THE NORMANS CONQUESTThe Normans conquered England, replacing the native English nobility with Anglo-Normans and introducing Norman French as the language of government in England
THE LOSS OF NORMANDYKing John lost Normandy to the French, beginning the loosening of ties between England and the Continent
THE FIRST ENGLISH-LANGUAGE ROYAL PROCLAMATIONKing Henry III issued the first English-language royal proclamation
since the Conquest, having been forced by his barons to accept the Provisions of Oxford, establishing a Privy Council to oversee the administration of the government, so beginning the growth of the English constitution and parliament
THE HUNDRED YEARS´ WARIt began in 1337 and lasted until 1453. It saw England and France bitter enemies in a long, drawn-out conflict that gave the deathblow to the already moribund use of French in England. It promoted English nationalism.
THE BLACK DEATH (1348-1350)It killed an estimated one-third of England’s population and continued to plague the country for much of the rest of the century
THE STATUTE OF PLEADINGSThe Statute of Pleadings was enacted, requiring all court proceedings to be conducted in English. All the official documents should be recorded in Latin. It was written in French.
THE PEASANTS´REVOLTIt was led by Wat Tyler and it was the first rebellion of working-class people against their exploitation. Although it failed in most of its
immediate aims, it marks the beginning of popular protest.
THE WYCLIFFITE BIBLEJohn Wycliffe died, having promoted the first complete translation of
scripture into the English language (the Wycliffite Bible)
Henry IVPublic documents and records began to be written in English, and Henry IV used English to claim the throne.
ENGLISH AS THE LANGUAGE OF ENGLAND IN LITERARYGeoffrey Chaucer died, having produced a highly influential body of
THE CHANCERY OFFICEThe Chancery office (where legal records were deposited) began recordkeeping in a form of East Midland English, which became the written standard of English
PRINTING IN ENGLANDWilliam Caxton brought printing to England, thus promoting literacy
throughout the population
TUDOR DYNASTYHenry Tudor became king of England, ending thirty years of civil strife, called the War of the Roses, and introducing 118 years of the Tudor Dynasty
EXPANSION OVERSEASJohn Cabot sailed to Nova Scotia, foreshadowing English territorial