The Quebec ActThe Quebec Act revoked the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which had aimed to assimilate the French-Canadian population under English rule. It was passed to gain the loyalty of the French speaking majority of the Province of Quebec. Based on recommendations from Governors James Murray and Guy Carleton, the Act guaranteed the freedom of worship and restored French property rights.
Constitutional ActTo better represent the increased population in Canada after the American Revolution, the British Parliament passed the Constitutional Act to create the Colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Each with their own colonial administration. The legislation did not include a poor law. The provincial government nor municipal governments were assigned responsibility for providing help for the poor. As a result, 19th century Ontario did not have a regular system of relief for destitute people.
Canada Committee formedCanada Committee was to settle political disputes which were paralyzing representative government in Lower Canada and creating difficulties in Upper Canada. There were 21 members on the committee. They reported on: the subject of tenures of land, the representative system, the subject of clergy reserves in Upper Canada, and the constitution of Lower Canada on the composition of the Legislative councils of both Provinces. The committee made many recommendations on these subjects.
Ninety-Two ResolutionsDuring the late 1820’s and early 1830’s, politics in Lower Canada had become split between two parties: the Conservative and the Canadien. The Canadien sought out reforms that would allow its members and other French Canadians in the liberal professions better access to government positions and power. The Ninety-Two Resolutions were an expression of the Canadien’ complaints, with requests for constitutional reform and threats of rebellion if their demands were not met.
First Parliament in CanadasThis was summoned in 1841, following the Union of Upper Canada and Lower Canada as the Province of Canada on February 10, 1841.The Parliament of the Province had two Chambers: the elected lower house, the Legislative Assembly, and the appointed upper house, the Legislative Council. Canada East and West each had forty-two seats in the Legislative Assembly. The members of the Legislative Council, twenty-four in number, were appointed by the British Governor General, Lord Sydenham.
Canadian ConfederationThis was the process by which the 3 colonies of Canada were united into one federation called the Dominion of Canada. What was the Province of Canada was divided into two provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Thus the Dominion had 4 provinces with the addition of N.S. and N.B.. Since then Canada has seen many territorial changes and expansions.
Secret BallotIn elections prior, voters had to vote publicly. The Dominion Act stipulated the use of a secret ballot. The Secret Ballot was first used on August 15,1872. The original ballot box was sealed in wax with a liquorish stamp. It is held at Pontefract museum.
Canadas Nile VoyageursCanada's contribution to the Egyptian campaign was a force of 377 volunteers. Drawn from logging camps and rivers from the Dominion. They were picked because of their experience. They were awarded the British War medal and the Khedives' star.
Nationalist LeagueThe Nationalist League increased anglophone aggressiveness towards francophones and growing Canadian industrialization. Its program focused on achieving a purely Canadian Nationalism. Based on autonomy of Canada in the British Empire, respect for Canadian duality, and establishment of uniquely Canadian economic and cultural policies.
Mint OpensGovernor General Earl Grey activated the press to strike the Dominion's first domestically produced coin, a fifty-cent piece. The Ottawa branch of Britain's Royal Mint was officially open for business. Until then, all coins came from Britain, U.S.A., Mexico, and France.