is a literary and philosophical movement that's all about individual freedom and choice Many authors composed literature or poetry that contained elements of existential or proto-existential thought.They proposed that each individual is solely responsible for giving meaning to life .
  • Mark Twain

    Mark Twain
    Has been called the ‘father of American literature’. His novel Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in 1884 captures the essence of everyday Midwest American English. He also wrote poetry, short stories, essays, and non-fiction.
    Novels as "the Great American Novel" and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in 1876 shows the culture of the United States.
  • Period: to

    Modernism

    The end of the Victorian era and the end of the world war I , originated various literatures inspired by industrialization, urbanization and advances in science ;The world was becoming more technologically advance .
  • T.S. Eliot

    T.S. Eliot
    he publication of Four Quartets led to his recognition as the greatest living English poet and man of letters, and in 1948 was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature ; for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry.
    "The Waste Land " is Eliot's most well known and important work to the poetry world but he himself called Four Quartets (published in 1943) his best work.
  • Virginia Woolf

    Virginia Woolf
    Considered one of the most important writer modernist is pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device .Woolf began writing professionally in 1900. In 1915 she published her first novel, The Voyage Out . Mrs Dalloway (1925), To the Lighthouse (1927) and Orlando (1928). Became one of the central subjects of the 1970s movement of feminist criticism.Her works have been translated into more than 50 languages.
  • F.Scott Fitzgerald

    F.Scott Fitzgerald
    He is one of the best exponents of American literature of the twentieth century American fiction writer and poet and the most notable member of the "Lost Generation" of the 1920s. His work has inspired other writers. The novel most know was The Great Gatsby written in 1925.
  • John Hawkes

    John Hawkes
    Postmodern American novelist ,is known for the intensity of his work, which suspended some traditional constraints of narrative fiction. "The Cannibal "his most famous novel based own experiences in the Second World War.
  • Period: to

    Post-modermism

    Postmodern literature is a form of literature characterized by reliance on narrative techniques such as fragmentation, paradox, and the unreliable narrator . In the narration include topics such ; the absurd, magical realism, irony, black humor and sarcasm.
  • Bret Easton Ellis

    Bret Easton Ellis
    American author, screenwriter, and short story writer.He is considered to be one of the major Generation X authors.
    The novels are also linked by common, recurring characters, and dystopic locales (such as Los Angeles and New York). When Ellis was 21 his first novel, the controversial bestseller "Less Than Zero (1985)" but His third novel, "American Psycho (1991)", was his most successful.
  • David Foster Wallace

    David Foster  Wallace
    Was an American writer and university instructor in the disciplines of English and creative writing. His novel Infinite Jest (1996) was listed by Time magazine as one of the 100 best English-language novels published between 1923 and 2005.* *https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Foster_Wallace